The hydrological cycle is an important way of transportation and reallocation of reactive nitrogen (N) in forest ecosystems. However, under a high level of atmospheric N deposition, the N distribution and cycling through water flows in forest ecosystems especially in bamboo ecosystems are not well understood.
In order to investigate N fluxes through water flows in a Pleioblastus amarus bamboo forest, event rainfall/snowfall (precipitation, PP), throughfall (TF), stemflow (SF), surface runoff (SR), forest floor leachate (FFL), soil water at the depth of 40 cm (SW1) and 100 cm (SW2) were collected and measured through the whole year of 2009. Nitrogen distribution in different pools in this ecosystem was also measured. Mean N pools in vegetation and soil (0–1 m) were 351.7 and 7752.8 kg ha−1. Open field nitrogen deposition at the study site was 113.8 kg N ha−1 yr−1, which was one of the highest in the world. N-NH4+, N-NO3− and dissolved organic N (DON) accounted for 54%, 22% and 24% of total wet N deposition. Net canopy accumulated of N occurred with N-NO3− and DON but not N-NH4+. The flux of total dissolved N (TDN) to the forest floor was greater than that in open field precipitation by 17.7 kg N ha−1 yr−1, due to capture of dry and cloudwater deposition net of canopy uptake. There were significant negative exponential relationships between monthly water flow depths and monthly mean TDN concentrations in PP, TF, SR, FFL and SW1.
The open field nitrogen deposition through precipitation is very high over the world, which is the main way of reactive N input in this bamboo ecosystem. The water exchange and N consume mainly occurred in the litter floor layer and topsoil layer, where most of fine roots of bamboo distributed.
We performed a meta-analysis of 2 genome-wide association studies of
coronary artery disease comprising 1,515 cases with coronary artery disease and
5,019 controls, followed by de novo replication studies in
15,460 cases and 11,472 controls, all of Chinese Han descent. We successfully
identified four new loci for coronary artery disease reaching genome-wide
significance (P < 5 × 10−8),
which mapped in or near TTC32-WDR35, GUCY1A3,
C6orf10-BTNL2 and ATP2B1. We also
replicated four loci previously identified in European populations
(PHACTR1, TCF21, CDKN2A/B
and C12orf51). These findings provide new insights into
biological pathways for the susceptibility of coronary artery disease in Chinese
The epigenetic regulation of imprinted genes via monoallelic DNA methylation of either maternal or paternal alleles is critical for embryonic growth and development1. Imprinted genes were recently shown to be expressed in mammalian adult stem cells to support self-renewal of neural and lung stem cells2, 3,4; however, a role for imprinting per se in adult stem cells remains elusive. Here we show up-regulation of growth-restricting imprinted genes, including within the H19-Igf2 locus5, in long-term hematopoietic stem cells (LT-HSCs) and their down-regulation upon HSC activation and proliferation. A differentially methylated region (DMR) upstream of H19 (H19-DMR), serving as the imprinting control region, determines the reciprocal expression of H19 from the maternal allele and Igf2 from the paternal allele1. In addition, H19 also serves as a source of miR-675, which restricts Igf1r expression6. We demonstrated that conditional deletion of the maternal but not the paternal H19-DMR reduced adult HSC quiescence, a state required for long-term maintenance of HSCs, and compromised HSC function. Maternal-specific H19-DMR deletion resulted in activation of the Igf2-Igfr1 pathway as revealed by the translocation of phosphorylated Foxo3 (an inactive form) from nucleus to cytoplasm and the release of Foxo3-mediated cell-cycle arrest, thus leading to increased activation, proliferation, and eventual exhaustion of HSCs. Mechanistically, maternal-specific H19-DMR deletion led to Igf2 up-regulation and increased translation of Igf1r, which is normally suppressed by H19-derived miR-675. Similarly, genetic inactivation of Igf1r partially rescued the H19-DMR deletion phenotype. Our work establishes a novel role for this unique form of epigenetic control at the H19-Igf2 locus in maintaining adult stem cells.
Forest litter decomposition is a major component of the global carbon (C) budget, and is greatly affected by the atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition observed globally. However, the effects of N addition on forest litter decomposition, in ecosystems receiving increasingly higher levels of ambient N deposition, are poorly understood.
We conducted a two-year field experiment in five forests along the western edge of the Sichuan Basin in China, where atmospheric N deposition was up to 82–114 kg N ha–1 in the study sites. Four levels of N treatments were applied: (1) control (no N added), (2) low-N (50 kg N ha–1 year–1), (3) medium-N (150 kg N ha–1 year–1), and (4) high-N (300 kg N ha–1 year–1), N additions ranging from 40% to 370% of ambient N deposition. The decomposition processes of ten types of forest litters were then studied. Nitrogen additions significantly decreased the decomposition rates of six types of forest litters. N additions decreased forest litter decomposition, and the mass of residual litter was closely correlated to residual lignin during the decomposition process over the study period. The inhibitory effect of N addition on litter decomposition can be primarily explained by the inhibition of lignin decomposition by exogenous inorganic N. The overall decomposition rate of ten investigated substrates exhibited a significant negative linear relationship with initial tissue C/N and lignin/N, and significant positive relationships with initial tissue K and N concentrations; these relationships exhibited linear and logarithmic curves, respectively.
This study suggests that the expected progressive increases in N deposition may have a potential important impact on forest litter decomposition in the study area in the presence of high levels of ambient N deposition.
A gate-controlled metal-semiconductor barrier modulation and its effect on carrier transport were investigated in two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDC) field effect transistors (FETs). A strong photoresponse was observed in both unipolar MoS2 and ambipolar WSe2 FETs (i) at the high drain voltage due to a high electric field along the channel for separating photo-excited charge carriers and (ii) at the certain gate voltage due to the optimized barriers for the collection of photo-excited charge carriers at metal contacts. The effective barrier height between Ti/Au and TMDCs was estimated by a low temperature measurement. An ohmic contact behavior and drain-induced barrier lowering (DIBL) were clearly observed in MoS2 FET. In contrast, a Schottky-to-ohmic contact transition was observed in WSe2 FET as the gate voltage increases, due to the change of majority carrier transport from holes to electrons. The gate-dependent barrier modulation effectively controls the carrier transport, demonstrating its great potential in 2D TMDCs for electronic and optoelectronic applications.
Deformable image registration is widely used in various radiation therapy applications including daily treatment planning adaptation to map planned tissue or dose to changing anatomy. In this work, a simple and efficient inverse consistency deformable registration method is proposed with aims of higher registration accuracy and faster convergence speed. Instead of registering image I to a second image J, the two images are symmetrically deformed toward one another in multiple passes, until both deformed images are matched and correct registration is therefore achieved. In each pass, a delta motion field is computed by minimizing a symmetric optical flow system cost function using modified optical flow algorithms. The images are then further deformed with the delta motion field in the positive and negative directions respectively, and then used for the next pass. The magnitude of the delta motion field is forced to be less than 0.4 voxel for every pass in order to guarantee smoothness and invertibility for the two overall motion fields that are accumulating the delta motion fields in both positive and negative directions, respectively. The final motion fields to register the original images I and J, in either direction, are calculated by inverting one overall motion field and combining the inversion result with the other overall motion field. The final motion fields are inversely consistent and this is ensured by the symmetric way that registration is carried out. The proposed method is demonstrated with phantom images, artificially deformed patient images and 4D-CT images. Our results suggest that the proposed method is able to improve the overall accuracy (reducing registration error by 30% or more, compared to the original and inversely inconsistent optical flow algorithms), reduce the inverse consistency error (by 95% or more) and increase the convergence rate (by 100% or more). The overall computation speed may slightly decrease, or increase in most cases because the new method converges faster. Compared to previously reported inverse consistency algorithms, the proposed method is simpler, easier to implement and more efficient.
The optic fissure (OF) is a transient opening on the ventral side of the developing vertebrate eye that closes before nearly all retinal progenitor cell differentiation has occurred. Failure to close the OF results in coloboma, a congenital disease that is a major cause of childhood blindness. Although human genetic studies and animal models have linked a number of genes to coloboma, the cellular and molecular mechanisms driving the closure of the OF are still largely unclear. In this study, we used Cre-LoxP-mediated conditional removal of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptors, Fgfr1 and Fgfr2, from the developing optic cup (OC) to show that FGF signaling regulates the closing of the OF. Our molecular, cellular and transcriptome analyses of Fgfr1 and Fgfr2 double conditional knockout OCs suggest that FGF signaling controls the OF closure through modulation of retinal progenitor cell proliferation, fate specification and morphological changes. Furthermore, Fgfr1 and Fgfr2 double conditional mutant retinal progenitor cells fail to initiate retinal ganglion cell (RGC) genesis. Taken together, our mouse genetic studies reveal that FGF signaling is essential for OF morphogenesis and RGC development.
optic fissure; coloboma; FGF signaling; retinal ganglion cells
The current report describes the case of a 29-year-old female with a sacral giant cell tumor (GCT) during pregnancy. Originally, the patient presented with severe pain in the lumbosacral region, radiating posterolaterally from the lumbar spine into the bilateral thigh and subsequently, into the bilateral crus posterolaterally. Plain X-rays, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed osteolytic destruction of the sacrococcygeal bones and a huge soft-tissue mass with features of a chordoma. The patient underwent a partial en bloc sacrectomy (partial S1 and completely below) and curettage for tumors located at the sacroiliac joint and underlying left ilium, with bilateral internal iliac arteries ligated to control intraoperative hemorrhage. The patient’s bilateral S2 nerve roots were killed. The diagnosis of conventional GCT was determined based on the histopathological examination of the resected specimen. Urinary and bowel functions were recovered by exercising.
giant cell tumor; chordoma; S2 nerve root; sacral tumor; rectum; urinary and bowel function
Cullin-RING ligases (CRLs) are a family of E3 ubiquitin ligase complexes that rely on either RING-box 1 (RBX1) or sensitive to apoptosis gene (SAG), also known as RBX2, for activity. RBX1 and SAG are both overexpressed in human lung cancer; however, their contribution to patient survival and lung tumorigenesis is unknown. Here, we report that overexpression of SAG, but not RBX1, correlates with poor patient prognosis and more advanced disease. We found that SAG is overexpressed in murine KrasG12D-driven lung tumors and that Sag deletion suppressed lung tumorigenesis and extended murine life span. Using cultured lung cancer cells, we showed that SAG knockdown suppressed growth and survival, inactivated both NF-κB and mTOR pathways, and resulted in accumulation of tumor suppressor substrates, including p21, p27, NOXA, and BIM. Importantly, growth suppression by SAG knockdown was partially rescued by simultaneous knockdown of p21 or the mTOR inhibitor DEPTOR. Treatment with MLN4924, a small molecule inhibitor of CRL E3s, also inhibited the formation of KrasG12D-induced lung tumors through a similar mechanism involving inactivation of NF-κB and mTOR and accumulation of tumor suppressor substrates. Together, our results demonstrate that Sag is a Kras-cooperating oncogene that promotes lung tumorigenesis and suggest that targeting SAG-CRL E3 ligases may be an effective therapeutic approach for Kras-driven lung cancers.
SAG (Sensitive to Apoptosis Gene), also known as RBX2 (RING box protein 2), ROC2 (Regulator of Cullins 2), or RNF7 (RING Finger Protein 7), was originally cloned in our laboratory as a redox inducible antioxidant protein and later characterized as the second member of the RBX/ROC RING component of the SCF (SKP1-CUL-F-box Proteins) E3 ubiquitin ligase. When acting alone, SAG scavenges oxygen radicals by forming inter- and intra- molecular disulfide bonds, whereas by forming a complex with other components of the SCF E3 ligase, SAG promotes ubiquitination and degradation of a number of protein substrates, including c-JUN, DEPTOR, HIF-1α, IκBα, NF1, NOXA, p27, and procaspase-3, thus regulating various signaling pathways and biological processes. Specifically, SAG protects cells from apoptosis, confers radioresistance, and plays an essential and non-redundant role in mouse embryogenesis and vasculogenesis. Furthermore, stress-inducible SAG is overexpressed in a number of human cancers and SAG overexpression correlates with poor patient prognosis. Finally, SAG transgenic expression in epidermis causes an early stage inhibition, but later stage promotion, of skin tumorigenesis triggered by DMBA/TPA. Given its major role in promoting targeted degradation of tumor suppressive proteins, leading to apoptosis suppression and accelerated tumorigenesis, SAG E3 ligase appears to be an attractive anticancer target.
antioxidant; angiogenesis; apoptosis; Cullin-RING ligases; radiation resistance; reactive oxygen
Elevated plasma levels of IL-1β and IL-18 from patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection indicate a possible activation of inflammasome by HCV.
To demonstrate whether HCV infection activates the inflammasome, we investigated inflammasome activation from HCV infected hepatic Huh7 cells, or monocytic cells and THP-1 derived macrophages challenged with HCV virions, but no any inflammasome activation was detected in these cells. However, when we transfected HCV genomic RNA into monocytes or macrophages, IL-1β was secreted in a dose-dependent manner. We also detected ASC oligomerization and caspase-1 cleavage in HCV RNA transfected macrophages. Using shRNA-mediated gene silencing or specific inhibitors, we found that HCV RNA-induced IL-1β secretion was dependent on the presence of inflammasome components such as NLRP3, ASC and caspase-1. Furthermore, we also found that RIG-I was dispensable for HCV RNA-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation, while reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was required.
Our results indicate that HCV RNA activates the NLRP3 inflammasome in a ROS-dependent manner, and RIG-I is not required for this process.
Understanding human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission is central to developing effective prevention strategies, including a vaccine. We compared phenotypic and genetic variation in HIV-1 env genes from subjects in acute/early infection and subjects with chronic infections in the context of subtype C heterosexual transmission. We found that the transmitted viruses all used CCR5 and required high levels of CD4 to infect target cells, suggesting selection for replication in T cells and not macrophages after transmission. In addition, the transmitted viruses were more likely to use a maraviroc-sensitive conformation of CCR5, perhaps identifying a feature of the target T cell. We confirmed an earlier observation that the transmitted viruses were, on average, modestly underglycosylated relative to the viruses from chronically infected subjects. This difference was most pronounced in comparing the viruses in acutely infected men to those in chronically infected women. These features of the transmitted virus point to selective pressures during the transmission event. We did not observe a consistent difference either in heterologous neutralization sensitivity or in sensitivity to soluble CD4 between the two groups, suggesting similar conformations between viruses from acute and chronic infection. However, the presence or absence of glycosylation sites had differential effects on neutralization sensitivity for different antibodies. We suggest that the occasional absence of glycosylation sites encoded in the conserved regions of env, further reduced in transmitted viruses, could expose specific surface structures on the protein as antibody targets.
This study aimed to investigate the role of fatty acid synthase (FASN) in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of breast cancer cells. MCF-7 cells and MCF-7 cells overexpressing mitogen-activated protein kinase 5 (MCF-7-MEK5) were used in this study. MCF-7-MEK5 cells showed stable EMT characterized by increased vimentin and decreased E-cadherin expression. An In vivo animal model was established using the orthotopic injection of MCF-7 or MCF-7-MEK5 cells. Real-time quantitative PCR and western blotting were used to detect the expression levels of FASN and its downstream proteins liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) and VEGF/VEGFR-2 in both in vitro and in vivo models (nude mouse tumor tissues). In MCF-7-MEK5 cells, significantly increased expression of FASN was associated with increased levels of L-FABP and VEGF/VEGFR-2. Cerulenin inhibited MCF-7-MEK5 cell migration and EMT, and reduced FASN expression and down-stream proteins L-FABP, VEGF, and VEGFR-2. MCF-7-MEK5 cells showed higher sensitivity to Cerulenin than MCF-7 cells. Immunofluorescence revealed an increase of co-localization of FASN with VEGF on the cell membrane and with L-FABP within MCF-7-MEK5 cells. Immunohistochemistry further showed that increased percentage of FASN-positive cells in the tumor tissue was associated with increased percentages of L-FABP- and VEGF-positive cells and the Cerulenin treatment could reverse the effect. Altogether, our results suggest that FASN is essential to EMT possibly through regulating L-FABP, VEGF and VEGFR-2. This study provides a theoretical basis and potential strategy for effective suppression of malignant cells with EMT.
EMT; FASN; L-FABP; VEGF; Breast cancer.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the occurrence and levels of deoxynivalenol (DON), fumonisins B1 and B2 (FBs), and zearalenone (ZEN) contaminants in animal feeds used in Korea in 2012. Contamination with DON was observed in 91.33% and 53.33% in compound feeds and feed ingredients, respectively. Among compound feeds, poultry layer feed (laying) exhibited the highest contaminant level of 1.492 mg/kg. FBs contaminants were present in compound feeds and feed ingredients at 93.33% and 83.33%, respectively. Most poultry broiler (early) feeds were highly contaminated with FBs, and one of these feeds detected the level as 12.823 mg/kg as the highest level. The levels of ZEN in compound feeds and feed ingredients were 71.33% and 47%, respectively. Ninety-eight percent of compound feeds for cattle were contaminated with ZEN, and the highest contamination level of 0.405 mg/kg was observed in cattle fatting feeds.
Fusarium; deoxynivalenol; fumonisin B1; fumonisin B2; zearalenone; compound feeds; feed ingredients
Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are broadly used for various biomedical applications such as drug delivery, in vivo imaging and cancer photothermal therapy due to their unique physiochemical properties. However, once they enter the cells, the effects of SWCNTs to the intracellular organelles and macromolecules are not comprehensively understood. Cytochrome c (Cyt c), as a key component of the electron transport chain in mitochondria, plays an essential role in cellular energy consumption, growth and differentiation. In this study, we found the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and mitochondrial oxygen uptake were greatly decreased in human epithelial KB cells treated with SWCNTs, which accompanies the reduction of Cyt c. SWCNTs deoxidized Cyt c in a pH dependent manner as evidenced by the appearance of a 550 nm characteristic absorption peak, which intensity increased as pH increase. Circular dichroism measurement confirmed the pH-dependent conformational change, which facilitated closer association of SWCNTs with the heme pocket of Cyt c and thus expedited the reduction of Cyt c. The electron transfer of Cyt c is also disturbed by SWCNTs, as measured with electron spin resonance spectroscopy. In conclusion, the redox activity of Cyt c was affected by SWCNTs treatment due to attenuated electron transfer and conformational change of Cyt c, which consequently changed mitochondrial respiration of SWCNTs treated cells. This work is significant to SWCNTs research because it provided novel understanding to the disruption of SWCNTs to the mitochondria and has important implications for biomedical applications of SWCNTs.
Single-walled carbon nanotubes; Carboxy; Cytochrome C; Electron transfer; Mitochondrial function; Redox activity
The problem of probabilistic inference of gene content in the last common ancestor of several extant species with completely sequenced genomes is: for each gene that is conserved in all or some of the genomes, assign the probability that its ancestral gene was present in the genome of their last common ancestor.
We have developed a family of models of gene gain and gene loss in evolution, and applied the maximum-likelihood approach that uses phylogenetic tree of prokaryotes and the record of orthologous relationships between their genes to infer the gene content of LUCA, the Last Universal Common Ancestor of all currently living cellular organisms. The crucial parameter, the ratio of gene losses and gene gains, was estimated from the data and was higher in models that take account of the number of in-paralogs in genomes than in models that treat gene presences and absences as a binary trait.
While the numbers of genes that are placed confidently into LUCA are similar in the ML methods and in previously published methods that use various parsimony-based approaches, the identities of genes themselves are different. Most of the models of either kind treat the genes found in many existing genomes in a similar way, assigning to them high probabilities of being ancestral (“high ancestrality”). The ML models are more likely than others to assign high ancestrality to the genes that are relatively rare in the present-day genomes.
This article was reviewed by Martijn A Huynen, Toni Gabaldón and Fyodor Kondrashov.
To investigate the potential of T2 mapping for characterizing the process of intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) in a rabbit model.
Thirty-five rabbits underwent an annular stab to the L4/5 discs (L5/6 discs served as internal normal controls). Degenerative changes were graded according to the modified Thompson classification and quantified in T2 respectively at pre-operation, 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 weeks postoperatively. After MRI analysis, expression analysis of aggrecan and type II collagen gene in nucleus pulposus (NP) was performed using real time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR). The longitudinal changes in NP T2 and gene expressions were studied by repeated measures and ANOVA, linear regression was performed for their correlations through the process of IDD. The reliability analysis of method of measurement of NP T2 was also performed.
There was a strong inverse correlation between NP T2 and Thompson grades (r = -0.85). The decline of L4/5 NP T2 through 24 weeks was nonlinear, the most significant decrease was observed in 3 weeks postoperatively (P<0.05). The tendency was confirmed at gene expression levels. NP T2 correlated strongly with aggrecan (R2 = 0.85, P<0.01) and type II collagen (R2 = 0.78, P<0.01) gene expressions. The intraclass correlation coefficients for interobserver and intraobserver reliability were 0.963 and 0.977 respectively.
NP T2 correlates well with aggrecan and type II collagen gene expressions. T2 mapping could act as a sensitive, noninvasive tool for quantitatively characterizing the process of IDD in longitudinal study, help better understanding of the pathophysiology of IDD, assist us to detect the degenerative cascade, and develop a T2-based quantification scale for evaluation of IDD and efficacy of therapeutic interventions.
Intervertebral disc; Degeneration; Animal model; MRI; T2 mapping
Despite great progress in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) over the last-decade, intrahepatic recurrence is still the most frequent serious adverse event after all the treatments including microwave ablation. This study aimed to predict early recurrence of HCC after microwave ablation using serum proteomic signature.
After curative microwave ablation of HCC, 86 patients were followed-up for 1 year. Serum samples were collected before microwave ablation. The mass spectra of proteins were generated using surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS). Serum samples from 50 patients were randomly selected as a training set and for biomarkers discovery and model development. The remaining serum samples were categorized for validation of the algorithm.
According to preablation serum protein profiling obtained from the 50 HCC samples in the training set, nine significant differentially-expressed proteins were detected in the serum samples between recurrent and non-recurrent patients. Decision classification tree combined with three candidate proteins with m/z values of 7787, 6858 and 6646 was produced using Biomarker Patterns Software with sensitivity of 85.7% and specificity of 88.9% in the training set. When the SELDI marker pattern was tested with the blinded testing set, it yielded a sensitivity of 80.0%, a specificity of 88.5% and a positive predictive value of 86.1%.
Differentially-expressed protein peaks in preablation serum screened by SELDI are associated with prognosis of HCC. The decision classification tree is a potential tool in predicting early intrahepatic recurrence in HCC patients after microwave ablation.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of short, endogenous non-coding small RNAs that have ability to base pair with their target mRNAs to induce their degradation in plants. miR394a/b are conserved small RNAs and its target gene LCR (LEAF CURLING RESPONSIVENESS) encodes an F-box protein (SKP1-Cullin/CDC53-F-box) but whether miR394a/b and its target gene LCR are involved in regulation of plant response to abscisic acid (ABA) and abiotic stresses is unknown.
Mature miR394 and precursor miR394a/b are shown to be slightly induced by ABA. By contrast, LCR expression is depressed by ABA. Analysis of LCR and its promoter (pLCR::GUS) revealed that LCR is expressed at all development stages. MIR394a/b over-expression (35S::MIR394a/b) and lcr (LCR loss of function) mutant plants are hypersensitive to salt stress, but LCR over-expressing (35S::m5LCR) plants display the salt-tolerant phenotype. Both 35S::MIR394a/b and lcr plants are highly tolerant to severe drought stress compared with wild-type, but 35S::m5LCR plants are susceptible to water deficiency. Over-expression of MIR394a/b led to ABA hypersensitivity and ABA-associated phenotypes, whereas 35S::m5LCR plants show ABA resistance phenotypes. Moreover, 35S::MIR394a/b plants accumulated higher levels of ABA-induced hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion radicals than wild-type and 35S::m5LCR plants. Expressions of ABA- and stress-responsive genes, ABI3, ABI4, ABI5, ABF3, and ABF4 are up-regulated in MIR394a/b over-expressing plants but down-regulated in 35S::m5LCR plants. Over-expression of MIR394a in abi4-1 or abi5-1 background resulted in loss of ABA-sensitivity in 35S::MIR394a plants.
The silencing of LCR mRNA by miR394 is essential to maintain a certain phenotype favorable for the adaptive response to abiotic stresses. The contrasting phenotypes of salt and drought responses may be mediated by a functional balance between miR394 and LCR. If the balance is perturbed in case of the abiotic stress, an identical phenotype related to the stress response occurs, resulting in either ABA sensitive or insensitive response. Thus, miR394-regulated LCR abundance may allow plants to fine-tune their responses to ABA and abiotic stress.
miR394; LCR; Abscisic acid; Salinity; Drought; Arabidopsis
Neural stem cells (NSCs) are self-regenerating cells, but their regenerative capacity is limited. The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of β-sitosterol-D-glucoside (BSSG) on the proliferation of hippocampal NSCs and to determine the corresponding molecular mechanism. Results of CCK-8 assay showed that BSSG significantly increased NSC proliferation and the effectiveness of BSSG was similar to that of basic fibroblast growth factor and epidermal growth factor. mRNA expression profiling showed that 960 genes were differentially expressed after NSCs were treated with BSSG. Among the 960 genes, IGF1 is considered as a key regulatory gene that functionally promotes NSC proliferation. MicroRNA (miRNA) expression profiling indicated that 30 and 84 miRNAs were upregulated and downregulated, respectively. miRNA-mRNA relevance analysis revealed that numerous mRNAs including IGF1 mRNA were negatively regulated by miRNAs with decreased expression, thereby increasing the corresponding mRNA expression. The increased expression of IGF1 protein was validated by ELISA. Picropodophyllin (PPP, an inhibitor of IGF-1R) inhibition test confirmed that the proliferation-enhancing effect depended on IGF1. This study provided information about BSSG as an efficient and inexpensive growth factor alternative, of which the effect is closely involved in IGF1.
We previously identified TrkB as an oncogene involved in promoting metastasis in endometrial carcinoma (EC). Here, we sought to delineate the effect of changes in TrkB expression on the global profile of microRNAs (miRNAs) in EC cells and further investigated the correlation between the expression of certain miRNA and TrkB in the clinicopathologic characteristics of EC patients.
Methods and results
Using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR), we found that expression of TrkB mRNA has no significant difference in transcript levels between normal endometrium and EC cells captured by laser capture microdissection, while immunohistochemistry results demonstrated a markedly higher expression of TrkB protein in EC tissues. The microRNA array showed that ectopic overexpression and knockdown of TrkB expression caused global changes in miRNA expression in EC cells. qRT-PCR results showed that elevated TrkB repressed miR-204-5p expression in EC cells. Furthermore, immunoblotting assays revealed that TrkB overexpression in IshikawaTrkB cells noticeably increased JAK2 and STAT3 phosphorylation, which, however, was aborted by TrkB knockdown in HEC-1BshTrkB cells. Moreover, ChIP assays showed that phospho-STAT3 could directly bind to STAT3-binding sites near the TRPM3 promoter region upstream of miR-204-5p. Interestingly, using bioinformatics analysis and luciferase assays, we identified TrkB was a novel target of miR-204-5p. Functionally, the MTT assays, clonogenic and Transwell assays showed that miR-204-5p significantly suppressed the clonogenic growth, migration and invasion of EC cells. Furthermore, miR-204-5p also inhibited the growth of tumor xenografts bearing human EC cells. Importantly, we found lower miR-204-5p expression was associated with advanced FIGO stages, lymph node metastasis and probably a lower chance for survival in EC patients.
This study uncovers a new regulatory loop involving TrkB/miR-204-5p that is critical to the tumorigenesis of EC and proposes that reestablishment of miR-204-5p expression could be explored as a potential new therapeutic target for this disease.
Endometrial carcinoma; miR-204-5p; TrkB; STAT3; Regulatory circuitry; Proliferation; Invasion; Prognosis
There is a well-acknowledged need for an effective AIDS vaccine that protects against HIV-1 infection or limits in
vivo viral replication. The objective of these studies is to develop a replication-competent, vaccine vector based on the adenovirus serotype 4 (Ad4) virus expressing HIV-1 envelope (Env) 1086 clade C glycoprotein. Ad4 recombinant vectors expressing Env gp160 (Ad4Env160), Env gp140 (Ad4Env140), and Env gp120 (Ad4Env120) were evaluated.
The recombinant Ad4 vectors were generated with a full deletion of the E3 region of Ad4 to accommodate the env gene sequences. The vaccine candidates were assessed in vitro following infection of A549 cells for Env-specific protein expression and for posttranslational transport to the cell surface as monitored by the binding of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs). The capacity of the Ad4Env vaccines to induce humoral immunity was evaluated in rabbits for Env gp140 and V1V2-specific binding antibodies, and HIV-1 pseudovirus neutralization. Mice immunized with the Ad4Env160 vaccine were assessed for IFNγ T cell responses specific for overlapping Env peptide sets.
Robust Env protein expression was confirmed by western blot analysis and recognition of cell surface Env gp160 by multiple bNAbs. Ad4Env vaccines induced humoral immune responses in rabbits that recognized Env 1086 gp140 and V1V2 polypeptide sequences derived from 1086 clade C, A244 clade AE, and gp70 V1V2 CASE A2 clade B fusion protein. The immune sera efficiently neutralized tier 1 clade C pseudovirus MW965.26 and neutralized the homologous and heterologous tier 2 pseudoviruses to a lesser extent. Env-specific T cell responses were also induced in mice following Ad4Env160 vector immunization.
The Ad4Env vaccine vectors express high levels of Env glycoprotein and induce both Env-specific humoral and cellular immunity thus supporting further development of this new Ad4 HIV-1 Env vaccine platform in Phase 1 clinical trials.
Munro’s microabscesses contain polymorphonuclear leukocytes and form specifically in the epidermis of psoriasis patients. The mechanism whereby the neutrophils are recruited into the epidermis is poorly understood. Using a combination of human and mouse primary keratinocyte cell cultures and the imiquimod-induced psoriasis-like mouse model of skin inflammation we explored the role of interleukin-1 (IL-1) signaling in microabscess formation. In vitro imiquimod stimulated production of IL-1α and neutrophil recruiting chemokines. Imiquimod activated chemokine expression was dependent upon adenosine signaling and independent of IL-1α and IL-1 receptor type 1 (IL-1R1); nevertheless, IL-1α could enhance chemokine expression initiated by imiquimod. Topical application of imiquimod in vivo led to epidermal microabscess formation, acanthosis and increased IL-1α and chemokine expression in the skin of wild type mice. However, in IL-1R1 deficient mice these responses were either absent or dramatically reduced. These results demonstrate that IL-1α and IL-1R1 signaling is essential for microabscess formation, neutrophil recruiting chemokine expression and acanthosis in psoriasis-like skin inflammation induced by imiquimod.