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1.  Associations between interleukin-1 polymorphisms and gastric cancers among three ethnicities 
AIM: To investigate the associations between interleukin (IL)-1B and IL-1RN polymorphisms and gastric cancers among the Tibet, Hui and Han ethnicities.
METHODS: Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood of 210, 205, and 202 healthy volunteers and from 155, 158, and 197 gastric cancer patients from the Tibet, Hui, and Han populations, respectively. Polymorphisms in IL-1B and IL-1RN were analyzed by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography.
RESULTS: Carriers of the IL-1B-31 CC genotype had an increased risk of intestinal type gastric cancer [odds ratio (OR) = 2.17, P = 0.037] in the Tibet ethnicity. Carriers of the IL-1B 2/L genotype had an increased risk of both intestinal and diffuse types of gastric cancer (OR = 2.08, 2.31, P = 0.007, 0.016, respectively) in the Hui ethnicity. In the Han population, carriers of the IL-1B-31 CC, IL-1B-511CT, TT genotypes had increased risk of intestinal type gastric cancer (OR = 2.51, 2.74, 5.66, P = 0.005, 0.002, 0.000, respectively).
CONCLUSION: IL-1B and IL-RN genotypes may differentially contribute to gastric cancer among the Tibet, Hui, and Han ethnicities in the Qinghai area of China.
PMCID: PMC3531699  PMID: 23323013
Gastric cancer; Interleukin-1B; Interleukin-1RN; Polymorphism; Risk of gastric cancer
2.  Short term effects of different omega-3 fatty acid formulation on lipid metabolism in mice fed high or low fat diet 
Bioactivities of Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) depend on their chemical forms. The present study was to investigate short term effects of triglyceride (TG), ethyl ester (EE), free fatty acid (FFA) and phospholipid (PL) forms of omega-3 fatty acid (FA) on lipid metabolism in mice, fed high fat or low fat diet.
Male Balb/c mice were fed with 0.7% different Omega-3 fatty acid formulation: DHA bound free fatty acid (DHA-FFA), DHA bound triglyceride (DHA-TG), DHA bound ethyl ester (DHA-EE) and DHA bound phospholipid (DHA-PL) for 1 week, with dietary fat levels at 5% and 22.5%. Serum and hepatic lipid concentrations were analyzed, as well as the fatty acid composition of liver and brain.
At low fat level, serum total cholesterol (TC) level in mice fed diets with DHA-FFA, DHA-EE and DHA-PL were significantly lower than that in the control group (P < 0.05). Hepatic TG level decreased significantly in mice fed diets with DHA-TG (P < 0.05), DHA-EE (P < 0.05) and DHA-PL (P < 0.05), while TC level in liver was significantly lower in mice fed diets with TG and EE compared with the control group (P < 0.05). At high fat level, mice fed diets with DHA-EE and DHA-PL had significantly lower hepatic TC level compared with the control diet (P < 0.05). Hepatic PL concentration experienced a significant increase in mice fed the diet with PL at high fat level (P < 0.05). Furthermore, both at low and high fat levels, hepatic DHA level significantly increased and AA level significantly decreased in all forms of DHA groups (P < 0.05), compared to control groups at two different fat levels, respectively. Additionally, cerebral DHA level in mice fed diets with DHA-FFA, DHA-EE and DHA-PL significantly increased compared with the control at high fat level (P < 0.05), but no significant differences were observed among dietary treatments for mice fed diets with low fat level.
The present study suggested that not only total dietary fat content but also the molecular forms of omega-3 fatty acids contributed to lipid metabolism in mice. DHA-PL showed effective bioactivity in decreasing hepatic and serum TC, TG levels and increasing omega-3 concentration in liver and brain.
PMCID: PMC3393618  PMID: 22676394
Omega-3 fatty acid; DHA; EPA; Lipid metabolism; Triglycerides; Ethyl ester; Phospholipids

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