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author:("Li, chengyang")
1.  Prognostic Value Analysis of Mutational and Clinicopathological Factors in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(9):e107276.
Introduction
Targeting activating oncogenic driver mutations in lung adenocarcinoma has led to prolonged survival in patients harboring these specific genetic alterations. The prognostic value of these mutations has not yet been elucidated. The prevalence of recently uncovered non-coding somatic mutation in promoter region of TERT gene is also to be validated in lung cancer. The purpose of this study is to show the prevalence, association with clinicalpathological features and prognostic value of these factors.
Methods
In a cohort of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) (n = 174, including 107 lung adenocarcinoma and 67 lung squamous cell carcinoma), EGFR, KRAS, HER2 and BRAF were directly sequenced in lung adeoncarcinoma, ALK fusions were screened using FISH (Fluorescence in situ Hybridization).TERT promoter region was sequenced in all of the 174 NSCLC samples. Associations of these somatic mutations and clinicopathological features, as well as prognostic factors were evaluated.
Results
EGFR, KRAS, HER2, BRAF mutation and ALK fusion were mutated in 25.2%, 6.5%, 1.9%, 0.9% and 3.7% of lung adenocarcinomas. No TERT promoter mutation was validated by reverse-sided sequencing. Lung adenocarcinoma with EGFR and KRAS mutations showed no significant difference in Disease-free Survival (DFS) and Overall Survival (OS). Cox Multi-variate analysis revealed that only N stage and HER2 mutation were independent predictors of worse overall survival (HR = 1.653, 95% CI 1.219–2.241, P = 0.001; HR = 12.344, 95% CI 2.615–58.275, P = 0.002).
Conclusions
We have further confirmed that TERT promoter mutation may only exist in a very small fraction of NSCLCs. These results indicate that dividing lung adenocarcinoma into molecular subtypes according to oncogenic driver mutations doesn't predict survival difference of the disease.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0107276
PMCID: PMC4157862  PMID: 25198510
2.  Direct subcutaneous injection of polyethylene particles over the murine calvaria results in dramatic osteolysis 
International Orthopaedics  2013;37(7):1393-1398.
Purpose
The murine calvarial model has been widely employed for the in vivo study of particle-induced osteolysis, the most frequent cause of aseptic loosening of total joint replacements. Classically, this model uses an open surgical technique in which polyethylene (PE) particles are directly spread over the calvarium for the induction of osteolysis. We evaluated a minimally invasive modification of the calvarial model by using a direct subcutaneous injection of PE particles.
Methods
Polyethylene (PE) particles were injected subcutaneously over the calvaria of C57BL6J ten-week-old mice (“injection” group) or were implanted after surgical exposure of the calvaria (“open” group) (n = 5/group). For each group, five additional mice received no particles and served as controls. Particle-induced osteolysis was evaluated two weeks after the procedure using high-definition microCT imaging.
Results
Polyethylene particle injection over the calvaria resulted in a 40 % ± 1.8 % decrease in the bone volume fraction (BVF), compared to controls. Using the “open surgical technique”, the BVF decreased by 16 % ± 3.8 % as compared to controls (p < 0.0001).
Conclusions
Direct subcutaneous injection of PE particles over the murine calvaria produced more profound resorption of bone. Polyethylene particle implantation by injection is less invasive and reliably induces osteolysis to a greater degree than the open technique. This subcutaneous injection method will prove useful for repetitive injections of particles, and the assessment of potential local or systemic therapies.
doi:10.1007/s00264-013-1887-4
PMCID: PMC3685680  PMID: 23604215
3.  Stem cell attraction via SDF-1α expressing fat tissue grafts 
Mesenchymal stromal cell (MSCs) are key cellular components for site-specific tissue regeneration. The chemokine stromal derived factor 1 alpha (SDF-1α) is known to attract stem cells via the C-X-C chemokine receptor-4 (CXCR4) receptor. The aim of the study was to develop a model for stem cell attraction using SDF-1α overexpressing fat tissue grafts. Murine MSCs were lentiviral transduced to express the genes for enhanced green fluorescent protein, firefly luciferace, and human CXCR4 (hCXCR4). Murine fat tissue was adenoviral transduced to express SDF-1α and red fluorescent protein transgenes. MSCs were cultured on transwells with SDF-1α containing supernatants from transduced fat tissue. The numbers of migrated MSCs in four groups (with hCXCR4 positive (+) or hCXCR4 negative (−) MSCs with or without SDF-1α containing supernatant) were investigated. After 36 h of culture, 9025 ± 925 cells migrated through the membrane of the transwells in group 1 (CXCR4+/SDF-1α+), 4817 ± 940 cells in group 2 (CXCR4-/SDF-1α+), 2050 ± 766 cells in group 3 (CXCR4+/SDF-1α−), and 2108 ± 426 cells in group 4 (CXCR4-/SDF-1α-). Both, the presence of SDF-1α and the expression of hCXCR4 significantly increased the migration rates (p < 0.0001). MSCs overexpressing the CXCR4 receptor by lentiviral transduction are highly attracted by medium from SDF-1α expressing fat tissue in vitro. Thus, SDF-1α activated tissue grafts may be a strategy to enhance site-specific musculoskeletal tissue regeneration.
doi:10.1002/jbm.a.34512
PMCID: PMC4056675  PMID: 23281045
MSC migration; SDF-1; CXCR4; adenovirus; lentivirus
4.  Role of direct estrogen receptor signaling in wear particle-induced osteolysis 
Biomaterials  2012;34(3):641-650.
Estrogen withdrawal following surgical ovariectomy was recently shown to mitigate particle-induced osteolysis in the murine calvarial model. Currently, we hypothesize that estrogen receptors (ERs) were involved in this paradoxical phenomenon. To test this hypothesis, we first evaluated polyethylene (PE) particle-induced osteolysis in the murine calvarial model, using wild type (WT) C57BL6J female mice, ERα deficient (ERαKO) mice, and WT mice either treated with 17β-estradiol (E2) or with the ER pan-antagonist ICI 182,780. According to micro-CT and histomorphometry, we showed that bone resorption was consistently altered in both ERαKO and ICI 182,780 treated mice as compared to WT and E2 groups. Then, we demonstrated that ER disruption consistently decreased both PE and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) particle-induced production of TNF-α by murine macrophages in vitro. Similar results were obtained following ER blockade using ICI 182,780 in RAW 264.7 and WT macrophages. ER disruption and pre treatment with ICI 182,780 resulted in a consistent down-regulation of particle-induced TNF-α mRNA expression relative to WT macrophages or untreated RAW cells. These results indicate that the response to wear particles involves estrogen receptors in female mice, as part of macrophage activation. Estrogen receptors may be considered as a future therapeutic target for particle-induced osteolysis.
doi:10.1016/j.biomaterials.2012.10.030
PMCID: PMC4035303  PMID: 23113918
Osteolysis; Wear debris; Estrogen receptor; Macrophages; Polyethylene
5.  Large capillary hemangioma of the temporal bone with a dural tail sign: A case report 
Oncology Letters  2014;8(1):183-186.
The present study reports a rare case of large capillary hemangioma of the temporal bone with a dural tail sign. A 57-year-old female presented with pulsatile tinnitus and episodic vertigo associated with a ten-year history of an intermittent faint headache. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mass in the right petrous bone, which was hypointense on T1-weighted images and heterogeneously hyperintense on T2-weighted images, and showed a dural tail sign following gadolinium administration. Pre-operatively, this tumor was believed to be a meningioma. During surgery, the vascular tumor was removed by a modified pterional approach. A histopathological examination indicated that the tumor was a capillary hemangioma. Although intraosseous capillary hemangiomas are rare, they most frequently affect the temporal bone. Hemangiomas of the temporal bone may mimic other more common basal tumors. The diagnosis is most often made during surgical resection. The dural tail sign is not specific for meningioma, as it also occurs in other intracranial or extracranial tumors. The treatment of intratemporal hemangiomas is complete surgical excision, with radiotherapy used for unresectable lesions. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the fourth case of intraosseous intracranial capillary hemangioma, but the largest intratemporal hemangioma to be reported in the literature to date.
doi:10.3892/ol.2014.2143
PMCID: PMC4063632  PMID: 24959241
capillary hemangioma; dural tail sign; intraosseous hemangioma; temporal bone
6.  Macrophage polarization in response to wear particles in vitro 
Cellular & molecular immunology  2013;10(6):10.1038/cmi.2013.39.
Total joint replacement is a highly successful surgical procedure for treatment of patients with disabling arthritis and joint dysfunction. However, over time, with high levels of activity and usage of the joint, implant wear particles are generated from the articulating surfaces. These wear particles can lead to activation of an inflammatory reaction, and subsequent bone resorption around the implant (periprosthetic osteolysis). Cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage orchestrate this chronic inflammatory response, which is dominated by a pro-inflammatory (M1) macrophage phenotype rather than an anti-inflammatory pro-tissue healing (M2) macrophage phenotype. While it has been shown that interleukin-4 (IL-4) selectively polarizes macrophages towards an M2 anti-inflammatory phenotype which promotes bone healing, rather than inflammation, little is known about the time course in which this occurs or conditions in which repolarization through IL-4 is most effective. The goal of this work was to study the time course of murine macrophage polarization and cytokine release in response to challenge with combinations of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) particles, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and IL-4 in vitro. Treatment of particle-challenged monocyte/macrophages with IL-4 led to an initial suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) production and subsequent polarization into an M2 anti-inflammatory phenotype. This result was optimized when IL-4 was delivered before PMMA particle challenge, to an M1 phenotype rather than to uncommitted (M0) macrophages. The effects of this polarization were sustained over a 5-day time course. Polarization of M1 macrophages into an M2 phenotype may be a strategy to mitigate wear particle associated periprosthetic osteolysis.
doi:10.1038/cmi.2013.39
PMCID: PMC3818297  PMID: 24013843
IL-4; macrophage polarization; osteolysis; PMMA particles; total joint replacement
7.  Macrophage polarization in response to wear particles in vitro 
Cellular and Molecular Immunology  2013;10(6):471-482.
Total joint replacement is a highly successful surgical procedure for treatment of patients with disabling arthritis and joint dysfunction. However, over time, with high levels of activity and usage of the joint, implant wear particles are generated from the articulating surfaces. These wear particles can lead to activation of an inflammatory reaction, and subsequent bone resorption around the implant (periprosthetic osteolysis). Cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage orchestrate this chronic inflammatory response, which is dominated by a pro-inflammatory (M1) macrophage phenotype rather than an anti-inflammatory pro-tissue healing (M2) macrophage phenotype. While it has been shown that interleukin-4 (IL-4) selectively polarizes macrophages towards an M2 anti-inflammatory phenotype which promotes bone healing, rather than inflammation, little is known about the time course in which this occurs or conditions in which repolarization through IL-4 is most effective. The goal of this work was to study the time course of murine macrophage polarization and cytokine release in response to challenge with combinations of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) particles, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and IL-4 in vitro. Treatment of particle-challenged monocyte/macrophages with IL-4 led to an initial suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) production and subsequent polarization into an M2 anti-inflammatory phenotype. This result was optimized when IL-4 was delivered before PMMA particle challenge, to an M1 phenotype rather than to uncommitted (M0) macrophages. The effects of this polarization were sustained over a 5-day time course. Polarization of M1 macrophages into an M2 phenotype may be a strategy to mitigate wear particle associated periprosthetic osteolysis.
doi:10.1038/cmi.2013.39
PMCID: PMC3818297  PMID: 24013843
IL-4; macrophage polarization; osteolysis; PMMA particles; total joint replacement
8.  Genetic Polymorphism of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme and Risk of Coronary Restenosis after Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasties: Evidence from 33 Cohort Studies 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(9):e75285.
Background
In the past decade, a number of cohort studies studies have been carried out to investigate the relationship between the insertion/deletion polymorphism of the gene encoding angiotensin-converting enzyme and risk of restenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasties in patients. However, these studies have yielded contradictory results. Genetic association studies addressing this issue are frequently hampered by insufficient power. We therefore performed a meta-analysis of the published studies to clarify this inconsistency and to establish a comprehensive picture of the relationship between ACE I/D polymorphism and post-PTCA restenosis risk.
Methods
Databases including Pubmed, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science, EBSCO, Cochrane Library databases and CNKI were searched to find relevant studies. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strength of association. The random-effects model was applied, addressing heterogeneity and publication bias.
Results
A total of 33 cohort studies involving 11,099 subjects were included. In a combined analysis, the OR for post-PTCA restenosis of the ACE DD genotype was 1.61 (95% CI: 1.27–2.04; P<10−5). In the subgroup analysis by intervention, significantly increased risks were also found in PTCA-stent and PTCA-balloon for the DD genotype of the polymorphism.
Conclusions
Our meta-analysis showed that the DD genotype of ACE I/D polymorphism was significantly associated with increased risk of restenosis, particularly for PTCA-stent.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0075285
PMCID: PMC3787085  PMID: 24098690
9.  Frequency of driver mutations in lung adenocarcinoma from female never-smokers varies with histological subtypes and age at diagnosis 
Clinical Cancer Research  2012;18(7):1947-1953.
Purpose
Our previous study revealed that 90% (47 of 52; 95% CI: 0.79–0.96) of Chinese never-smokers with lung adenocarcinoma harbor known oncogenic driver mutations in just four genes: EGFR, ALK, HER2, and KRAS. Here, we examined the status of known driver mutations specifically in female never-smokers with lung adenocarcinoma.
Experimental Design
Tumors were genotyped for mutations in EGFR, KRAS, ALK, HER2, and BRAF. Data on age, stage, tumor differentiation, histological subtypes, and molecular alterations were recorded from 349 resected lung adenocarcinomas from female never-smokers. We further compared the clinicopathological parameters according to mutational status of these genes.
Results
Two hundred and sixty-six (76.2%) tumors harbored EGFR mutations, 16 (4.6%) HER2 mutations, 15 (4.3%) EML4-ALK fusions, seven (2.0%) KRAS mutations, and two (0.6%) BRAF mutations. In univariate analysis, patients harboring EGFR mutations were significantly older (p<0.001), whereas patients harboring HER2 mutations were significantly younger (p=0.036). Higher prevalence of KRAS (p=0.028) and HER2 (p=0.021) mutations was found in invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma (IMA). The frequency of EGFR mutations was positively correlated with acinar predominant tumors (p=0.002). Multivariate analysis revealed that older age at diagnosis (p=0.013) and acinar predominant subtype (p=0.005) were independent predictors of EGFR mutations. Independent predictors of HER2 mutations included younger age (p=0.030) and IMA (p=0.017). IMA (p=0.006) and poor differentiation (p=0.028) were independently associated with KRAS mutations.
Conclusions
The frequency of driver mutations in never-smoking female lung adenocarcinoma varies with histological subtypes and age at diagnosis. These data have implications for both clinical trial design and therapeutic strategies.
doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-11-2511
PMCID: PMC3319848  PMID: 22317764
Lung adenocarcinoma; Female; Never smoker; EGFR mutation; HER2 mutation; Acinar; Mucinous; Age
10.  Spectrum of Oncogenic Driver Mutations in Lung Adenocarcinomas from East Asian Never Smokers 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(11):e28204.
Purpose
We previously showed that 90% (47 of 52; 95% CI, 0.79 to 0.96) of lung adenocarcinomas from East Asian never-smokers harbored well-known oncogenic mutations in just four genes: EGFR, HER2, ALK, and KRAS. Here, we sought to extend these findings to more samples and identify driver alterations in tumors negative for these mutations.
Experimental Design
We have collected and analyzed 202 resected lung adenocarcinomas from never smokers seen at Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center. Since mutations were mutually exclusive in the first 52 examined, we determined the status of EGFR, KRAS, HER2, ALK, and BRAF in stepwise fashion as previously described. Samples negative for mutations in these 5 genes were subsequently examined for known ROS1 fusions by RT-PCR and direct sequencing.
Results
152 tumors (75.3%) harbored EGFR mutations, 12 (6%) had HER2 mutations, 10 (5%) had ALK fusions all involving EML4 as the 5′ partner, 4 (2%) had KRAS mutations, and 2 (1%) harbored ROS1 fusions. No BRAF mutation were detected.
Conclusion
The vast majority (176 of 202; 87.1%, 95% CI: 0.82 to 0.91) of lung adenocarcinomas from never smokers harbor mutant kinases sensitive to available TKIs. Interestingly, patients with EGFR mutant patients tend to be older than those without EGFR mutations (58.3 Vs 54.3, P = 0.016) and patient without any known oncogenic driver tend to be diagnosed at a younger age (52.3 Vs 57.9, P = 0.013). Collectively, these data indicate that the majority of never smokers with lung adenocarcinoma could benefit from treatment with a specific tyrosine kinase inhibitor.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0028204
PMCID: PMC3227646  PMID: 22140546
11.  Lung Adenocarcinoma From East Asian Never-Smokers Is a Disease Largely Defined by Targetable Oncogenic Mutant Kinases 
Journal of Clinical Oncology  2010;28(30):4616-4620.
Purpose
To determine the proportion of lung adenocarcinomas from East Asian never-smokers who harbor known oncogenic driver mutations.
Patients and Methods
In this surgical series, 52 resected lung adenocarcinomas from never-smokers (< 100 cigarettes in a lifetime) at a single institution (Fudan University, Shanghai, China) were analyzed concurrently for mutations in EGFR, KRAS, NRAS, HRAS, HER2, BRAF, ALK, PIK3CA, TP53 and LKB1.
Results
Forty-one tumors harbored EGFR mutations, three harbored EML4-ALK fusions, two harbored HER2 insertions, and one harbored a KRAS mutation. All mutations were mutually exclusive. Thus, 90% (47 of 52; 95% CI, 0.7896 to 0.9625) of lung adenocarcinomas from never-smokers were found to harbor well-known oncogenic mutations in just four genes. No BRAF, NRAS, HRAS, or LKB1 mutations were detected, while 15 had TP53 mutations. Four tumors contained PIK3CA mutations, always together with EGFR mutations.
Conclusion
To our knowledge, this study represents the first comprehensive and concurrent analysis of major recurrent oncogenic mutations found in a large cohort of lung adenocarcinomas from East Asian never-smokers. Since drugs are now available that target mutant EGFR, HER2, and ALK, respectively, this result indicates that prospective mutation testing in these patients should successfully assign a targeted therapy in the majority of cases.
doi:10.1200/JCO.2010.29.6038
PMCID: PMC2974342  PMID: 20855837

Results 1-11 (11)