We describe here the development and characterization of a conditionally inducible mouse model expressing Lifeact-GFP, a peptide that reports the dynamics of filamentous actin. We have used this model to study platelets, megakaryocytes and melanoblasts and we provide evidence that Lifeact-GFP is a useful reporter in these cell types ex vivo. In the case of platelets and megakaryocytes, these cells are not transfectable by traditional methods, so conditional activation of Lifeact allows the study of actin dynamics in these cells live. We studied melanoblasts in native skin explants from embryos, allowing the visualization of live actin dynamics during cytokinesis and migration. Our study revealed that melanoblasts lacking the small GTPase Rac1 show a delay in the formation of new pseudopodia following cytokinesis that accounts for the previously reported cytokinesis delay in these cells. Thus, through use of this mouse model, we were able to gain insights into the actin dynamics of cells that could only previously be studied using fixed specimens or following isolation from their native tissue environment.
The methyltransferase like 3 (METTL3)-containing methyltransferase complex catalyzes the N6-methyladenosine (m6A) formation, a novel epitranscriptomic marker; however, the nature of this complex remains largely unknown. Here we report two new components of the human m6A methyltransferase complex, Wilms' tumor 1-associating protein (WTAP) and methyltransferase like 14 (METTL14). WTAP interacts with METTL3 and METTL14, and is required for their localization into nuclear speckles enriched with pre-mRNA processing factors and for catalytic activity of the m6A methyltransferase in vivo. The majority of RNAs bound by WTAP and METTL3 in vivo represent mRNAs containing the consensus m6A motif. In the absence of WTAP, the RNA-binding capability of METTL3 is strongly reduced, suggesting that WTAP may function to regulate recruitment of the m6A methyltransferase complex to mRNA targets. Furthermore, transcriptomic analyses in combination with photoactivatable-ribonucleoside-enhanced crosslinking and immunoprecipitation (PAR-CLIP) illustrate that WTAP and METTL3 regulate expression and alternative splicing of genes involved in transcription and RNA processing. Morpholino-mediated knockdown targeting WTAP and/or METTL3 in zebrafish embryos caused tissue differentiation defects and increased apoptosis. These findings provide strong evidence that WTAP may function as a regulatory subunit in the m6A methyltransferase complex and play a critical role in epitranscriptomic regulation of RNA metabolism.
WTAP; m6A methyltransferase; METTL3; METTL14; mRNA
Because of its richness and availability, micro-blogging has become an ideal platform for conducting psychological research. In this paper, we proposed to predict active users' personality traits through micro-blogging behaviors. 547 Chinese active users of micro-blogging participated in this study. Their personality traits were measured by the Big Five Inventory, and digital records of micro-blogging behaviors were collected via web crawlers. After extracting 845 micro-blogging behavioral features, we first trained classification models utilizing Support Vector Machine (SVM), differentiating participants with high and low scores on each dimension of the Big Five Inventory. The classification accuracy ranged from 84% to 92%. We also built regression models utilizing PaceRegression methods, predicting participants' scores on each dimension of the Big Five Inventory. The Pearson correlation coefficients between predicted scores and actual scores ranged from 0.48 to 0.54. Results indicated that active users' personality traits could be predicted by micro-blogging behaviors.
Abiotic stresses are major environmental factors that affect agricultural productivity worldwide. NAC transcription factors play pivotal roles in abiotic stress signaling in plants. As a staple crop, wheat production is severely constrained by abiotic stresses whereas only a few NAC transcription factors have been characterized functionally. To promote the application of NAC genes in wheat improvement by biotechnology, a novel NAC gene designated TaNAC67 was characterized in common wheat. To determine its role, transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing TaNAC67-GFP controlled by the CaMV-35S promoter was generated and subjected to various abiotic stresses for morphological and physiological assays. Gene expression showed that TaNAC67 was involved in response to drought, salt, cold and ABA treatments. Localization assays revealed that TaNAC67 localized in the nucleus. Morphological analysis indicated the transgenics had enhanced tolerances to drought, salt and freezing stresses, simultaneously supported by enhanced expression of multiple abiotic stress responsive genes and improved physiological traits, including strengthened cell membrane stability, retention of higher chlorophyll contents and Na+ efflux rates, improved photosynthetic potential, and enhanced water retention capability. Overexpression of TaNAC67 resulted in pronounced enhanced tolerances to drought, salt and freezing stresses, therefore it has potential for utilization in transgenic breeding to improve abiotic stress tolerance in crops.
In the process of organogenesis, different cell types form organized tissues and tissues are integrated into an organ. Most organs form in the developmental stage, but new organs can also form in physiological states or following injuries during adulthood. Feathers are a good model to study post-natal organogenesis because they regenerate episodically under physiological conditions and in response to injuries such as plucking. Epidermal stem cells in the collar can respond to activation signals. Dermal papilla located at the follicle base controls the regenerative process. Adhesion molecules (e.g., NCAM, tenascin), morphogens (e.g., Wnt3a, sprouty, FGF10), and differentiation markers (e.g., keratins) are expressed dynamically in initiation, growth and resting phases of the feather cycle. Epidermal cells are shaped into different feather morphologies based on the molecular micro-environment at the moment of morphogenesis. Chicken feather variants provide a rich resource for us to identify genetic determinants involved in feather regeneration and morphogenesis. An example of using genome-wide SNP analysis to identify alpha keratin 75 as the mutation in frizzled chickens is demonstrated. Due to its accessibility to experimental manipulation and observation, results of regeneration can be analyzed in a comprehensive way. The layout of time dimension along the distal (formed earlier) - proximal (formed later) feather axis makes the morphological analyses easier. Therefore feather regeneration can be a unique model for understanding organogenesis: from activation of stems cell under various physiological conditions to serving as the Rosetta stone for deciphering the language of morphogenesis.
feather; regeneration; stem cell; morphogenesis; dermal papilla; branching
(1) To report the speech perception and intelligibility results of Mandarin-speaking patients with large vestibular aqueduct syndrome (LVAS) after cochlear implantation (CI); (2) to compare their performance with a group of CI users without LVAS; (3) to understand the effects of age at implantation and duration of implant use on the CI outcomes. The obtained data may be used to guide decisions about CI candidacy and surgical timing.
Forty-two patients with LVAS participating in this study were divided into two groups: the early group received CI before 5 years of age and the late group after 5. Open-set speech perception tests (on Mandarin tones, words and sentences) were administered one year after implantation and at the most recent follow-up visit. Categories of auditory perception (CAP) and Speech Intelligibility Rating (SIR) scale scores were also obtained.
The patients with LVAS with more than 5 years of implant use (18 cases) achieved a mean score higher than 80% on the most recent speech perception tests and reached the highest level on the CAP/SIR scales. The early group developed speech perception and intelligibility steadily over time, while the late group had a rapid improvement during the first year after implantation. The two groups, regardless of their age at implantation, reached a similar performance level at the most recent follow-up visit.
High levels of speech performance are reached after 5 years of implant use in patients with LVAS. These patients do not necessarily need to wait until their hearing thresholds are higher than 90 dB HL or PB word score lower than 40% to receive CI. They can do it “earlier” when their speech perception and/or speech intelligibility do not reach the performance level suggested in this study.
Nanoparticles with tunable pharmacokinetics are desirable for various biomedical applications. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) is well known to create “stealth” effects to stabilize and extend the blood circulation of nanoparticles. In this work, poly(carboxybetaine) (PCB), a new non-fouling polymer material, was incorporated as surface-grafted coatings, conjugated onto degradable shell crosslinked knedel-like nanoparticles (dSCKs) composed of poly(acrylic acid)- based shells and poly(lactic acid) (PLA) cores, to compare the in vivo pharmacokinetics to their PEG-functionalized analogs. A series of five dSCKs was prepared from amphiphilic block copolymers, having different numbers and lengths of either PEG or PCB grafts, by supramolecular assembly in water followed by shell crosslinking, and then studied by a lactate assay to confirm their core hydrolytic degradabilities. Each dSCK was also conjugated with 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) macrocyclic chelators and tyramine moieties to provide for 64Cu and/or radiohalogen labeling. The high specific activity of 64Cu radiolabeling ensured nanogram administration of dSCKs for in vivo evaluation of their pharmacokinetics. Biodistribution studies demonstrated comparable in vivo pharmacokinetic profiles of PCB-grafted dSCKs to their PEG-conjugated counterparts. These results indicated that PCB-functionalized dSCKs have great potential as a theranostic platform for translational research.
Pharmacokinetic; biodistribution; radiolabeling; poly(carboxybetaine); poly(ethylene glycol); nanomedicine; shell crosslinked knedel-like nanoparticles
A series of functionalized aza-polycyclic aromatic compounds were prepared by a superacid-promoted ring closing and opening reaction cascade. A reaction mechanism is proposed, which involves reactive dicationic intermediates. A key step in the conversions involves ipso protonation of an aryl group and elimination of an alkyl phenyl group.
Heterocycle; Superacid; Dication; Aza-polycyclic aromatic compounds; Condensation
The actin bundling protein fascin 1 is not expressed in adult epithelial tissues, but during development it is transiently expressed in many different cell types, and later in adults it is expressed in a subset of immune cells, nervous tissues, endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells and pericytes. In contrast to the wealth of knowledge about the role of fascin 1 in cancer cell migration and invasion, little is known about the involvement of fascin 1 in angiogenesis. We speculated that as angiogenesis involves migration and invasion of tissues by endothelial cells, fascin 1 might have a role in both normal and tumour angiogenesis. Here, we provide evidence that loss of fascin 1 causes relatively minor reductions to angiogenesis during embryonic, postnatal and cancerous development by examining E12.5 hindbrains, postnatal retinas and B16F0 tumour cell allografts in fascin 1-null mice. We also find that in fascin 1 null tissues, endothelial cells display reduced filopodia formation during sprouting. We thus propose that fascin 1 expression promotes angiogenesis via filopodia formation, but is largely dispensable for both normal and tumour angiogenesis.
fascin 1; Angiogenesis
To grow precisely aligned graphene on h-BN without metal catalyst is extremely important, which allows for intriguing physical properties and devices of graphene/h-BN hetero-structure to be studied in a controllable manner. In this report, such hetero-structures were fabricated and investigated by atomic resolution scanning probe microscopy. Moiré patterns are observed and the sensitivity of moiré interferometry proves that the graphene grains can align precisely with the underlying h-BN lattice within an error of less than 0.05°. The occurrence of moiré pattern clearly indicates that the graphene locks into h-BN via van der Waals epitaxy with its interfacial stress greatly released. It is worthy to note that the edges of the graphene grains are primarily oriented along the armchair direction. The field effect mobility in such graphene flakes exceeds 20,000 cm2·V−1·s−1 at ambient condition. This work opens the door of atomic engineering of graphene on h-BN, and sheds light on fundamental research as well as electronic applications based on graphene/h-BN hetero-structure.
Recognition of sweet, bitter and umami tastes requires the non-vesicular release from taste bud cells of adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP), which acts as a neurotransmitter to activate afferent neural gustatory pathways1. However, how ATP is released to fulfill this function is not fully understood. Here we show that calcium homeostasis modulator 1 (CALHM1), a voltage-gated ion channel2,3, is indispensable for taste stimuli-evoked ATP release from sweet-, bitter- and umami-sensing taste bud cells. Calhm1 knockout mice have severely impaired perceptions of sweet, bitter and umami compounds, whereas sour and salty taste recognition remains mostly normal. Calhm1 deficiency affects taste perception without interfering with taste cell development or integrity. CALHM1 is expressed specifically in sweet/bitter/umami-sensing type II taste bud cells. Its heterologous expression induces a novel ATP permeability that releases ATP from cells in response to manipulations that activate the CALHM1 ion channel. Knockout of Calhm1 strongly reduces voltage-gated currents in type II cells and taste-evoked ATP release from taste buds without affecting the excitability of taste cells to taste stimuli. Thus, CALHM1 is a voltage-gated ATP release channel required for sweet, bitter and umami taste perception.
The aims of this study were (1) to document the recognition performance of environmental sounds (ESs) in Mandarin-speaking children with cochlear implants (CIs) and to analyze the possible associated factors with the ESs recognition; (2) to examine the relationship between perception of ESs and receptive vocabulary level; and (3) to explore the acoustic factors relevant to perceptual outcomes of daily ESs in pediatric CI users. Forty-seven prelingually deafened children between ages 4 to 10 years participated in this study. They were divided into pre-school (group A: age 4–6) and school-age (group B: age 7 to 10) groups. Sound Effects Recognition Test (SERT) and the Chinese version of the revised Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT-R) were used to assess the auditory perception ability. The average correct percentage of SERT was 61.2% in the preschool group and 72.3% in the older group. There was no significant difference between the two groups. The ESs recognition performance of children with CIs was poorer than that of their hearing peers (90% in average). No correlation existed between ESs recognition and receptive vocabulary comprehension. Two predictive factors: pre-implantation residual hearing and duration of CI usage were found to be associated with recognition performance of daily-encountered ESs. Acoustically, sounds with distinct temporal patterning were easier to identify for children with CIs. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that ESs recognition is not easy for children with CIs and a low correlation existed between linguistic sounds and ESs recognition in these subjects. Recognition ability of ESs in children with CIs can only be achieved by natural exposure to daily-encountered auditory stimuli if sounds other than speech stimuli were less emphasized in routine verbal/oral habilitation program. Therefore, task-specific measures other than speech materials can be helpful to capture the full profile of auditory perceptual progress after implantation.
Previous Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS) studies have demonstrated anti-nociceptive effects, and recent non-invasive approaches; termed transcutaneous-VNS, or t-VNS, have utilized stimulation of the auricular branch of the vagus nerve in the ear. The dorsal medullary vagal system operates in tune with respiration, and we propose that supplying vagal afferent stimulation gated to the exhalation phase of respiration can optimize t-VNS.
counterbalanced, crossover study.
patients with chronic pelvic pain (CPP) due to endometriosis in a specialty pain clinic.
We evaluated evoked pain analgesia for Respiratory-gated Auricular Vagal Afferent Nerve Stimulation (RAVANS) compared with Non-Vagal Auricular Stimulation (NVAS). RAVANS and NVAS were evaluated in separate sessions spaced at least one week apart. Outcome measures included deep tissue pain intensity, temporal summation of pain, and anxiety ratings, which were assessed at baseline, during active stimulation, immediately following stimulation, and 15 minutes after stimulus cessation.
RAVANS demonstrated a trend for reduced evoked pain intensity and temporal summation of mechanical pain, and significantly reduced anxiety in N=15 CPP patients, compared to NVAS, with moderate to large effect sizes (eta2>0.2).
Chronic pain disorders such as CPP are in great need of effective, non-pharmacological options for treatment. RAVANS produced promising anti-nociceptive effects for QST outcomes reflective of the noted hyperalgesia and central sensitization in this patient population. Future studies should evaluate longer-term application of RAVANS to examine its effects on both QST outcomes and clinical pain.
Malaria is one of the most widespread and deadly human parasitic diseases caused by the Plasmodium (P.) species with the P.falciparum being the most deadly. The parasites are capable of invading red blood cells (RBCs) during infection. At the late stage of parasites’ development, the parasites export proteins to the infected RBCs (iRBC) membrane and bind to receptors of surface proteins on the endothelial cells that line microvasculature walls. Resulting adhesion of iRBCs to microvasculature is one of the main sources of most complications during malaria infection. Therefore, it is important to develop a versatile and simple experimental method to quantitatively investigate iRBCs cytoadhesion and binding kinetics. Here, we developed an advanced flow based adhesion assay to demonstrate that iRBC’s adhesion to endothelial CD36 receptor protein coated channels is a bistable process possessing a hysteresis loop. This finding confirms a recently developed model of cell adhesion which we used to fit our experimental data. We measured the contact area of iRBC under shear flow at different stages of infection using Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence (TIRF), and also adhesion receptor and ligand binding kinetics using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). With these parameters, we reproduced in our model the experimentally observed changes in adhesion properties of iRBCs accompanying parasite maturation and investigated the main mechanisms responsible for these changes, which are the contact area during the shear flow as well as the rupture area size.
Fascins, a family of actin-bundling proteins, are expressed in a spatially and temporally restricted manner during development and often in cancer. Fascin 1 has a clear role in cell migration in vitro, but its role in vivo in mammals is not well understood. Here, we investigate the role of fascin 1 in the melanocyte lineage and in melanoma cells. Fascin 1 knockout causes hypopigmentation in adult mice owing to migration and cell cycle progression defects in melanoblasts, the melanocyte precursor cell. Study of live embryo skin explants reveals that E14.5 fascin 1-null melanoblasts migrate slower, and generate fewer and thinner pseudopods. By contrast, fascin 1 expression drives faster migration and lamellipodia protrusion in melanocytes in vitro. In addition, fascin 1 depletion retards melanoblast proliferation in vivo and melanoma cell growth in vitro. These data indicate that fascin 1 not only promotes cell migration in mouse melanocytes but it also has a role in growth and cell cycle progression.
Fascin 1 (Fscn1); Melanoblast; Migration; Mouse
N-WASP is critical for cancer cell invasion through its promotion of the trafficking and capture of MT1-MMP in invasive pseudopods.
Metastasizing tumor cells use matrix metalloproteases, such as the transmembrane collagenase MT1-MMP, together with actin-based protrusions, to break through extracellular matrix barriers and migrate in dense matrix. Here we show that the actin nucleation–promoting protein N-WASP (Neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein) is up-regulated in breast cancer, and has a pivotal role in mediating the assembly of elongated pseudopodia that are instrumental in matrix degradation. Although a role for N-WASP in invadopodia was known, we now show how N-WASP regulates invasive protrusion in 3D matrices. In actively invading cells, N-WASP promoted trafficking of MT1-MMP into invasive pseudopodia, primarily from late endosomes, from which it was delivered to the plasma membrane. Upon MT1-MMP’s arrival at the plasma membrane in pseudopodia, N-WASP stabilized MT1-MMP via direct tethering of its cytoplasmic tail to F-actin. Thus, N-WASP is crucial for extension of invasive pseudopods into which MT1-MMP traffics and for providing the correct cytoskeletal framework to couple matrix remodeling with protrusive invasion.
Plasmodium falciparum infection of human erythrocytes is known to result in the modification of the host cell cytoskeleton by parasite-coded proteins. However, such modifications and corresponding implications in malaria pathogenesis have not been fully explored. Here, we probed the gradual modification of infected erythrocyte cytoskeleton with advancing stages of infection using atomic force microscopy (AFM). We reported a novel strategy to derive accurate and quantitative information on the knob structures and their connections with the spectrin network by performing AFM–based imaging analysis of the cytoplasmic surface of infected erythrocytes. Significant changes on the red cell cytoskeleton were observed from the expansion of spectrin network mesh size, extension of spectrin tetramers and the decrease of spectrin abundance with advancing stages of infection. The spectrin network appeared to aggregate around knobs but also appeared sparser at non-knob areas as the parasite matured. This dramatic modification of the erythrocyte skeleton during the advancing stage of malaria infection could contribute to the loss of deformability of the infected erythrocyte.
The mythological story of the Golden Fleece symbolizes the magical regenerative power of skin appendages. Similar to the adventurous pursuit of the Golden Fleece by the multi-talented Argonauts, today we also need an integrated multi-disciplined approach to understand the cellular and molecular processes during development, regeneration and evolution of skin appendages. To this end, we have explored several aspects of skin appendage biology that contribute to the Turing activator / inhibitor model in feather pattern formation, the topo-biological arrangement of stem cells in organ shape determination, the macro-environmental regulation of stem cells in regenerative hair waves, and potential novel molecular pathways in the morphological evolution of feathers. Here we show our current integrative biology efforts to unravel the complex cellular behavior in patterning stem cells and the control of regional specificity in skin appendages. We use feather / scale tissue recombination to demonstrate the timing control of competence and inducibility. Feathers from different body regions are used to study skin regional specificity. Bioinformatic analyses of transcriptome microarrays show the potential involvement of candidate molecular pathways. We further show Hox genes exhibit some region specific expression patterns. To visualize real time events, we applied time-lapse movies, confocal microscopy and multiphoton microscopy to analyze the morphogenesis of cultured embryonic chicken skin explants. These modern imaging technologies reveal unexpectedly complex cellular flow and organization of extracellular matrix molecules in three dimensions. While these approaches are in preliminary stages, this perspective highlights the challenges we face and new integrative tools we will use. Future work will follow these leads to develop a systems biology view and understanding in the morphogenetic principles that govern the development and regeneration of ectodermal organs.
feathers; hairs; systems biology; stem cells; regeneration; microarray analyses; imaging; multiphoton microscopy; regional specificity
Pseudomonas stutzeri T13 is a highly efficient aerobic denitrifying bacterium. Information about the genome of this aerobic denitrifying bacterium has been limited until now. We present the draft genome of P. stutzeri T13. The results could provide further insight into the aerobic denitrification mechanism in strain T13.
Pseudomonas psychrophila HA-4 is a cold-adaptable, sulfamethoxazole-degrading bacterium. The genes related to its cold adaptation mechanism and sulfamethoxazole metabolism were unknown. We present the draft genome of strain HA-4. It could provide further insight into the sulfamethoxazole-degrading mechanism of strain HA-4.
Lowering intraocular pressure (IOP) is currently the only strategy documented to slow the onset and progression of glaucomatous blindness. Ouabain, a cardiotonic glycoside inhibitor of Na+, K+-activated ATPase, was recently reported to enhance outflow facility in porcine anterior segments at concentrations as low as 30 nM for ≥ 4 hrs, suggesting a novel approach to lowering IOP. The underlying mechanism is unknown, but associated cytoskeletal changes were observed in porcine trabecular meshwork cells. We have previously found that changes in ATP release and subsequent ectoenzymatic conversion to adenosine may play a role in linking cytoskeletal remodeling with modulation of outflow resistance. We now tested whether altered ATP release might also be a mediator of ouabain’s effect on outflow facility. ATP release from transformed human TM5 and explant-derived human trabecular meshwork cells was measured by the luciferin-luciferase reaction. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were studied by zymography, cell Na+concentration by SBFI fluorometry, gene expression of ATP-release pathways by real-time PCR, cell volume by electronic cell sorting and cell viability by the LDH and MTT methods. Actin was examined by confocal microscopy of phalloidin-stained cells. Contrary to expectation, ouabain at concentrations ≥ 10 nM inhibited swelling-triggered ATP release from TM5 cells after ≥ 4 hrs of exposure. Inhibition was enhanced by increasing ouabain concentration and exposure time. Similar effects were produced by the reversible cardiac aglycone strophanthidin. Ouabain also inhibited swelling-activated ATP release from explant-derived native human TM cells. Ouabain (4 hrs, 30 nM and 100 nM) did not alter gene expression of the ATP-release pathways, and cell viability was unchanged by exposure to ouabain (30 nM to 1 μM). Preincubation with 30 nM ouabain for 4 hrs did not detectably change Na+ level, the regulatory volume decrease (RVD) or the actin cytoskeleton of TM5 cells, but did inhibit hypotonicity-elicited ATP release. Moreover, even when N-methyl-D-glucose replaced Na+in the extracellular fluid, ouabain still inhibited swelling-initiated ATP release at 100 nM. In the absence of ouabain, extracellular ATP stimulated MMP secretion, which was largely blocked by inhibiting conversion of ATP to adenosine, as expected. In contrast, ouabain reduced ATP release, but did not alter secretion of MMP-2 and MMP-9 from cells pretreated for ≤4 hrs. The results suggest that: (1) ouabain can trigger enhancement of outflow facility independent of its transport and actin-restructuring effects exerted at higher concentration and longer duration; (2) ouabain exerts parallel independent effects on ATP release and outflow facility; and (3) these effects likely reflect ouabain-induced changes in the scaffolding and/or signaling functions of Na+, K+-activated ATPase.
ATP release; adenosine; matrix metalloproteinase; Na+, K+-activated ATPase; cytoskeleton
Harnessing community intelligence in knowledge curation bears significant promise in dealing with communication and education in the flood of scientific knowledge. As knowledge is accumulated at ever-faster rates, scientific nomenclature, a particular kind of knowledge, is concurrently generated in all kinds of fields. Since nomenclature is a system of terms used to name things in a particular discipline, accurate translation of scientific nomenclature in different languages is of critical importance, not only for communications and collaborations with English-speaking people, but also for knowledge dissemination among people in the non-English-speaking world, particularly young students and researchers. However, it lacks of accuracy and standardization when translating scientific nomenclature from English to other languages, especially for those languages that do not belong to the same language family as English. To address this issue, here we propose for the first time the application of community intelligence in scientific nomenclature management, namely, harnessing collective intelligence for translation of scientific nomenclature from English to other languages. As community intelligence applied to knowledge curation is primarily aided by wiki and Chinese is the native language for about one-fifth of the world’s population, we put the proposed application into practice, by developing a wiki-based English-to-Chinese Scientific Nomenclature Dictionary (ESND; http://esnd.big.ac.cn). ESND is a wiki-based, publicly editable and open-content platform, exploiting the whole power of the scientific community in collectively and collaboratively managing scientific nomenclature. Based on community curation, ESND is capable of achieving accurate, standard, and comprehensive scientific nomenclature, demonstrating a valuable application of community intelligence in knowledge curation.
“Click” chemistry is a library of efficient and reliable reactions, which have been used to functionalize various classes of bio- and synthetic macromolecular systems for the incorporation of designed properties and functions. In this report, azide-alkyne Huisgen cycloaddition and thiol-yne reactions, two classical “click” chemistries, were employed to functionalize biodegradable, clickable polyphosphoester homopolymers and their water-soluble copolymers. A stable alkyne-functionalized phospholane monomer was synthesized, its organocatalyzed polymerization kinetics were evaluated, and the resulting (co)polymers were utilized to develop this facile method that provides the synthesis of clickable, water-soluble and degradable polyphosphoesters, which can be adapted for various applications.
Laparoscopic partial gastrectomy without lymph node dissection has been accepted worldwide for the treatment of small gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). However, the role of laparoscopic surgery in the treatment of large gastric GISTs remains under debate due to the risk of tumor spillage or rupture of the tumor capsule leading to peritoneal seeding. To the best of our knowledge, one-stage laparoscopic resection for a large gastric GIST and synchronous liver metastases following preoperative imatinib therapy has not been previously reported. Here, we present our initial experience of this method of treatment.
gastrointestinal stromal tumor; laparoscopic; imatinib; preoperative therapy
Although the treatment technology of sulfamethoxazole has been investigated widely, there are various issues such as the high cost, inefficiency, and secondary pollution which restricted its application. Bioflocculant, as a novel method, is proposed to improve the removal efficiency of PPCPs, which has an advantage over other methods. Bioflocculant MFX, composed by high polymer polysaccharide and protein, is the metabolism product generated and secreted by Klebsiella sp. In this paper, MFX is added to 1 mg/L sulfanilamide aqueous solution substrate, and the removal ratio is evaluated. According to literatures review, for MFX absorption of sulfanilamide, flocculant dosage, coagulant-aid dosage, pH, reaction time, and temperature are considered as influence parameters. The result shows that the optimum condition is 5 mg/L bioflocculant MFX, 0.5 mg/L coagulant aid, initial pH 5, and 1 h reaction time, and the removal efficiency could reach 67.82%. In this condition, MFX could remove 53.27% sulfamethoxazole in domestic wastewater, and the process obeys Freundlich equation. R2 value equals 0.9641. It is inferred that hydrophobic partitioning is an important factor in determining the adsorption capacity of MFX for sulfamethoxazole solutes in water; meanwhile, some chemical reaction probably occurs.