Objective: To clarify the precise characteristics of human hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs) for future cytotherapy in liver diseases.
Methods: Hepatic progenitor-like cells were isolated and cultured from the livers of patients who had undergone partial hepatectomy for various pathologies but displayed no sign of hepatic dysfunction. These cells were characterized by transcriptomic profiling, quantitative real-time PCR and immunocyto/histochemistry.
Results:Cultured HPCs contained polygonal, high nucleus/cytoplasm ratio and exhibited a global gene expression profile similar (67.8%) to that of primary hepatocytes. Among the genes with more than 20-fold higher expression in HPCs were a progenitor marker (CD90), a pentraxin-related gene (PTX3), collagen proteins (COL5A2, COL1A1 and COL4A2), cytokines (EGF and PDGFD), metabolic enzymes (CYBRD1, BCAT1, TIMP2 and PAM), a secreted protein (SPARC) and an endothelial protein C receptor (PROCR). Moreover, eight markers (ALB, AFP, CK8, CK18, CK19, CD90, CD117 and Oval-6) previously described as HPC markers were validated by qRT-PCR and/or immunocyto/histochemistry. Interestingly, human HPCs were also positive for the hematopoietic cell markers CD45 and CD109. Finally, we characterized the localization of HPCs in the canals of Hering and periportal areas with six previously described markers (Oval-6, CK8, CK18, CK19, CD90 and CD117) and two potential markers (CD45 and CD109).
Conclusion: The human HPCs are highly similar to primary hepatocytes in their transcriptional profiles. The CD45 and CD109 markers could potentially be utilized to identify and isolate HPCs for further cytotherapy of liver diseases.
Human hepatic progenitor cell; Immunocytochemistry; Transcriptional profile
Liver regeneration is the basic physiological process after partial hepatectomy (PH), and is important for the functional rehabilitation of the liver after acute hepatic injury. This study was designed to explore the effects of neurolytic celiac plexus block (NCPB) on liver regeneration after PH. We established a model of PH in rats, assessing hepatic blood flow, liver function, and serum CRP, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 concentrations of the residuary liver after PH. Additionally, histopathological studies, immunohistochemistry, and western blotting were also performed. Our results indicated that NCPB treatment after PH improved liver regeneration and survival rates, increased hepatic blood flow, reduced hepatocyte damage, decreased the secretion and release of inflammatory cytokines, increased the expression of B cell lymphoma/leukemia-2 (Bcl-2), and decreased the expression of Bcl-2 associated X protein (Bax). Additionally, Western blotting revealed that the expression of NF-κB p65 and c-Jun were decreased in liver after NCPB. In conclusion, the results of our present study indicate that NCPB treatment has a favorable effect on liver regeneration after PH. We suggest that NCPB can be utilized as an effective therapeutic method to help the functional rehabilitation of the liver after acute hepatic injury or liver cancer surgery.
To assess the image quality and effective radiation dose of prospectively electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated high-pitch spiral acquisition mode (flash mode) of dual-source CT (DSCT) coronary angiography (CTCA) in patients with high heart rates (HRs) as compared with retrospectively ECG-gated spiral acquisition mode.
Materials and Methods
Two hundred and sixty-eight consecutive patients (132 female, mean age: 55 ± 11 years) with mean HR > 65 beats per minute (bpm) were prospectively included in this study. The patients were divided into two groups. Collection was performed in group A CTCA using flash mode setting at 20-30% of the R-R interval, and retrospectively ECG-gated spiral acquisition mode in group B. The image noise, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), image quality scores, effective radiation dose and influencing factors on image quality between the two groups were assessed.
There were no significant differences in image quality scores and proportions of non-diagnostic coronary artery segments between two groups (image quality scores: 1.064 ± 0.306 [group A] vs. 1.084 ± 0.327 [group B], p = 0.063; proportion of non-diagnostic coronary artery segments: segment-based analysis 1.52% (group A) vs. 1.74% (group B), p = 0.345; patient-based analysis 7.5% (group A) vs. 6.7% (group B), p = 0.812). The estimated radiation dose was 1.0 ± 0.16 mSv in group A and 7.1 ± 1.05 mSv in group B (p = 0.001).
In conclusion, in patients with HRs > 65 bpm without cardiac arrhythmia, the prospectively high-pitch spiral-acquisition mode with image-acquired timing set at 20-30% of the R-R interval provides a similar image quality and low rate of non-diagnostic coronary segments to the retrospectively ECG-gated low-pitch spiral acquisition mode, with significant reduction of radiation exposure.
High-pitch dual-source CT; Prospectively ECG-gated; Coronary angiography; High heart rates
Investigate the patterns of mammographically detected calcifications before and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) to determine their value for efficacy evaluation and surgical decision making.
187 patients with malignant mammographic calcifications were followed to record the appearances and changes in the calcifications and to analyze their responses to NACT.
Patients with calcifications had higher rates of hormonal receptor (HR) positive tumors (74.3% versus 64.6%) and HER2 positive tumors (51.3% versus 33.4%, p = 0.004) and a similar pathologic complete response (pCR) rate compared to patients without calcifications (35.4% versus 29.8%). After NACT, the range of calcification decreased in 40% of patients, increased in 7.5% and remained stable in 52.5%; the calcification density decreased in 15% of patients, increased in 7.5% and remained stable in 77.5%; none of these change patterns were related to tumor response rate. No significant correlation was observed between the calcification appearance (morphology, distribution, range, diameter or density) and tumor subtypes or pCR rates. Among patients with malignant calcifications, 54 showed calcifications alone, 40 occurred with an architectural distortion (AD) and 93 with a mass. Calcifications were observed inside the tumor in 44% of patients and outside in 56%, with similar pCR rates and patterns of change.
Calcification appearance did not clearly change after NACT, and calcification patterns were not related to pCR rate, suggesting that mammogram may not accurate to evaluate tumor response changes. Microcalcifications visible after NACT is essential for determining the extent of excision, patients with calcifications that occurred outside of the mass still had the opportunity for breast conservation.
Uric acid (UA) is a complex phenotype influenced by both genetic and environmental factors as well as their interactions. Current genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified a variety of genetic determinants of UA in Europeans; however, such studies in Asians, especially in Chinese populations remain limited.
A two-stage GWAS was performed to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that were associated with serum uric acid (UA) in a Chinese population of 12,281 participants (GWAS discovery stage included 1452 participants from the Dongfeng-Tongji cohort (DFTJ-cohort) and 1999 participants from the Fangchenggang Area Male Health and Examination Survey (FAMHES). The validation stage included another independent 8830 individuals from the DFTJ-cohort). Affymetrix Genome-Wide Human SNP Array 6.0 chips and Illumina Omni-Express platform were used for genotyping for DFTJ-cohort and FAMHES, respectively. Gene-environment interactions on serum UA levels were further explored in 10,282 participants from the DFTJ-cohort.
Briefly, we identified two previously reported UA loci of SLC2A9 (rs11722228, combined P = 8.98 × 10-31) and ABCG2 (rs2231142, combined P = 3.34 × 10-42). The two independent SNPs rs11722228 and rs2231142 explained 1.03% and 1.09% of the total variation of UA levels, respectively. Heterogeneity was observed across different populations. More importantly, both independent SNPs rs11722228 and rs2231142 were nominally significantly interacted with gender on serum UA levels (P for interaction = 4.0 × 10-2 and 2.0 × 10-2, respectively). The minor allele (T) for rs11722228 in SLC2A9 has greater influence in elevating serum UA levels in females compared to males and the minor allele (T) of rs2231142 in ABCG2 had stronger effects on serum UA levels in males than that in females.
Two genetic loci (SLC2A9 and ABCG2) were confirmed to be associated with serum UA concentration. These findings strongly support the evidence that SLC2A9 and ABCG2 function in UA metabolism across human populations. Furthermore, we observed these associations are modified by gender.
Genome-wide association study; Serum uric acid; Ethnic differences; Gene-environment interaction
Macrophages are the infiltrate components of tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE). This study is aimed at examining the role of different subsets of macrophages in pleural fluid (PF) and peripheral blood (PB) from patients with new onset TPE.
The numbers of PB and PF CD163+, CD206+ and CD115+ macrophages in 25 patients with new onset TPE and 17 healthy controls (HC) were determined by flow cytometry. The concentrations of serum and PF cytokines were determined by cytometric bead array (CBA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbentassay (ELISA). The potential association between the numbers of different subsets of macrophages and the values of clinical measures in TPE patients were analyzed.
The numbers of PB CD14+CD163− M1-like and CD14+CD163− interleukin (IL)-12+ M1 macrophages were significantly higher than that in the HC, but lower than PF, and the numbers of PF CD14+CD163+, CD14+CD163+CD206+, CD14+CD163+CDll5+ M2-like, and CD14+CD163+IL-10+ M2 macrophages were less than PB in the TPE patients. The levels of serum IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, tumor growth factor (TGF)-β1, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in the TPE patients were significantly higher than that in the HC, but lower than that in the PF. The levels of PF IL-10 were significantly higher than that in the PB of patients and HC. In addition, the levels of serum IL-12 and TNF-α were correlated positively with the values of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and the numbers of ESAT-6- and culture filtrate protein 10 (CFP-10)-specific IFN-γ-secreting T cells, and the levels of PF TNF-α were correlated positively with the levels of PF adenosine deaminase (ADA) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in those patients.
Our data indicate that Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) infection induces M1 predominant pro-inflammatory responses, contributing to the development of TPE in humans.
Type 2 diabetes is one of the most common causes of cardiovascular disease as it causes arterial stiffness changes. The purpose of this study is to characterize, in vivo, carotid arterial structural and functional changes by applying radio frequency and X-strain ultrasound techniques.
Ninety-one subjects were assigned into two groups; a diabetes group and a control group. Structural and functional changes in the common carotid arterial wall were investigated by quality intima-media thickness (QIMT), quality arterial stiffness (QAS), and X-strain analysis with a Mylab Twice ultrasound instrument. The relationships among variables between the two groups were analyzed in this study.
There was no significant difference in carotid IMT (626.5 ± 169.1 μm vs. 568.5 ± 122.6 μm, P = 0.1506) between two groups. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) and stiffness index (β) were remarkably greater (8.388 ± 3.254 m/s vs. 7.269 ± 1.332 m/s; 12.51 ± 14.16 vs.9.279 ± 2.871), while compliance coefficient (CC) decreased significantly in the diabetes group (0.802 ± 0.3094 mm2/Kpa vs. 0.968 ± 0.3992 mm2/Kpa) (P < 0.05). The displacement difference of radial (RD-D), longitudinal (LD-D) and rotation (ROT-D) directions were significantly different between two groups’ comparison (P = 0.0212, P = 0.0235 and P = 0.0072, respectively). The time of circumferential peak strain difference (CS-DT) and the time of radial peak strain rate (RSR-T) were found to be significantly different between the two groups (341.9 ± 77.56 ms vs. 369.0 ± 78.26 ms, P = 0.0494; 142.7 ± 22.43 ms vs. 136.2 ± 30.70 ms, P = 0.0474). CS-TD and RSR-T were also found to be positively correlated with CC value (r = 0.3908, P < 0.005 and r = 0.3027, P = 0.0326, respectively). Finally, PWV was negatively correlated with CC with (r = –0.6177, P < 0.001).
In type 2 diabetes, the functional changes in CCA can be identified using the methods presented in this article earlier than the structural changes. Arterial stiffness values provided by QAS and X-strain analysis can be used as indicators of CCA functional lesions in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Arterial stiffness; Intima-media thickness; Diabetes; Strain
The cannabinoid receptor agonist delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) enhances the antinociceptive effects of mu opioid receptor agonists, raising the possibility of using a combination of THC and opioids for treating pain. This study examined the effects of noncontingent and contingent administration of THC on i.v. heroin self-administration in rhesus monkeys. Self-administration of different unit doses of heroin (0.0001–0.1 mg/kg/infusion) generated a typical inverted U-shaped dose-response curve. In one experiment (n=4), noncontingent THC (0.1–1.0 mg/kg) dose-dependently shifted the heroin dose-response curve downward in three monkeys and slightly leftward in one monkey. In a second experiment (n=4), monkeys could self-administer THC alone (0.0032–0.032 mg/kg/infusion), heroin alone, or a mixture of THC and heroin. THC alone did not maintain responding above that obtained with saline; however, increasing the THC dose with heroin dose-dependently decreased the number of infusions received and the rate of responding, as compared to data that were obtained with heroin alone. These results indicate that THC does not significantly enhance the positive reinforcing effects of heroin, further supporting the view that combining cannabinoid and opioid receptor agonists (e.g., for treating pain) does not increase, and might decrease, the abuse liability of the individual drugs.
Heroin; THC; self-administration; rhesus monkey
Indirect-acting serotonin (5-HT) receptor agonists can enhance the antinociceptive effects of morphine; however, the specific 5-HT receptor subtype(s) mediating this enhancement is not established.
This study examined interactions between morphine and both 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptor agonists in rats using measures of antinociception (radiant heat tail flick and warm water tail withdrawal), drug discrimination (3.2 mg/kg morphine versus saline), and locomotion.
Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=7–8 per group) were used to examine the effects of morphine alone and in combination with DOM (5-HT2A agonist) and 8-OH-DPAT (5-HT1A agonist).
DOM did not modify antinociceptive or discriminative stimulus effects while modestly attenuating locomotor-stimulating effects of morphine; the effect of DOM (0.32 mg/kg) on morphine-induced locomotion was prevented by the 5-HT2A receptor selective antagonist MDL 100907. In contrast, 8-OH-DPAT (0.032–0.32 mg/kg) fully attenuated the antinociceptive effects (both procedures), did not modify the discriminative stimulus effects, and enhanced (0.32 mg/kg) the locomotor-stimulating effects of morphine. These effects of 8-OH-DPAT were prevented by the 5-HT1A receptor selective antagonist WAY100635.
Agonists acting at 5-HT1A or 5-HT2A receptors do not modify all effects of mu opioid receptor agonists in a similar manner. Moreover, interactions between 5-HT and opioid receptor agonists vary significantly between rats and nonhuman primates, underscoring the value of comparing drug interactions across a broad range of conditions and in multiple species.
Defatted wheat germ peptides (DWGPs) were prepared by fermentation with Bacillus Subtilis B1 and the antioxidant activities of DWGPs were investigated. The fermentation condition was optimized by response surface method (RSM) with three factors and three levels according to Box-Behnken theory. A maximal yield of DWGPs was achieved 8.69 mg/mL under optimal conditions: inoculum size 8%, fermentation temperature 31 °C and time 48 h. The main portion in the hydrolysates after fermentation was not free amino acid but peptide. The main molecular weight distribution of DWGPs was lower than 1000 Da. A positive correlation (R2 = 0.9911) was found between concentration of DWGPs and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC). DWGPs presented a significant does-dependent on scavenging activities of DPPH, hydroxyl and superoxide anion radicals. The EC50 values for the scavenging rates of DPPH, hydroxyl and superoxide anion radicals were 3.16 mg/mL, 6.04 mg/mL and 7.46 mg/mL, respectively. The results suggested that DWGPs produced by fermentation could be used as a promising antioxidant ingredient.
Defatted wheat germ peptides; Fermentation; Bacillus Subtilis B1; Free radical scavenging activity
FIG4 (Sac3 in mammals) is a 5’-phosphoinositide phosphatase that coordinates the turnover of phosphatidylinositol-3,5-bisphosphate (PI(3,5)P2), a very low abundance phosphoinositide. Deficiency of FIG4 severely affects the human and mouse nervous systems by causing two distinct forms of abnormal lysosomal storage. The first form occurs in spinal sensory neurons, where vacuolated endolysosomes accumulate in perinuclear regions. A second form occurs in cortical/spinal motor neurons and glia, in which enlarged endolysosomes become filled with electron dense materials in a manner indistinguishable from other lysosomal storage disorders. Humans with a deficiency of FIG4 (known as Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4J or CMT4J) present with clinical and pathophysiological phenotypes indicative of spinal motor neuron degeneration and segmental demyelination. These findings reveal a signaling pathway involving FIG4 that appears to be important for lysosomal function. In this review, we discuss the biology of FIG4 and describe how the deficiency of FIG4 results in lysosomal phenotypes. We also discuss the implications of FIG4/PI(3,5)P2 signaling in understanding other lysosomal storage diseases, neuropathies, and acquired demyelinating diseases.
Fig4; CMT4J; lysosomal storage; PI(3,5)P2; peripheral neuropathy; segmental demyelination
Deubiquitinases, such as CYLD, A20 and Cezanne, have emerged as important negative regulators that balance the strength and the duration of NF-κB signaling through feedback mechanisms. However, how these serial feedback loops are simultaneously disrupted in cancers, which commonly exhibit constitutively activated NF-κB, remains puzzling. Herein, we report that miR-486 directly suppresses NF-κB-negative regulators, CYLD and Cezanne, as well as multiple A20 activity regulators, including ITCH, TNIP-1, TNIP-2 and TNIP-3, resulting in promotion of ubiquitin conjugations in NF-κB signaling and sustained NF-κB activity. Furthermore, we demonstrate that upregulation of miR-486 promotes glioma aggressiveness both in vitro and in vivo through activation of NF-κB signaling pathway. Importantly, miR-486 levels in primary gliomas significantly correlate with NF-κB activation status. These findings uncover a novel mechanism for constitutive NF-κB activation in gliomas and support a functionally and clinically relevant epigenetic mechanism in cancer progression.
miR-486; NF-κB; ubiquitin; aggressiveness; gliomas
The β-tropomyosin gene encodes a component of the sarcomeric thin filament. Rod-shaped dimers of tropomyosin regulate actin-myosin interactions and β-tropomyosin mutations have been associated with nemaline myopathy, cap myopathy, Escobar syndrome and distal arthrogryposis types 1A and 2B. In this study, we expand the allelic spectrum of β-tropomyosin-related myopathies through the identification of a novel β-tropomyosin mutation in two clinical contexts not previously associated with β-tropomyosin. The first clinical phenotype is core-rod myopathy, with a β-tropomyosin mutation uncovered by whole exome sequencing in a family with autosomal dominant distal myopathy and muscle biopsy features of both minicores and nemaline rods. The second phenotype, observed in four unrelated families, is autosomal dominant trismus-pseudocamptodactyly syndrome (distal arthrogryposis type 7; previously associated exclusively with myosin heavy chain 8 mutations). In all four families, the mutation identified was a novel 3-bp in-frame deletion (c.20_22del) that results in deletion of a conserved lysine at the seventh amino acid position (p.K7del). This is the first mutation identified in the extreme N-terminus of β-tropomyosin. To understand the potential pathogenic mechanism(s) underlying this mutation, we performed both computational analysis and in vivo modelling. Our theoretical model predicts that the mutation disrupts the N-terminus of the α-helices of dimeric β-tropomyosin, a change predicted to alter protein–protein binding between β-tropomyosin and other molecules and to disturb head-to-tail polymerization of β-tropomyosin dimers. To create an in vivo model, we expressed wild-type or p.K7del β-tropomyosin in the developing zebrafish. p.K7del β-tropomyosin fails to localize properly within the thin filament compartment and its expression alters sarcomere length, suggesting that the mutation interferes with head-to-tail β-tropomyosin polymerization and with overall sarcomeric structure. We describe a novel β-tropomyosin mutation, two clinical-histopathological phenotypes not previously associated with β-tropomyosin and pathogenic data from the first animal model of β-tropomyosin-related myopathies.
nemaline; myopathies; muscle and nerve pathology; mutation; neuromuscular disorders
Plant non-specific lipid transfer proteins (nsLtps) are small, basic proteins encoded by multigene families and have reported functions in many physiological processes such as mediating phospholipid transfer, defense reactions against phytopathogens, the adaptation of plants to various environmental conditions, and sexual reproduction. To date, no genome-wide overview of the Brassica rapa nsLtp (BrnsLtp) gene family has been performed. Therefore, as the first step and as a helpful strategy to elucidate the functions of BrnsLtps, a genome-wide study for this gene family is necessary.
In this study, a total of 63 putative BrnsLtp genes were identified through a comprehensive in silico analysis of the whole genome of B. rapa. Based on the sequence similarities, these BrnsLtps was grouped into nine types (I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VIII, IX, and XI). There is no type VII nsLtps in B. rapa, and a new type, XI nsLtps, was identified in B. rapa. Furthermore, nine type II AtLtps have no homologous genes in B. rapa. Gene duplication analysis demonstrated that the conserved collinear block of each BrnsLtp is highly identical to those in Arabidopsis and that both segmental duplications and tandem duplications seem to play equal roles in the diversification of this gene family. Expression analysis indicated that 29 out of the 63 BrnsLtps showed specific expression patterns. After careful comparison and analysis, we hypothesize that some of the type I BrnsLtps may function like Arabidopsis pathogenesis-related-14 (PR-14) proteins to protect the plant from phytopathogen attack. Eleven BrnsLtps with inflorescence-specific expression may play important roles in sexual reproduction. Additionally, BrnsLtpI.3 may have functions similar to Arabidopsis LTP1.
The genome-wide identification, bioinformatic analysis and expression analysis of BrnsLtp genes should facilitate research of this gene family and polyploidy evolution and provide new insight towards elucidating their biological functions in plants.
Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) has become one of the most widely used procedures for lumbar spinal disorders. However, it is still unclear whether TLIF with unilateral pedicle screw (PS) fixation is as effective as that with bilateral PS fixation. We performed a meta-analysis of the literatures and aimed to gain a better understanding of whether TLIF with unilateral PS fixation was safe and effective for lumbar diseases.
We systematically searched Ovid, Springer, and Medline databases for relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared the clinical and radiological outcomes of unilateral versus bilateral PS fixation in TLIF. Risk of bias in included studies was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. We generated pooled risk ratios or weighted mean differences across studies. According to our predefined inclusion criteria, seven RCTs with a total of 441 patients were included in this study. Baseline characteristics were similar between the unilateral and bilateral groups. Our meta-analysis showed that no significant difference was detected between the two groups in terms of postoperative clinical function, fusion status, reoperation rate, complication rate, and hospital stay (p>0.05). Pooled estimates revealed that the unilateral group was associated with significantly reduced implant cost, operative time and blood loss (p<0.05).
Our meta-analysis suggested TLIF with unilateral PS fixation was as safe and effective as that with bilateral PS fixation for lumbar diseases in selected patients. Despite these findings, our meta-analysis was based on studies with small sample size and different study characteristics that might lead to the inconsistent results such as various functional outcomes among the included studies. Therefore, high-quality randomized controlled trials with larger sample size are also needed to further clarify these issues and to provide the long-term outcomes.
Both anterior cervical discectomy with fusion (ACDF) and anterior cervical corpectomy with fusion (ACCF) are used to treat cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM), however, there is considerable controversy as to whether ACDF or ACCF is the optimal treatment for this condition. To compare the clinical outcomes, complications, and surgical trauma between ACDF and ACCF for the treatment of CSM, we conducted a meta-analysis.
We conducted a comprehensive search in MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, Google Scholar and Cochrane databases, searching for relevant controlled trials up to July 2013 that compared ACDF and ACCF for the treatment of CSM. We performed title and abstract screening and full-text screening independently and in duplicate. A random effects model was used for heterogeneous data; otherwise, a fixed effect model was used to pool data, using mean difference (MD) for continuous outcomes and odds ratio (OR) for dichotomous outcomes.
Of 2157 citations examined, 15 articles representing 1372 participants were eligible. Overall, there were significant differences between the two treatment groups for hospital stay (M = −5.60, 95% CI = −7.09 to −4.11), blood loss (MD = −151.35, 95% CI = −253.22 to −49.48), complications (OR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.35 to 0.73) and increased lordosis of C2–C7 (MD = 3.70, 95% CI = 0.96 to 6.45) and fusion segments angles (MD = 3.38, 95% CI = 2.54 to 4.22). However, there were no significant differences in the operation time (MD = −9.34, 95% CI = −42.99 to 24.31), JOA (MD = 0.24, 95% CI = −0.10 to 0.57), VAS (MD = −0.06, 95% CI = −0.81 to 0.70), NDI (MD = −1.37, 95% CI = −3.17 to 0.43), Odom criteria (OR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.60 to 1.30) or fusion rate (OR = 1.17, 95% CI = 0.34 to 4.11).
Based on this meta-analysis, although complications and increased lordosis are significantly better in the ACDF group, there is no strong evidence to support the routine use of ACDF over ACCF in CSM.
For successful bone tissue engineering, a scaffold needs to be osteoconductive, porous, and biodegradable, thus able to support attachment and proliferation of bone cells and guide bone formation. Recently, hydroxyapatites (HA), a major inorganic component of natural bone, and biodegrade polymers have drawn much attention as bone scaffolds. The present study was designed to investigate whether the bone regenerative properties of nano-HA/polycaprolactone (PCL) spiral scaffolds are augmented in an HA dose dependent manner, thereby establishing a suitable composition as a bone formation material. Nano-HA/PCL spiral scaffolds were prepared with different weight ratios of HA and PCL, while porosity was introduced by a modified salt leaching technique. Human fetal osteoblasts (hFOBs) were cultured on the nano-HA/PCL spiral scaffolds up to 14 days. Cellular responses in terms of cell adhesion, viability, proliferation, differentiation, and the expression of bone-related genes were investigated. These scaffolds supported hFOBs adhesion, viability and proliferation. Cell proliferation trend was quite similar on polymer-ceramic and neat polymer spiral scaffolds on days 1, 7, and 14. However, the significantly increased amount of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and mineralized matrix synthesis was evident on the nano-HA/PCL spiral scaffolds. The HA composition in the scaffolds showed a significant effect on ALP and mineralization. Bone phenotypic markers such as bone sialoprotein (BSP), osteonectin (ON), osteocalcin (OC), and type I collagen (Col-1) were semi-quantitatively estimated by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis. All of these results suggested the osteoconductive characteristics of HA/PCL nanocomposite and cell maturation were HA dose dependent. For instance, HA∶PCL = 1∶4 group showed significantly higher ALP mineralization and elevated levels of BSP, ON, OC and Col-I expression as compared other lower or higher ceramic ratios. Amongst the different nano-HA/PCL spiral scaffolds, the 1∶4 weight ratio of HA and PCL is shown to be the most optimal composition for bone tissue regeneration.
The QSOX1 protein (Quiescin Sulfhydryl oxidase 1) catalyzes the formation of disulfide bonds and is involved in the folding and stability of proteins. More recently, QSOX1 has been associated with tumorigenesis and protection against cellular stress. It has been demonstrated in our laboratory that QSOX1 reduces proliferation, migration and invasion of breast cancer cells in vitro and reduces tumor growth in vivo. In addition, QSOX1 expression has been shown to be induced by oxidative or ER stress and to prevent cell death linked to these stressors. Given the function of QSOX1 in these two processes, which have been previously linked to autophagy, we wondered whether QSOX1 might be regulated by autophagy inducers and play a role in this catabolic process. To answer this question, we used in vitro models of breast cancer cells in which QSOX1 was overexpressed (MCF-7) or extinguished (MDA-MB-231). We first showed that QSOX1 expression is induced following amino acid starvation and maintains cellular homeostasis. Our results also indicated that QSOX1 inhibits autophagy through the inhibition of autophagosome/lysosome fusion. Moreover, we demonstrated that inhibitors of autophagy mimic the effect of QSOX1 on cell invasion, suggesting that its role in this process is linked to the autophagy pathway. Previously published data demonstrated that extinction of QSOX1 promotes tumor growth in NOG mice. In this study, we further demonstrated that QSOX1 null tumors present lower levels of the p62 protein. Altogether, our results demonstrate for the first time a role of QSOX1 in autophagy in breast cancer cells and tumors.
Several studies reported that the pregnancy-specific hormone placental lactogen (hPL) is expressed at both mRNA and protein levels in breast cancer. The overall objective was to establish hPL, the product of the CSH1 and CSH2 genes, as a biomarker for breast cancer.
CSH expression was determined at the mRNA level in breast cancer cell lines (BCC) and primary carcinomas by real-time and conventional PCR and the products verified as CSH1 by sequencing. Expression of hPL protein was examined by western blots and immuno-histochemistry, using commercial and custom-made polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies.
Variable levels of CSH mRNA were detected in several BCC, and in some primary tumors. We detected a protein, slightly larger than recombinant hPL by western blotting using several antibodies, leading us to postulate that it represents an hPL variant (‘hPL’). Furthermore, some monoclonal antibodies detected ‘hPL’ by immunohistochemistry in breast carcinomas but not in normal breast. However, further examination revealed that these antibodies were non-specific, as efficient suppression of CSH mRNA by shRNA did not abolish the ‘hPL’ band. Custom-made monoclonal antibodies against recombinant hPL detected hPL of the correct size in placental lysate and hPL-overexpressing BCC, but not in unmodified cells or primary carcinomas. hPL protein was detected only when mRNA was increased several thousand fold.
We call into question previous reports of hPL expression in breast cancer which relied on mRNA levels as surrogates for protein and/or used improperly validated antibodies to measure hPL protein levels. Our data suggests that an inhibitory mechanism(s) prevents translation of CSH mRNA in breast cancer when not highly expressed. The mechanism by which translation of CSH mRNA is inhibited is intriguing and should be further investigated.
Adaptation of D. radiodurans cells to extreme irradiation environments requires dynamic interactions between gene expression and metabolic regulatory networks, but studies typically address only a single layer of regulation during the recovery period after irradiation. Dynamic transcriptome analysis of D. radiodurans cells using strand-specific RNA sequencing (ssRNA-seq), combined with LC-MS based metabolite analysis, allowed an estimate of the immediate expression pattern of genes and antioxidants in response to irradiation. Transcriptome dynamics were examined in cells by ssRNA-seq covering its predicted genes. Of the 144 non-coding RNAs that were annotated, 49 of these were transfer RNAs and 95 were putative novel antisense RNAs. Genes differentially expressed during irradiation and recovery included those involved in DNA repair, degradation of damaged proteins and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle metabolism. The knockout mutant crtB (phytoene synthase gene) was unable to produce carotenoids, and exhibited a decreased survival rate after irradiation, suggesting a role for these pigments in radiation resistance. Network components identified in this study, including repair and metabolic genes and antioxidants, provided new insights into the complex mechanism of radiation resistance in D. radiodurans.
miR-137 plays critical roles in the nervous system and tumor development; an increase in its expression is required for neuronal differentiation while its reduction is implicated in gliomagenesis. To evaluate the potential of miR-137 in glioblastoma therapy, we conducted genome-wide target mapping in glioblastoma cells by measuring the level of association between PABP and mRNAs in cells transfected with miR-137 mimics vs. controls via RIPSeq. Impact on mRNA levels was also measured by RNASeq. By combining the results of both experimental approaches, 1468 genes were found to be negatively impacted by miR-137 – among them, 595 (40%) contain miR-137 predicted sites. The most relevant targets include oncogenic proteins and key players in neurogenesis like c-KIT, YBX1, AKT2, CDC42, CDK6 and TGFβ2. Interestingly, we observed that several identified miR-137 targets are also predicted to be regulated by miR-124, miR-128 and miR-7, which are equally implicated in neuronal differentiation and gliomagenesis. We suggest that the concomitant increase of these four miRNAs in neuronal stem cells or their repression in tumor cells could produce a robust regulatory effect with major consequences to neuronal differentiation and tumorigenesis.
Previous studies have reported inconsistent findings regarding the association between elevated plasma homocysteine (Hcy) levels and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). We investigated this association between Hcy levels in patients with AAA and unaffected controls by conducting a meta-analysis and systematic review.
We conducted a systematic literature search (up to August 2013) of the PubMed database and Embase. We selected observational studies that evaluated Hcy levels in subjects with AAA compared to unaffected controls. Criteria for inclusion were the assessment of baseline Hcy and risk of AAA as an outcome. The results were presented as odd ratio (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) comparing AAA patients to the control subjects.
7 studies with 6,445 participants were identified and analyzed. Overall, elevated plasma Hcy was associated with an increased risk of AAA (3.29; 95% CI 1.66–6.51). The pooled adjusted OR from a random effect model of only men participants in the AAA compared with the control group was 2.36 (95% CI 0.63–8.82).
This meta-analysis and systematic review suggested that Hcy significantly increased the risk of AAA.
miRNAs are proved to have causal roles in tumorgenesis involving various types of human cancers, but the mechanism is not clear. We aimed to explore the effect of miRNAs on the development of ovarian cancer and the underlying mechanism.
The miRNA expression profile GSE31801 was downloaded from GEO (Gene Expression Omnibus) database. Firstly, the differentially expressed miRNAs were screened. Target genes of the miRNAs were collected from TargetScan, PicTar, miRanda, and DIANA-microT database, then the miRNA-miRNA co-regulating network was constructed using miRNA pairs with common regulated target genes. Next, the functional modules in the network were studied, the miRNA pairs regulated at least one modules were enriched to form the miRNA functional synergistic network (MFSN).
Risk miRNA were selected in MFSN according to the topological structure. Transcript factors (TFs) in MFSN were identified, followed by the miRNA-transcript factor networks construction. Totally, 42 up- and 61 down-regulated differentially expressed miRNAs were identified, of which 68 formed 2292 miRNA pairs in the miRNA-miRNA co-regulating network. GO: 0007268 (synaptic transmission) and GO: 0019226 (transmission of nerve impulse) were the two common functions of miRNAs in MFSN, and hsa-miR-579 (36), hsa-miR-942 (31), hsa-miR-105 (31), hsa-miR-150 (34), and hsa-miR-27a* (32) were selected as the hub nodes in MFSN.
In all, 17 TFs, including CREM, ERG, and CREB1 were screened as the cancer related TFs in MFSN. Other TFs, such as BIN1, FOXN3, FOXK1, FOXP2, and ESRRG with high degrees may be inhibited in ovarian cancer. MFSN gave us a new shed light on the mechanism studies in ovarian cancer.
miRNA expression profile; Ovarian cancer; miRNA functional synergistic network; Co-regulating; Functional module
Vaccination registries have undoubtedly proven useful for estimating vaccination coverage as well as examining vaccine safety and effectiveness. However, their use for population health research is often limited. The Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) Vaccination Registry for the Canadian province of Québec comprises some 4 million vaccination records (1926-1992). This registry represents a unique opportunity to study potential associations between BCG vaccination and various health outcomes. So far, such studies have been hampered by the absence of a computerized version of the registry. We determined the completeness and accuracy of the recently computerized BCG Vaccination Registry, as well as examined its linkability with demographic and administrative medical databases.
Two systematically selected verification samples, each representing ~0.1% of the registry, were used to ascertain accuracy and completeness of the electronic BCG Vaccination Registry. Agreement between the paper [listings (n = 4,987 records) and vaccination certificates (n = 4,709 records)] and electronic formats was determined along several nominal and BCG-related variables. Linkage feasibility with the Birth Registry (probabilistic approach) and provincial Healthcare Registration File (deterministic approach) was examined using nominal identifiers for a random sample of 3,500 individuals born from 1961 to 1974 and BCG vaccinated between 1970 and 1974.
Exact agreement was observed for 99.6% and 81.5% of records upon comparing, respectively, the paper listings and vaccination certificates to their corresponding computerized records. The proportion of successful linkage was 77% with the Birth Registry, 70% with the Healthcare Registration File, 57% with both, and varied by birth year.
Computerization of this Registry yielded excellent results. The registry was complete and accurate, and linkage with administrative databases was highly feasible. This study represents the first step towards assembling large scale population-based epidemiological studies which will enable filling important knowledge gaps on the potential health effects of early life non-specific stimulation of the immune function, as resulting from BCG vaccination.
Bacillus Calmette-Guérin; Administrative databases; Registry; Validity; Linkage; Epidemiology
Aberrant synaptic dysfunction is implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. The DLGAP2 gene encoding the SAP90/PSD-95-associated protein 2 (SAPAP2) located at the post-synaptic density of neuronal cells is involved in the neuronal synaptic function. This study aimed to investigate whether the DLGAP2 gene is associated with schizophrenia. We resequenced the putative promoter region and all the exons of the DLGAP2 gene in 523 patients with schizophrenia and 596 non-psychotic controls from Taiwan and conducted a case-control association analysis. We identified 19 known SNPs in this sample. Association analysis of 9 SNPs with minor allele frequency greater than 5% showed no association with schizophrenia. However, we found a haplotype (CCACCAACT) significantly associated with schizophrenia (odds ratio:2.5, p<0.001). We also detected 16 missense mutations and 1 amino acid-insertion mutation in this sample. Bioinformatic analysis showed some of these mutations were damaging or pathological to the protein function, but we did not find increased burden of these mutations in the patient group. Notably, we identified 5 private rare variants in 5 unrelated patients, respectively, including c.−69+9C>T, c.−69+13C>T, c.−69+47C>T, c.−69+55C>T at intron 1 and c.−32A>G at untranslated exon 2 of the DLGAP2 gene. These rare variants were not detected in 559 control subjects. Further reporter gene assay of these rare variants except c.−69+13C>T showed significantly elevated promoter activity than the wild type, suggesting increased DLGAP2 gene expression may contribute to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Our results indicate that DLGAP2 is a susceptible gene of schizophrenia.