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1.  VpRFP1, a novel C4C4-type RING finger protein gene from Chinese wild Vitis pseudoreticulata, functions as a transcriptional activator in defence response of grapevine 
Journal of Experimental Botany  2011;62(15):5671-5682.
RING finger proteins comprise a large family and play important roles in regulation of growth and development, hormone signalling, and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. In this study, the identification and functional characterization of a C4C4-type RING finger protein gene from the Chinese wild grapevine Vitis pseudoreticulata (designated VpRFP1) are reported. VpRFP1 was initially identified as an expressed sequence tag (EST) from a cDNA library constructed from leaves of V. pseudoreticulata inoculated with the grapevine powdery mildew Uncinula necator. Sequence analysis of the deduced VpRFP1 protein based on the full-length cDNA revealed an N-terminal nuclear localization signal (NLS) and a C-terminal C4C4-type RING finger motif with the consensus sequence Cys-X2-Cys-X13-Cys-X1-Cys-X4-Cys-X2-Cys-X10-Cys-X2-Cys. Upon inoculation with U. necator, expression of VpRFP1 was rapidly induced to higher levels in mildew-resistant V. pseudoreticulata plants. In contrast, expression of VpRFP1 was down-regulated in mildew-susceptible V. vinifera plants. Western blotting using an antibody raised against VpRFP1 showed that VpRFP1 was also induced to higher levels in V. pseudoreticulata plants at 12–48 hours post-inoculation (hpi). However, there was only slight increase in VpRFP in V. vinifera plants in the same time frame, even though a more significant increase was observed at 96–144 hpi in these plants. Results from transactivation assays in yeast showed that the RING finger motif of VpRFP1 exhibited some activity of transcriptional activation; however, no activity was seen with the full-length VpRFP1. Overexpression of VpRFP1 in Arabidopsis plants was found to enhance resistance to Arabidopsis powdery mildew Golovinomyces cichoracearum, which seemed to be correlated with increased transcript levels of AtPR1 and AtPR2 in the pathogen-infected tissues. In addition, the Arabidopsis transgenic lines showed enhanced resistance to a virulent bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. Taken together, the results suggested that VpRFP1 may be a transcriptional activator of defence-related genes in grapevines.
PMCID: PMC3223060  PMID: 21862480
C4C4-type RING finger; Chinese wild Vitis pseudoreticulata; disease resistance; powdery mildew; VpRFP1
2.  The chromatin remodelers ISWI and ACF1 directly repress Wingless transcriptional targets 
Developmental biology  2008;323(1):41-52.
The highly conserved Wingless/Wnt signaling pathway controls many developmental processes by regulating the expression of target genes, most often through members of the TCF family of DNA-binding proteins. In the absence of signaling, many of these targets are silenced, by mechanisms involving TCFs that are not fully understood. Here we report that the chromatin remodeling proteins ISWI and ACF1 are required for basal repression of Wg target genes in Drosophila. This regulation is not due to global repression by ISWI and ACF1 and is distinct from their previously reported role in chromatin assembly. While ISWI is localized to the same regions of Wingless target gene chromatin as TCF, we find that ACF1 binds much more broadly to target loci. This broad distribution of ACF1 is dependent on ISWI. ISWI and ACF1 are required for TCF binding to chromatin, while a TCF-independent role of ISWI-ACF1 in repression of Wingless targets is also observed. Finally, we show that Wingless signaling reduces ACF1 binding to Wg targets, and ISWI and ACF1 regulate repression by antagonizing histone H4 acetylation. Our results argue that Wg signaling activates target gene expression partly by overcoming the chromatin barrier maintained by ISWI and ACF1.
PMCID: PMC3137263  PMID: 18786525
ACF1; chromatin; ISWI; TCF; Wingless

Results 1-2 (2)