Rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations threaten coral reefs globally by causing ocean acidification (OA) and warming. Yet, the combined effects of elevated pCO2 and temperature on coral physiology and resilience remain poorly understood. While coral calcification and energy reserves are important health indicators, no studies to date have measured energy reserve pools (i.e., lipid, protein, and carbohydrate) together with calcification under OA conditions under different temperature scenarios. Four coral species, Acropora millepora, Montipora monasteriata, Pocillopora damicornis, Turbinaria reniformis, were reared under a total of six conditions for 3.5 weeks, representing three pCO2 levels (382, 607, 741 µatm), and two temperature regimes (26.5, 29.0°C) within each pCO2 level. After one month under experimental conditions, only A. millepora decreased calcification (−53%) in response to seawater pCO2 expected by the end of this century, whereas the other three species maintained calcification rates even when both pCO2 and temperature were elevated. Coral energy reserves showed mixed responses to elevated pCO2 and temperature, and were either unaffected or displayed nonlinear responses with both the lowest and highest concentrations often observed at the mid-pCO2 level of 607 µatm. Biweekly feeding may have helped corals maintain calcification rates and energy reserves under these conditions. Temperature often modulated the response of many aspects of coral physiology to OA, and both mitigated and worsened pCO2 effects. This demonstrates for the first time that coral energy reserves are generally not metabolized to sustain calcification under OA, which has important implications for coral health and bleaching resilience in a high-CO2 world. Overall, these findings suggest that some corals could be more resistant to simultaneously warming and acidifying oceans than previously expected.
Ultrasound Current Source Density Imaging (UCSDI) exploits the acoustoelectric (AE) effect, an interaction between ultrasound pressure and electrical resistivity, to map electrical conduction in the heart. The conversion efficiency for UCSDI is determined by the AE interaction constant K, a fundamental property of all materials; K directly affects the magnitude of the detected voltage signal in UCSDI. This paper describes a technique for measuring K in biological tissue, and reports its value for the first time in cadaver hearts. A custom chamber was designed and fabricated to control the geometry for estimating K, which was measured in different ionic salt solutions and 7 cadaver rabbit hearts. We found K to be strongly dependent on concentration for the divalent salt CuSO4, but not for the monovalent salt NaCl, consistent with their different chemical properties. In the rabbit heart, K was determined to be 0.041±0.012 %/MPa, similar to the measurement of K in physiologic saline (0.034±0.003 %/MPa). This study provides a baseline estimate of K for modeling and experimental studies that involve UCSDI to map cardiac conduction and reentry currents associated with arrhythmias.
arrhythmia; cardiac ablation; acoustoelectric effect; interaction constant
To investigate the potential role of vitamin or mineral supplementation on the risk of head and neck cancer (HNC), we analyzed individual-level pooled data from 12 case-control studies (7,002 HNC cases and 8,383 controls) participating in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology consortium. There were a total of 2,028 oral cavity cancer, 2,465 pharyngeal cancer, and 874 unspecified oral/pharynx cancer, 1,329 laryngeal cancer and 306 overlapping HNC cases. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for self reported ever use of any vitamins, multivitamins, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, and calcium, beta-carotene, iron, selenium, and zinc supplements were assessed. We further examined frequency, duration and cumulative exposure of each vitamin or mineral when possible and stratified by smoking and drinking status. All ORs were adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, study center, education level, and pack-years of smoking, frequency of alcohol drinking and fruit/vegetable intake. A decreased risk of HNC was observed with ever use of vitamin C (OR=0.76, 95% CI=0.59-0.96) and with ever use of calcium supplement (OR=0.64, 95% CI=0.42-0.97). The inverse association with HNC risk was also observed for 10 or more years of vitamin C use (OR=0.72, 95% CI=0.54-0.97) and more than 365 tablets of cumulative calcium intake (OR=0.36, 95% CI=0.16-0.83), but linear trends were not observed for the frequency or duration of any supplement intake. We did not observe any strong associations between vitamin or mineral supplement intake and the risk of head and neck cancer.
vitamin supplement; mineral supplement; head and neck cancer
Message RNA (mRNA) carries a large number of local secondary structures, with structural stability to participate in the regulations of gene expression. A worthy question is how the local structural stability is maintained under the constraint that multiple selective pressures are imposed on mRNA local regions. Here, we performed the first genome-wide study of natural selection operating on high structural stability regions (HSRs) of mRNAs in Escherichia coli. We found that HSR tends to adjust the folded conformation to reduce the harm of mutations, showing a high level of mutational robustness. Moreover, guanine preference in HSR was observed, supporting the hypothesis that the selective constraint for high structural stability may partly account for the high percentage of G content in Escherichia coli genome. Notably, we found a substantially reduced synonymous substitution rate in HSRs compared with that in their adjacent regions. Surprisingly and interestingly, the non-key sites in HSRs, which have slight effect on structural stability, have synonymous substitution rate equivalent to background regions. To explain this result, we identified compensatory mutations in HSRs based on structural stability, and found that a considerable number of synonymous mutations occur to restore the structural stability decreased heavily by the mutations on key sites. Overall, these results suggest a significant role of local structural stability as a selective force operating on mRNA, which furthers our understanding of the constraints imposed on protein-coding RNAs.
Cancer side population (SP) cells with cancer stem cell-like properties are thought to be responsible for lung cancer chemotherapy resistance and currently no drug can efficiently target them. Breast cancer resistance protein (BRCP/ABCG2) is a major drug transporter in protecting lung cancer SP cells from cytotoxic agents. We showed that a low concentration of ethanol, which inhibits many membrane proteins, inhibits ABCG2 in lung cancer SP cells. Furthermore, cytotoxic cisplatin (DDP) in 5% (vol/vol) ethanol kills SP plus non-SP cancer cells better than either treatment alone in eradicating chemoresistant lung tumors. We found that 5% ethanol did not reduce ABCG2 protein levels, but significantly reduced ABCG2 protein function by a Hoechst 33342 extrusion assay, an ATPase activity assay, and transmission electron microscopy. Further, DDP in 5% ethanol (5% ethanol–DDP) induced apoptosis of the SP plus non-SP cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. In DDP-resistant A549/DDP lung tumor-bearing Balb/C nude mice, intratumoral injection of 5% ethanol–DDP regressed tumors and significantly improved survivals compared with 5% ethanol, DDP alone, or control. Intratumoral injection of 5% ethanol–DDP helped eradicate tumors in 30% (3/10) of the mice after 4 weeks treatment. By killing SP and non-SP cancer cells, 5% ethanol–DDP could eradicate DDP-resistant lung tumor and extend survival, providing a novel way to improve chemoresistant lung cancer survival for clinic.
ethanol; lung cancer; chemoresistance; side population cells; ABCG2
The reported coverage rates of first and second doses of measles containing vaccine (MCV) are almost 95% in China, while measles cases are constantly being reported. This study evaluated the vaccine coverage, timeliness, and barriers to immunization of MCV1 and MCV2 in children aged from 8–48 months.
We assessed 718 children aged 8–48 months, of which 499 children aged 18–48 months in September 2011. Face to face interviews were administered with children’s mothers to estimate MCV1 and MCV2 coverage rate, its timeliness and barriers to vaccine uptake.
The coverage rates were 76.9% for MCV1 and 44.7% for MCV2 in average. Only 47.5% of surveyed children received the MCV1 timely, which postpone vaccination by up to one month beyond the stipulated age of 8 months. Even if coverage thus improves with time, postponed vaccination adds to the pool of unprotected children in the population. Being unaware of the necessity for vaccination and its schedule, misunderstanding of side-effect of vaccine, and child being sick during the recommended vaccination period were significant preventive factors for both MCV1 and MCV2 vaccination. Having multiple children, mother’s education level, household income and children with working mothers were significantly associated with delayed or missing MCV1 immunization.
To avoid future outbreaks, it is crucial to attain high coverage levels by timely vaccination, thus, accurate information should be delivered and a systematic approach should be targeted to high-risk groups.
We report the complete genomic sequence of A/equine/Heilongjiang/1/2010, a strain of Florida sublineage clade 2 of H3N8 subtype equine influenza virus (EIV) isolated in northern China. This is the first announcement of a complete genomic sequence of EIV of such a clade in China.
One of the most important carbohydrate-splitting enzymes is themaltase-glucoamylase which catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-glucosidic linkages. Maltase-glucoamylase inhibitors during the last few years have aroused medical interests in the treatment of diabetes. They contribute to a better understanding of the mechanism of maltase-glucoamylase. At present there are many different classes of maltase-glucoamylase inhibitors. This paper focuses on alkaloidal inhibitors of maltase-glucoamylase and structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies between them in order to discover some drugs with better efficiency and lower toxicity for treating diabetes.
Dermis-derived mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (DMS/PCs) were isolated from the skin tissue of 16-day-old chick embryos and then characterized by immunofluorescence and RT-PCR. We found that primary DMS/PCs could be expanded for 15 passages. Expression of β-integrin, CD44, CD71, and CD73 was observed by immunofluorescence and RT-PCR. Passage 3 DMS/PCs were successfully induced to differentiate into osteoblasts, adipocytes, and neurocytes. The results indicate the potential for multilineage differentiation of DMS/PCs that may represent an ideal candidate for cellular transplantation therapy.
The genetic basis for the underlying individual susceptibility to chlorine-induced acute lung injury is unknown. To uncover the genetic basis and pathophysiological processes that could provide additional homeostatic capacities during lung injury, 40 inbred murine strains were exposed to chlorine, and haplotype association mapping was performed. The identified single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associations were evaluated through transcriptomic and metabolomic profiling. Using ≥ 10% allelic frequency and ≥ 10% phenotype explained as threshold criteria, promoter SNPs that could eliminate putative transcriptional factor recognition sites in candidate genes were assessed by determining transcript levels through microarray and reverse real-time PCR during chlorine exposure. The mean survival time varied by approximately 5-fold among strains, and SNP associations were identified for 13 candidate genes on chromosomes 1, 4, 5, 9, and 15. Microarrays revealed several differentially enriched pathways, including protein transport (decreased more in the sensitive C57BLKS/J lung) and protein catabolic process (increased more in the resistant C57BL/10J lung). Lung metabolomic profiling revealed 95 of the 280 metabolites measured were altered by chlorine exposure, and included alanine, which decreased more in the C57BLKS/J than in the C57BL/10J strain, and glutamine, which increased more in the C57BL/10J than in the C57BLKS/J strain. Genetic associations from haplotype mapping were strengthened by an integrated assessment using transcriptomic and metabolomic profiling. The leading candidate genes associated with increased susceptibility to acute lung injury in mice included Klf4, Sema7a, Tns1, Aacs, and a gene that encodes an amino acid carrier, Slc38a4.
ARDS; countermeasures; glutamine; genetics; metabolomics
This study summarizes passive surveillance data for adverse events following immunization (AEFI) reported to the National AEFI Surveillance System (NASS) in Zhejiang province and describes reporting trends from 2008 to 2011. AEFI reporting rates were calculated using denominator data from the Individual Immunization Information System and the Zhejiang provincial Bureau of Statistics. A total of 6,265 AEFI records were reported; the overall reporting rate was 9.2 per 100,000 doses. There were two peaks of reporting rates, which were associated mainly with the introduction of the pandemic H1N1 influenza virus vaccine (pH1N1) in 2009 and the measles-mumps vaccine (MM) campaign in 2010. The majority of the AEFI described nonserious events. Fifteen deaths were recorded, but only one was possibly related to immunization. The most frequently reported reactions were fever and injection site reaction. Vaccines distributed in Zhejiang province have proven to be generally safe. The data on AEFI surveillance provide a reference point for ongoing reporting of trends and illustrate the value of the NASS database as a surveillance tool for monitoring of AEFI.
The high prevalence of bladder cancer and its recurrence make it an important target for chemoprevention. About half of invasive urothelial tumors have mutations in p53. We determined the chemopreventive efficacy of a p53-stabilizing agent, CP-31398, in a transgenic UPII-SV40T mouse model of bladder transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) that strongly resembles human TCC. After genotyping, six-week-old UPII-SV40T mice (n = 30/group) were fed control (AIN-76A) or experimental diets containing 150 or 300 ppm of CP-31398 for 34 weeks. Progression of bladder cancer growth was monitored by magnetic resonance imaging. At 40 weeks of age, all mice were killed; urinary bladders were collected to determine weights, tumor incidence, and histopathology. There was a significant increase in bladder weights of transgenic versus wild-type mice (male: 140.2 mg vs 27.3 mg, P < .0001; female: 34.2 mg vs 14.8 mg, P < .0001). A significant decrease in the bladder tumor weights (by 68.6–80.2%, P < .0001 in males and by 36.9–55.3%, P < .0001 in females) was observed in CP-31398-treated mice. Invasive papillary TCC incidence was 100% in transgenic mice fed control diet. Both male and female mice exposed to CP-31398 showed inhibition of invasive TCC. CP-31398 (300 ppm) completely blocked invasion in female mice. Molecular analysis of the bladder tumors showed an increase in apoptosis markers (p53, p21, Bax, and Annexin V) with a decrease in vascular endothelial growth factor in transgenic mice fed CP-31398. These results suggest that p53-modulating agents can serve as potential chemopreventive agents for bladder TCC.
Cycloclasticus sp. strain PY97M was isolated from a phenanthrene-degrading consortium, enriched from Yellow Sea sediment of China. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of strain PY97M, which contains 2,359,509 bp with a G+C content of 41.92% and contains 2, 264 protein-coding genes and 40 tRNAs.
In this study, a five-generation Chinese family (family F013) with progressive autosomal dominant hearing loss was mapped to a critical region spanning 28.54 Mb on chromosome 9q31.3-q34.3 by linkage analysis, which was a novel DFNA locus, assigned as DFNA56. In this interval, there were 398 annotated genes. Then, whole exome sequencing was applied in three patients and one normal individual from this family. Six single nucleotide variants and two indels were found co-segregated with the phenotypes. Then using mass spectrum (Sequenom, Inc.) to rank the eight sites, we found only the TNC gene be co-segregated with hearing loss in 53 subjects of F013. And this missense mutation (c.5317G>A, p.V1773M ) of TNC located exactly in the critical linked interval. Further screening to the coding region of this gene in 587 subjects with nonsyndromic hearing loss (NSHL) found a second missense mutation, c.5368A>T (p. T1796S), co-segregating with phenotype in the other family. These two mutations located in the conserved region of TNC and were absent in the 387 normal hearing individuals of matched geographical ancestry. Functional effects of the two mutations were predicted using SIFT and both mutations were deleterious. All these results supported that TNC may be the causal gene for the hearing loss inherited in these families. TNC encodes tenascin-C, a member of the extracellular matrix (ECM), is present in the basilar membrane (BM), and the osseous spiral lamina of the cochlea. It plays an important role in cochlear development. The up-regulated expression of TNC gene in tissue repair and neural regeneration was seen in human and zebrafish, and in sensory receptor recovery in the vestibular organ after ototoxic injury in birds. Then the absence of normal tenascin-C was supposed to cause irreversible injuries in cochlea and caused hearing loss.
Background. Recent reports suggest that a proportion of tinnitus patients suffer from mental illness. Autonomic nervous system plays a useful role in tinnitus therapy since electrical vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) has been frequently used to alleviate tinnitus-induced depression in clinic. heart rate variability (HRV), which is reflective of autonomic nervous system function, has been proved to be modulated by acupuncture. In the present study, we aim to compare the effect of deqi sensation on heart rate variability in adult tinnitus patients. Methods. Thirty participants are randomly assigned to verum acupuncture (creating deqi) or shallow acupuncture (not creating deqi) at Baihui (Du-20), Shenting (Du-24), Tinghui (GB-2), Waiguan (SJ-5), and Zulinqi (GB-41) for 3 weeks. The primary outcome measure is heart rate variability, which is measured at the first acupuncture, as well as the last acupuncture. Discussion. Completion of this trial will help to identify the role of deqi sensation in acupuncture effect for tinnitus and reveal an autonomic modulation mechanism for acupuncture effect. Trial Registration. This trial is registered with International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number ISRCTN58013563.
A new thiol blocking reagent-methylsulfonyl benzothiazole was discovered. This reagent showed good selectivity and high reactivity for protein thiols.
Objective: To determine the coverage of childhood immunization appropriate for age among socio-economically disadvantaged recent migrants living in East China and to identify the determinants of full immunization uptake among these migrant children. Methods: This is a cross-sectional survey of 1,426 migrant mothers with a child aged ≤24 months, who were interviewed with a pretested questionnaire. Various vaccines, migration history and some other social-demographic and income details were collected. Single-level logistic regression analyses were applied to identify the determinants of full immunization status. Results: Immunization coverage rates are lower among migrants and even lower among recent migrants. The likelihood of a child receiving full immunization rise with parents’ educational level and the frequency of mother’s utilization of health care. Higher household income also significantly increase the likelihood of full immunization, as dose post-natal visits by a health worker. Conclusions: Recent migrant status favours low immunization uptake, particularly in the vulnerability context of alienation and livelihood insecurity. Services must be delivered with a focus on recent migrants. Investments are needed in education, socio-economic development and secure livelihoods to improve and sustain equitable health care services.
immunization; migrants; child health; determinants
Electric field mapping is commonly used to identify irregular conduction pathways in the heart (e.g., arrhythmia) and brain (e.g., epilepsy). Ultrasound current source density imaging (UCSDI), based on the acoustoelectric (AE) effect, is a promising new technique for mapping electrical current in four dimensions with enhanced resolution. The frequency and pulse shape of the ultrasound beam affect the sensitivity and spatial resolution of UCSDI. In this study, we explore the effects of ultrasound transducer frequency bandwidth and coded excitation pulses for UCSDI and the inherent tradeoff between sensitivity and spatial resolution. We used both simulations and bench-top experiments to image a time-varying electrical dipole in 0.9% NaCl solution. To study the effects of ultrasound bandwidth, we chose two ultrasound transducers with different center frequencies (1.0 and 2.25 MHz). For coded excitation, we measured the AE voltage signal with different chirp excitations. As expected, higher bandwidth correlated with improved spatial resolution at the cost of sensitivity. On the other hand, chirp excitation significantly improved sensitivity (3.5 μV/mA) compared with conventional square pulse excitation (1.6 μV/mA) at 1 MHz. Pulse compression achieved spatial resolution similar to that obtained using square pulse excitation, demonstrating enhanced detection sensitivity without loss of resolution. Optimization of the time duration of the chirp pulse and frequency sweep rate can be further used to improve the quality of UCSDI.
Acupuncture stimulation elicits deqi, a composite of unique sensations. According to traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), deqi experienced by patients is often described as suan (aching or soreness), ma (numbness or tingling), zhang (fullness, distention, or pressure), and zhong (heaviness) and is felt by the acupuncturists (needle grasping) as tense, tight, and full. It is believed that deqi may be an important variable in the studies of the mechanism and efficacy of acupuncture treatment. In recent years, great efforts have been made to understand deqi, which include a couple of questionnaires to qualify and quantify deqi sensations, neuroimaging studies of deqi and acupuncture, physiological mechanisms of deqi, and the relation between deqi and clinical efficacy. However, many problems need to be resolved, and more researches are required to be made in the future.
The whiteflies under the name Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Aleyrodidae: Hemiptera) are species complex of at least 31 cryptic species some of which are globally invasive agricultural pests. Previously, the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the indigenous New World B. tabaci species was sequenced and major differences of gene order from the postulated whitefly ancestral gene order were found. However, the sequence and gene order of mitogenomes in other B. tabaci species are unknown. In addition, the sequence divergences and gene expression profiles of mitogenomes in the B. tabaci species complex remain completely unexplored.
In this study, we obtained the complete mitogenome (15,632 bp) of the invasive Mediterranean (MED), which has been identified as the type species of the B. tabaci complex. It encodes 37 genes, including 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 ribosomal RNAs and 22 transfer RNAs (tRNA). Comparative analyses of the mitogenomes from MED and New World (previously published) species reveal that there are no gene arrangements. Based on the Illumina sequencing data, the gene expression profile of the MED mitogenome was analyzed. We found that a number of genes were polyadenylated and the partial stop codons in cox1, cox2 and nd5 are completed via polyadenylation that changed T to the TAA stop codon. In addition, combining the transcriptome with the sequence alignment data, the possible termination site of some PCGs were defined. Our analyses also revealed that atp6 and atp8, nd4 and nd4l, nd6 and cytb were found on the same cistronic transcripts, whereas the other mature mitochondrial transcripts were monocistronic. Furthermore, RT-PCR analyses of the mitochondrial PCGs expression in different developmental stages revealed that the expression level of individual mitochondrial genes varied in each developmental stage of nymph, pupa and adult. Interestingly, mRNA levels showed significant differences among genes located in the same transcription unit suggesting that mitochondrial mRNA abundance is heavily modulated by post-transcriptional regulation.
This work provides novel insights into the mitogenome evolution of B. tabaci species and demonstrates that utilizing RNA-seq data to obtain the mitogenome and analyze mitochondrial gene expression characteristics is practical.
Bemisia tabaci; Gene expression; Mediterranean; Mitochondrial genome; Mitogenomics; Whitefly
UV-B (280-315 nm) is an integral part of solar radiation and can act either as a stress inducer or as a developmental signal. In recent years, increasing attention has been paid to the low-fluence UV-B-induced photomorphogenic response and several key players in this response have been identified, which include UVR8 (a UV-B-specific photoreceptor), COP1 (a WD40-repeat-containing RING finger protein), HY5 (a basic zipper transcription factor), and RUP1/2 (two UVR8-interacting proteins). Here we report that Arabidopsis SALT TOLERANCE (STO/BBX24), a known regulator for light signaling in plants, defines a new signaling component in UV-B-mediated photomorphogenesis. The bbx24 mutant is hypersensitive to UV-B radiation and becomes extremely dwarfed under UV-B treatment. By contrast, BBX24 overexpression transgenic lines respond much more weakly to UV-B than the bbx24 and wild-type plants. BBX24 expression is UV-B-inducible and its accumulation under UV-B requires COP1. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments indicate that BBX24 interacts with COP1 in planta upon UV-B illumination. Moreover, BBX24 interacts with HY5 and acts antagonistically with HY5 in UV-B-induced inhibition of hypocotyl elongation. Furthermore, BBX24 attenuates UV-B-induced HY5 accumulation and suppresses its transcription-activation activity. Taken together, our results reveal a previously uncharacterized function of the light-regulated BBX24 in UV-B responses and demonstrate that BBX24 functions as a negative regulator of photomorphogenic UV-B responses by interacting with both COP1 and HY5. The UV-B-inducible expression pattern and its suppression of HY5 activity suggest that BBX24 could be a new component of the feedback regulatory module of UV-B signaling in plants.
UV-B; photomorphogenesis; STO/BBX24; COP1; HY5; Arabidopsis thaliana
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in the United States. Approximately 90% of colon cancer deaths arise from the metastasis of primary tumors. Aberrant expression of Wnt5a, one of the WNT signaling factors, has been reported during colon cancer development and progression. We found that both mRNA and protein expression of Wnt5a were decreased in the highly metastatic human colon cancer cell line SW620 compared with the non-metastatic human colon cancer cell SW480. This study tested the hypothesis that the silencing of Wnt5a in metastatic human colon cancer cells is related to altered epigenetic modifications. Wnt5a expression was not responsive to DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-aza-cytidine treatment. However, histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors trichostatin A (TSA) and sodium butyrate (NaBt) significantly increased Wnt5a mRNA expression in SW620. Importantly, lower transcription of Wnt5a in SW620 than SW480 corresponded to multiple histone modifications, including lower levels of acetylated histone H3, H4 and H3K4me2 and higher levels of H3K27me3 in the promoter region. The increase of H3Ac, H4Ac and H3K4me2 after NaBt treatment in SW620 confirmed the involvement of histone modifications in the transcriptional regulation of Wnt5a. Additionally, NaBt treatment increased β-catenin signaling and diminished the difference in cell adhesion ability between non-metastatic SW480 and metastatic SW620, suggesting that the HDAC inhibitor plays critical roles in the WNT signaling pathway and cell physiology that relate to metastasis. In conclusion, our study suggests the importance of Wnt5a in colon cancer metastasis and also indicates that Wnt5a silencing in the highly invasive human colon cancer cell line might result from transcriptional regulation of the gene by histone modifications.
HDAC inhibitor; SW480; SW620; Wnt signaling; cell adhesion; β-catenin
Melioidosis, caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, is considered to be endemic to Northern Australia and Southeast Asia, with high mortality and relapse rates, regardless of powerful antibiotic therapy. Here we report the first genome sequence of Burkholderia pseudomallei strain BPC006, obtained from a melioidosis patient in Hainan, China. The genome sizes of the 2 chromosomes were determined to be 4,001,777 bp and 3,153,284 bp.
To correlate changes between VEGF expression with systemic and retinal oxidative stress and inflammation in rodent models of obesity induced insulin resistance and diabetes.
Retinal VEGF mRNA and protein levels were assessed by RT-PCR and VEGF ELISA, respectively. Urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), blood levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), malondialdehyde (MDA), and CD11b/c positive cell ratio were used as systemic inflammatory markers. Retinal expression of Nox2, Nox4, and p47phox mRNA levels were measured as oxidative stress markers. TNF-α, inter-cellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), IL1β, and activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) were used as retinal inflammatory markers.
Retinal VEGF mRNA and protein expression increased in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDFfa/fa) rats and streptozotosin (STZ) induced diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats, after two months of disease, but not in Zucker fatty (ZF) rats. Systemic markers of oxidative stress and inflammation were elevated in insulin resistant and diabetic rats. Some oxidative stress and inflammatory markers (TNF-α, IL-6, ICAM-1, and IL1-β) were upregulated in the retina of ZDFfa/fa and STZ diabetic rats after 4 months of disease. In contrast, activation of NF-κB in the retina was observed in high fat fed nondiabetic and diabetic cis-NF-κBEGFP mice, ZF, ZDFfa/fa, and STZ-induced diabetic rats.
Only persistent hyperglycemia and diabetes increased retinal VEGF expression. Some markers of inflammation and oxidative stress were elevated in the retina and systemic circulation of obese and insulin resistant rodents with and without diabetes. Induction of VEGF and its associated retinal pathologies by diabetes requires chronic hyperglycemia and factors in addition to inflammation and oxidative stress.
Only chronic diabetes induced late markers of inflammation and oxidative stress in the retina correlated with increased VEGF expression, but insulin resistance alone caused systemic and retinal inflammation and no increase in VEGF elevation.
Marinobacter nanhaiticus strain D15-8WT was isolated from a phenanthrene-degrading consortium, enriched from sediment of the South China Sea. Here, we present the draft genome of strain D15-8WT, which contains 5,358,309 bp with a G+C content of 58.53% and contains 4,829 protein-coding genes and 47 tRNA genes.