In the centrosymmetric title complex, [Fe(C18H12N5)2(H2O)2], the FeII ion, lying on an inversion centre, is coordinated by two N,N′-bidentate 5-(pyridin-2-yl)-3-[4-(pyridin-4-yl)phenyl]-1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-ide ligands and two water molecules in a trans-FeO2N4 geometry. In the ligand, the triazole ring makes dihedral angles of 5.21 (18) and 6.7 (2)°, respectively, with the adjacent pyridine and benzene rings. In the crystal, molecules are linked by O—H⋯N hydrogen bonds, generating a three-dimensional network.
The genetic diversity and the clinical relevance of the drug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from hospital settings are largely unknown. We thus conducted this prospective study to analyze the molecular epidemiology of K. pneumoniae isolates from patients being treated in the 306 Hospital in Beijing, China for the period of November 1, 2010–October 31, 2011.
Antibiotic susceptibility testing, PCR amplification and sequencing of the drug resistance-associated genes, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were conducted. A total of 163 isolates were analyzed. The percentage of MDR, XDR and PDR isolates were 63.8% (104), 20.9 (34), and 1.8% (3), respectively. MLST results showed that 60 sequence types (STs) were identified, which were further separated by eBURST into 13 clonal complexes and 18 singletons. The most dominant ST was ST15 (10.4%). Seven new alleles and 24 new STs were first identified in this study. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that certain clinical characteristics were associated with those prevalent STs such as: from ICU, from medical ward, from community acquired infection, from patients without heart disease, from patients with treatment success, susceptible to extended spectrum cephalosporin, susceptible to cephamycins, susceptible to fluoroquinolones, and with MDR.
Our data indicate that certain drug-resistant K. pneumoniae clones are highly prevalent and are associated with certain clinical characteristics in hospital settings. Our study provides evidence demonstrating that intensive nosocomial infection control measures are urgently needed.
Associations between interleukin-13 (IL-13) polymorphisms and asthma risk remained controversial and ambiguous. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to assess the associations between IL-13 polymorphisms and asthma susceptibility.
Pubmed, EMBASE, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and Wangfang databases were searched. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to calculate the strength of association in the random-effects model.
Thirty-four studies were included in this meta-analysis. The results indicated that IL13 -1112C/T polymorphism was significantly associated with asthma risk (OR = 1.20, 95% CI 1.08–1.34, P = 0.0009) in a dominant genetic model. When stratifying for race, IL13 -1112C/T polymorphism exhibited increased asthma risk in Caucasians (OR = 1.30, 95% CI 1.09–1.55, P = 0.003), while no significant association was found in Asians and African Americans. In the subgroup analysis based on atopic status, significant association was observed in atopic patients (OR = 1.25, 95% CI 1.07–1.45, P = 0.004) but not in the non-atopic patients. In addition, a significant association between IL13+2044A/G polymorphism and asthma risk was observed (OR = 1.18, 95% CI 1.08–1.28, P = 0.0002). In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, there were significant associations between IL13+2044A/G polymorphism and asthma risk in Asians (OR = 1.19, 95% CI 1.04–1.36, P = 0.01) and Caucasians (OR = 1.22, 95% CI 1.06–1.40, P = 0.005) but not in African Americans. In the subgroup analysis stratified by atopic status, a marginal significant association was found in atopic patients (OR = 1.12, 95% CI 1.00–1.26, P = 0.05).
This meta-analysis suggested that the IL13 -1112C/T and +2044A/G polymorphisms were risk factors for asthma.
AIM: To assess the impact of preoperative neoadjuvant bevacizumab (Bev) on the outcome of patients undergoing resection for colorectal liver metastases (CLM).
METHODS: Eligible trials were identified from Medline, Embase, Ovid, and the Cochrane database. The data were analyzed with fixed-effects or random-effects models using Review Manager version 5.0.
RESULTS: Thirteen nonrandomized studies with a total of 1431 participants were suitable for meta-analysis. There was no difference in overall morbidity and severe complications between the Bev + group and Bev - group (43.3% vs 36.8%, P = 0.06; 17.1% vs 11.4%, P = 0.07, respectively). Bev-related complications including wound and thromboembolic/bleeding events were also similar in the Bev + and Bev - groups (14.4% vs 8.1%, P = 0.21; 4.1% vs 3.8%, P = 0.98, respectively). The incidence and severity of sinusoidal dilation were lower in patients treated with Bev than in patients treated without Bev (43.3% vs 63.7%, P < 0.001; 16.8% vs 46.5%, P < 0.00, respectively).
CONCLUSION: Bev can be safely administered before hepatic resection in patients with CLM, and has a protective effect against hepatic injury in patients treated with oxaliplatin chemotherapy.
Colorectal cancer; Liver metastases; Bevacizumab; Postoperative complication; Sinusoidal dilatation
Langerhans cell sarcoma (LCS) typically presents as cytologic atypia and clinical aggressiveness and may involve multiple organs during the progression of the disease. Primary skin LCS without any extra-cutaneous site association is extremely rare and only a few such cases have been described in the literature. We present a case of unusual primary LCS in skin occurring in a middle-aged male patient. Physical examination revealed a large ulcerated cutaneous lesion and a smaller nodular lesion were located in the skin of the extensor side of his right knee. There was no regional lymph node or any other extra-cutaneous organ involvement. Histologically, typical large and pleomorphological tumor cells with epithelioid appearance and significantly malignant cytological features were observed to infiltrate in dermis and subcutaneous tissue. By immunohistochemistry, the tumor cells were positive for CD1a, S-100 protein and largerin strongly and diffusely. However, these cells were negative for CD3, CD20, CD21, pan-cytokeratin, HMB-45, Melan-A, and MPO. A diagnosis of primary cutaneous LCS was made. The patient received systemic chemotherapy of CHOP regimen, and was on a regular follow-up period for 12 months. There was no sign of relapse of tumor or any other extra-cutaneous organ involvement by whole body positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) study. Because LCS is a high-grade malignancy with poor prognosis, it suggests that strict histological analysis and thorough radiographic examination are necessary for accurately diagnosing this tumor even if cutaneous involvement presented only.
Langerhans cell sarcoma (LCS); Langerhans cell tumor; Cutaneous involvement; Differential diagnosis
In the centrosymmetic title complex, [Co(C18H12N5)2(H2O)2], the CoII ion is coordinated by two N,N′-bidentate 5-(pyridin-2-yl)-3-[4-(pyridin-4-yl)phenyl]-1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-ide ligands and two water molecules in a trans-CoO2N4 coordination geometry. In the ligand, the dihedral angles between the triazole ring and its adjacent pyridine and benzene rings are 5.57 (14) and 6.89 (16)°, respectively. In the crystal, molecules are linked by O—H⋯N hydrogen bonds, generating a three-dimensional network.
The adaptations of root morphology, physiology, and biochemistry to phosphorus supply have been characterized intensively. However, characterizing these adaptations at molecular level is largely neglected under field conditions. Here, two consecutive field experiments were carried out to investigate the agronomic traits and root traits of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) at six P-fertilizer rates. Root samples were collected at flowering to investigate root dry weight, root length density, arbusular-mycorrhizal colonization rate, acid phosphatase activity in rhizosphere soil, and expression levels of genes encoding phosphate transporter, phosphatase, ribonucleases, and expansin. These root traits exhibited inducible, inhibitory, or combined responses to P deficiency, and the change point for responses to P supply was at or near the optimal P supply for maximum grain yield. This research improves the understanding of mechanisms of plant adaptation to soil P in intensive agriculture and provides useful information for optimizing P management based on the interactions between soil P dynamics and root processes.
Agronomic trait; phosphatase; phosphate-starvation response; phosphate transporter; phosphorus fertilizer; root morphology; Triticum aestivum L.
Dickeya zeae is a phytopathogenic bacterium causing soft rot diseases in a wide range of economically important crops. Here we present the draft genome sequence of strain ZJU1202, which is the causal agent of rice foot rot in China. The draft genome will contribute to epidemiological and comparative genomic studies and the quarantine of this devastating phytopathogen.
We report here for the first time the genome sequence of a rearranged porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) strain, CH-IVT1, isolated from PCV2-infected PK-15 cells. The complete circular genome of the CH-IVT1 is 605 nucleotides (nt) in length. The finding will help us to understand the molecular evolution of PCV2 and the relationship between PCV2 and PCV-associated diseases.
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are enriched in individuals suffering from a given disease. Most disease-associated SNPs fall into non-coding regions, so that it is not straightforward to infer phenotype or function; moreover, many SNPs are in tight genetic linkage, so that a SNP identified as associated with a particular disease may not itself be causal, but rather signify the presence of a linked SNP that is functionally relevant to disease pathogenesis. Here, we present an analysis method that takes advantage of the recent rapid accumulation of epigenomics data to address these problems for some SNPs. Using asthma as a prototypic example; we show that non-coding disease-associated SNPs are enriched in genomic regions that function as regulators of transcription, such as enhancers and promoters. Identifying enhancers based on the presence of the histone modification marks such as H3K4me1 in different cell types, we show that the location of enhancers is highly cell-type specific. We use these findings to predict which SNPs are likely to be directly contributing to disease based on their presence in regulatory regions, and in which cell types their effect is expected to be detectable. Moreover, we can also predict which cell types contribute to a disease based on overlap of the disease-associated SNPs with the locations of enhancers present in a given cell type. Finally, we suggest that it will be possible to re-analyze GWAS studies with much higher power by limiting the SNPs considered to those in coding or regulatory regions of cell types relevant to a given disease.
Intratumoral heterogeneity reflects subclonal diversity and accounts for a variety of clinically defined phenotypes including the development of drug resistance and recurrence. However, intratumoral heterogeneity of bile duct carcinoma (BDC) is rarely studied.
Two highly heterogeneous cell lines named EH-CA1a and EH-CA1b were established from a primary tumor tissue of a pathologically proven BDC. Distinct heterogeneity and underlying mechanisms of two cell lines in karyotype, colony formation, tumorgenicity, and sensitivity to chemoradiotherapy were intensively studied.
Both cell lines showed typical morphology of cancer cells. EH-CA1a cells grew as free-floating aggregates, while EH-CA1b cells grew adherently as a monolayer. EH-CA1a cells had higher cloning efficiencies and were able to keep proliferating under hypoxic condition. Coincidentally, hypoxia-induced factor-1α (HIF1α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA were significantly higher in EH-CA1a cells than in EH-CA1b cells. Both cell lines were tumorigenic in nude mouse, however, EH-CA1a cells showed more aggressive characteristics. Most importantly, the EH-CA1a cells showed much more resistance against radiation and chemotherapy with gemcitabine. Metastasis-related genes including matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), MMP-9, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers such as Vimentin, Snail, and Twist, are more highly expressed in EH-CA1a cells than in EH-CA1b cells. Moreover, the percentage of cells expressing cancer stem cell-like marker, CD133, in EH-CA1a cells is much higher than that in EH-CA1b cells. Moreover, knockdown of CD133 in both EH-CA1a and EH-CA1b cells significantly reduced their invasive potential and increased their sensitivities to radiation and gemcitabine, suggesting the differential expression of CD133 protein may partially account for the difference in malignancy between these two cancer cells.
Establishment of these two cell lines will not only shed light on intratumoral heterogeneities of BDC, but also potentially facilitate the development of novel therapeutic approaches of BDC.
Several histone deacetylases (HDACs) are involved in the regulation of forkhead box protein P3 (FOXP3) expression and function by affecting features of FOXP3 protein stability. FOXP3, a forkhead family transcription factor specially expressed in regulatory T (Treg) cells, controls the expression of many key immune-regulatory genes. Treg cells are a population of T lymphocytes that have critical roles in the immune system homeostasis and tolerance to self and foreign antigens, the body’s response to cancer and infectious agents. FOXP3 forms oligomeric complexes with other proteins, the components of which are believed to be regulated dynamically. In addition, HDAC activities influence FOXP3 interactions with other partners to form transcriptional regulatory complexes. By understanding the details of the biochemical and structural basis of the regulation of FOXP3 acetylation, therapeutic strategies for diseases related to Treg cells may emerge.
FOXP3; acetylation; HDAC; HAT; Treg cells
Background and Objective: We detected the expression of MIF and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) in meningiomas to determine whether they are valuable recurrence predictor for meningioma.
Methods: 67 cases of meningiomas, including 57 benign tumors (WHO grade I) and 10 non-benign tumors (WHO grade II and III), were collected, and expression of MIF and MMP9 in tissue microarray was evaluated immunohistochemically. The correlations between immunostainings and clinicopathological parameters, as well as the follow-up data of patients, were analyzed statistically.
Results: Increased expressions of both MIF (58.2%, 39/67) and MMP9 (55.2%, 37/67) were significantly associated with microvessel density (MVD) of tumor, but only dual high-expression of MIF and MMP9 was in relation to tumor invasion (P=0.016) and tumor recurrence (P=0.001). Based on univariate analysis, histological grade, tumor invasion and co-expression of MIF and MMP9 were significant predictors for recurrence. However, only histological grade and co-expression of MIF and MMP9 in tumor were independent recurrence factors with a hazard ratio of 49.033 (P=0.002) and 37.766 (P=0.002) in multivariate analysis.
Conclusions: Together with histological grade, increased co-expression of MIF and MMP9 in tumor might be a valuable predictor for recurrence, especially for benign meningiomas.
Meningioma; Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF); Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9); Recurrence.
Fructus crataegi (hawthorn) is the common name of all plant species in the genus Crataegus of the Rosaceae family. In the present study, three monomers of (+)-catechin (C), (−)-epicatechin gallate (ECg) and (−)-epigallocatechin (EGC) were isolated from the hawthorn under the guide of antibacterial sensitization activity. The bioactivity of the composite fraction in enhancing the antibacterial effect of oxacillin against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was greater than that of the individual monomer of the hawthorn extract in vitro. Two-fold dilution and checkerboard methods were used to analyze antibacterial activity and screen for the combination and proportion of monomers with the best bioactivity. The result showed that C (128 mg/L) combined with ECg (16 mg/L) had the greatest effect and the combination also reduced the bacterial load in blood of septic mice challenged with a sublethal dose of MRSA, increased daunomycin accumulation within MRSA and down-regulated the mRNA expression of norA, norC and abcA, three important efflux pumps of MRSA. In summary, C and ECg enhanced the antibacterial effect of β-lactam antibiotics against MRSA in vitro and in vivo, which might be related to the increased accumulation of antibiotics within MRSA via suppression of important efflux pumps’ gene expression.
fructus crataegi; (+)-catechin; (−)-epicatechin gallate; synergistic effect; MRSA; drug accumulation
Outer membrane (OM) proteins play a significant role in bacterial pathogenesis. In this work, we examined and compared the expression of the OM proteins of the rice pathogen Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-1, a Gram-negative bacterium, both in an in vitro culture medium and in vivo rice plants. Global proteomic profiling of A. avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-1 comparing in vivo and in vitro conditions revealed the differential expression of proteins affecting the survival and pathogenicity of the rice pathogen in host plants. The shotgun proteomics analysis of OM proteins resulted in the identification of 97 proteins in vitro and 62 proteins in vivo by mass spectrometry. Among these OM proteins, there is a high number of porins, TonB-dependent receptors, lipoproteins of the NodT family, ABC transporters, flagellins, and proteins of unknown function expressed under both conditions. However, the major proteins such as phospholipase and OmpA domain containing proteins were expressed in vitro, while the proteins such as the surface anchored protein F, ATP-dependent Clp protease, OmpA and MotB domain containing proteins were expressed in vivo. This may indicate that these in vivo OM proteins have roles in the pathogenicity of A. avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-1. In addition, the LC-MS/MS identification of OmpA and MotB validated the in silico prediction of the existance of Type VI secretion system core components. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to reveal the in vitro and in vivo protein profiles, in combination with LC-MS/MS mass spectra, in silico OM proteome and in silico genome wide analysis, of pathogenicity or plant host required proteins of a plant pathogenic bacterium.
Fibroblasts are one of the most abundant cell types in connective tissues. These cells are responsible for tissue homeostasis under normal physiological conditions. When tissues are injured, fibroblasts become activated and differentiate into myofibroblasts, which generate large contractions and actively produce extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins to facilitate wound closure. Both fibroblasts and myofibroblasts play a critical role in wound healing by generating traction and contractile forces, respectively, to enhance wound contraction. This review focuses on the mechanisms of force generation in fibroblasts and myofibroblasts and techniques for measuring such cellular forces. Such a topic was chosen specifically because of the dual effects that fibroblasts/myofibroblasts have in wound healing process— a suitable amount of force generation and matrix deposition is beneficial for wound healing; excessive force and matrix production, however, result in tissue scarring and even malfunction of repaired tissues. Therefore, understanding how forces are generated in these cells and knowing exactly how much force they produce may guide the development of optimal protocols for more effective treatment of tissue wounds in clinical settings.
Fibroblasts; myofibroblasts; wounds; contraction; measurement
The aircraft cabin and flight deck ventilation are supplied from partially compressed unfiltered bleed air directly from the engine. Worn or defective engine seals can result in the release of engine oil into the cabin air supply. Aircrew and passengers have complained of illness following such “fume events”. Adverse health effects are hypothesized to result from exposure to tricresyl phosphate mixed esters, a chemical added to jet engine oil and hydraulic fluid for its anti-wear properties. Our goal was to develop a laboratory test for exposure to tricresyl phosphate. The assay was based on the fact that the active-site serine of butyrylcholinesterase reacts with the active metabolite of tri-o-cresyl phosphate, cresyl saligenin phosphate, to make a stable phosphorylated adduct with an added mass of 80 Da. No other organophosphorus agent makes this adduct in vivo on butyrylcholinesterase. Blood samples from jet airplane passengers were obtained 24–48 hours after completing a flight. Butyrylcholinesterase was partially purified from 25 ml serum or plasma, digested with pepsin, enriched for phosphorylated peptides by binding to titanium oxide, and analyzed by mass spectrometry. Of 12 jet airplane passengers tested, 6 were positive for exposure to tri-o-cresyl phosphate that is, they had detectable amounts of the phosphorylated peptide FGEpSAGAAS. The level of exposure was very low. No more than 0.05 to 3% of plasma butyrylcholinesterase was modified. None of the subjects had toxic symptoms. Four of the positive subjects were retested 3 to 7 months following their last airplane trip and were found to be negative for phosphorylated butyrylcholinesterase. In conclusion, this is the first report of an assay that detects exposure to tri-o-cresyl phosphate in jet airplane travelers.
aerotoxic syndrome; butyrylcholinesterase; mass spectrometry; tricresyl phosphate; CBDP; titanium oxide
We first report here the genome sequences of 4 rearranged porcine circovirus type 2 strains, JSTZ, ZJQDH1, ZJQDH2, and JSHM, isolated from porcine sera in China. The complete circular genomes of these isolates are 578, 483, 574, and 772 nucleotides in length, respectively. They are predicted to be defective interfering particles of porcine circovirus type 2. The findings will help us to understand molecular evolution of porcine circovirus type 2 and the relationship between porcine circovirus type 2 and diseases.
The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of combined debridement, bone graft and articular cavity sealing using synovium in the treatment of metaphyseal osteomyelitis involving the knee joint. Eleven patients with metaphyseal osteomyelitis, which involved femurs in 4 patients and tibiae in 7, were included. The patients received a novel treatment, which combined debridement, bone graft and articular cavity sealing using the synovium. Of the 11 patients, 4 patients with knee joint instability received a structural allograft and 7 with a stable knee joint underwent a particulate bone graft. The 11 patients underwent regular clinical and radiological evaluation; the average follow-up was 74 months (range, 58–96). Infection recurrence in the joint and bone graft area was not observed in 10 of the 11 cases. In one patient, who underwent a lateral granular cancellous bone allograft in the right tibial plateau, the infection recurred 2 weeks later in the graft area. The infection was arrested 3 months after re-debridement and a bilateral ilium bone graft to eliminate the dead space. Combined debridement, bone graft and articular cavity sealing using the synovium may be a feasible treatment for metaphyseal osteomyelitis involving the knee joint.
osteomyelitis; knee joint; synovium sealing; bone graft
The prevalent DNA modification in higher organisms is the methylation of cytosine to 5-methylcytosine (5mC), which is partially converted to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) by the Tet (ten eleven translocation) family of dioxygenases. Despite their importance in epigenetic regulation, it is unclear how these cytosine modifications are reversed. Here, we demonstrate that 5mC and 5hmC in DNA are oxidized to 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC) by Tet dioxygenases in vitro and in cultured cells. 5caC is specifically recognized and excised by thymine-DNA glycosylase (TDG). Depletion of TDG in mouse embyronic stem cells leads to accumulation of 5caC to a readily detectable level. These data suggest that oxidation of 5mC by Tet proteins followed by TDG-mediated base excision of 5caC constitutes a pathway for active DNA demethylation.
When injured, tendons tend to heal but with poor structure and compromised function. Tissue engineering is a promising approach to enhancing the quality of healing tendons. Our group and others have identified tendon stem cells (TSCs), a type of tendon-specific stem cells which may be optimal for cellular interventions seeking to restore normal structure and function to injured tendons. However, in vitro expanding of TSCs on regular plastic cell culture dishes only yields a limited number of TSCs before they lose the stemness, i.e., the self-renewal capability and multipotency. In this study, we developed a substrate material for TSCs, engineered tendon matrix (ETM) from decellularized tendon tissues. We showed that ETM in vitro was able to stimulate TSC proliferation and better preserve the stemness of TSCs than plastic culture surfaces. In vivo, implantation of ETM-TSC composite promoted tendon-like tissue formation whereas implantation of TSCs alone led to little such tissue formation. Together, the findings of this study indicate that ETM may be used to effectively expand TSCs in vitro and with TSCs, to enhance repair of injured tendons in vivo.
Tendon matrix; stemness; tendon stem cells; differentiation; regeneration
WUH4 is a highly pathogenic North American porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Unlike previous PRRSV isolates, which were mainly recovered from sera or tissues, WUH4 was isolated from a piglet stool sample. Here we announce its complete genome sequence.
Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the etiologic agent of porcine circovirus-associated disease. Here, we first report the complete genome sequence of PCV2 strain JSTZ, which was isolated from piglet stool samples and is highly prevalent in China. It will help in understanding the epidemiology and molecular characteristics of PCV2.