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1.  Professional Characteristics and Job Satisfaction Among SGIM Members: A Comparison of Part-time and Full-time Physician Members 
Journal of General Internal Medicine  2008;23(8):1218-1221.
BACKGROUND
As more physicians work part-time (PT), the faculty, institutions, and organizations that represent them should understand the factors that motivate and satisfy these physicians.
OBJECTIVE
Compare factors associated with job satisfaction among PT and full-time (FT) academic physicians.
DESIGN
Cross-sectional survey.
PARTICIPANTS
Members of the Society of General Internal Medicine (SGIM), a national, academic Internal Medicine organization.
RESULTS
Fifty percent (1,396 of 2,772) of SGIM members responded, 11% work PT. Compared to FT, PT physicians were more often female (85% vs 38%, p < .001), clinicians (Cs) or clinician–educators (CEs) (84% vs 56%, p < .001), and of a lower rank (77% vs 61%, p = .001). Job satisfaction was similar between PT and FT Cs and CEs. For PT Cs and CEs, record of publication (11% vs 21%, p = .04) and local and national recognition (24% vs 36%, p = .03) were less important to overall job satisfaction compared to FT Cs and CEs. In multivariate analysis, academic rank (odds ratio [OR] = 7.18, 95%CI = 1.40–36.50) was associated with higher satisfaction among PT Cs and CEs.
CONCLUSIONS
PT and FT C and CE SGIM members report similar satisfaction, but different factors contribute to satisfaction. Knowing what motivates and satisfies PT physicians may allow medical centers to retain faculty and create positions to help them to fulfill their potential.
doi:10.1007/s11606-008-0635-8
PMCID: PMC2517960  PMID: 18483832
Part-time careers; academic medicine; physician satisfaction
2.  Impact of Duty Hour Regulations on Medical Students’ Education: Views of Key Clinical Faculty 
Journal of General Internal Medicine  2008;23(7):1084-1089.
BACKGROUND
Teaching faculty have valuable perspectives on the impact of residency duty hour regulations on medical students.
OBJECTIVE
The objective of this study was to elicit faculty views on the impact of residency duty hour regulations on medical students’ educational experience on inpatient medicine rotations.
DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS
We conducted a National Survey of Key Clinical Faculty (KCF) at 40 internal medicine residency programs affiliated with U.S. medical schools using a random sample stratified by National Institutes of Health funding and program size.
MEASUREMENTS
This study measures KCF opinions on the effect of duty hour regulations on students’ education.
RESULTS
Of 154 KCF targeted, 111 responded (72%). Fifty-two percent of KCF reported worsening in the overall quality of students’ education compared to just 2.7% reporting improvement (p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis adjusted for gender, academic rank, specialty, and years of teaching experience, faculty who spent ≥15 hours per week teaching were more likely to report worsening in medical students’ level of responsibility on inpatient teams [odds ratio (OR) 3.1; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3–7.6], ability to follow patients throughout hospitalization (OR 3.2; 95% CI 1.3–7.9), ability to develop working relationships with residents (OR 2.3; 95% CI 1.0–5.2), and the overall quality of students’ education (OR 3.3; 95% CI 1.4–8.1) compared to faculty who spent less time teaching.
CONCLUSION
Key clincal faculty report concerns about the impact of duty hour regulations on aspects of medical students’ education in internal medicine. Medical schools and residency programs should identify ways to ensure optimal educational experiences for students within duty hour requirements.
doi:10.1007/s11606-008-0532-1
PMCID: PMC2517919  PMID: 18612749
medical students; residents; duty hours; key clinical faculty; internal medicine
3.  Part-Time Physicians…Prevalent, Connected, and Satisfied 
Objective
The health care workforce is evolving and part-time practice is increasing. The objective of this work is to determine the relationship between part-time status, workplace conditions, and physician outcomes.
Design
Minimizing error, maximizing outcome (MEMO) study surveyed generalist physicians and their patients in the upper Midwest and New York City.
Measurements and Main Results
Physician survey of stress, burnout, job satisfaction, work control, intent to leave, and organizational climate. Patient survey of satisfaction and trust. Responses compared by part-time and full-time physician status; 2-part regression analyses assessed outcomes associated with part-time status. Of 751 physicians contacted, 422 (56%) participated. Eighteen percent reported part-time status (n = 77, 31% of women, 8% of men, p < .001). Part-time physicians reported less burnout (p < .01), higher satisfaction (p < .001), and greater work control (p < .001) than full-time physicians. Intent to leave and assessments of organizational climate were similar between physician groups. A survey of 1,795 patients revealed no significant differences in satisfaction and trust between part-time and full-time physicians.
Conclusions
Part-time is a successful practice style for physicians and their patients. If favorable outcomes influence career choice, an increased demand for part-time practice is likely to occur.
doi:10.1007/s11606-008-0514-3
PMCID: PMC2359480  PMID: 18214623
physicians; workplace; part-time; work hours
4.  Predictive Validity Evidence for Medical Education Research Study Quality Instrument Scores: Quality of Submissions to JGIM’s Medical Education Special Issue 
Background
Deficiencies in medical education research quality are widely acknowledged. Content, internal structure, and criterion validity evidence support the use of the Medical Education Research Study Quality Instrument (MERSQI) to measure education research quality, but predictive validity evidence has not been explored.
Objective
To describe the quality of manuscripts submitted to the 2008 Journal of General Internal Medicine (JGIM) medical education issue and determine whether MERSQI scores predict editorial decisions.
Design and Participants
Cross-sectional study of original, quantitative research studies submitted for publication.
Measurements
Study quality measured by MERSQI scores (possible range 5–18).
Results
Of 131 submitted manuscripts, 100 met inclusion criteria. The mean (SD) total MERSQI score was 9.6 (2.6), range 5–15.5. Most studies used single-group cross-sectional (54%) or pre-post designs (32%), were conducted at one institution (78%), and reported satisfaction or opinion outcomes (56%). Few (36%) reported validity evidence for evaluation instruments. A one-point increase in MERSQI score was associated with editorial decisions to send manuscripts for peer review versus reject without review (OR 1.31, 95%CI 1.07–1.61, p = 0.009) and to invite revisions after review versus reject after review (OR 1.29, 95%CI 1.05–1.58, p = 0.02). MERSQI scores predicted final acceptance versus rejection (OR 1.32; 95% CI 1.10–1.58, p = 0.003). The mean total MERSQI score of accepted manuscripts was significantly higher than rejected manuscripts (10.7 [2.5] versus 9.0 [2.4], p = 0.003).
Conclusions
MERSQI scores predicted editorial decisions and identified areas of methodological strengths and weaknesses in submitted manuscripts. Researchers, reviewers, and editors might use this instrument as a measure of methodological quality.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11606-008-0664-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s11606-008-0664-3
PMCID: PMC2517948  PMID: 18612715
medical education research; research quality; research methods
5.  Personal Growth During Internship: A Qualitative Analysis of Interns' Responses to Key Questions 
BACKGROUND
During clinical training, house officers frequently encounter intense experiences that may affect their personal growth. The purpose of this study was to explore processes related to personal growth during internship.
DESIGN
Prospective qualitative study conducted over the course of internship.
PARTICIPANTS
Thirty-two postgraduate year (PGY)-1 residents from 9 U.S. internal medicine training programs.
APPROACH
Every 8 weeks, interns responded by e-mail to an open-ended question related to personal growth. Content analysis methods were used to analyze the interns' writings to identify triggers, facilitators, and barriers related to personal growth.
RESULTS
Triggers for personal growth included caring for critically ill or dying patients, receiving feedback, witnessing unprofessional behavior, experiencing personal problems, and dealing with the increased responsibility of internship. Facilitators of personal growth included supportive relationships, reflection, and commitment to core values. Fatigue, lack of personal time, and overwhelming work were barriers to personal growth. The balance between facilitators and barriers may dictate the extent to which personal growth occurs.
CONCLUSIONS
Efforts to support personal growth during residency training include fostering supportive relationships, encouraging reflection, and recognizing interns' core values especially in association with powerful triggers.
doi:10.1111/j.1525-1497.2006.00383.x
PMCID: PMC1924625  PMID: 16808737
graduate medical education; personal growth; qualitative research
6.  Letters to the Editor 
doi:10.1111/j.1525-1497.2006.00286.x
PMCID: PMC1484722  PMID: 16686827
7.  Completing a Scholarly Project During Residency Training 
BACKGROUND
Resident research has potential benefits and scholarly activity is an internal medicine residency training requirement. This study sought to learn about the resources needed and the barriers to performing scholarly work during residency from residents who had been successful.
METHODS
A questionnaire was delivered to 138 internal medicine residents presenting their work at the 2002 American College of Physicians-American Society of Internal Medicine annual session. Residents were asked to comment on why they had participated in a scholarly project, the skills and resources needed to complete the project, as well as the barriers. Comparisons were made between residents who presented a research abstract and those who exhibited a clinical vignette.
RESULTS
Seventy-three residents (53%) completed the questionnaire. Thirty-nine residents presented a clinical vignette and 34 displayed a research abstract. Residents participated in research for a variety of reasons, including intellectual curiosity (73%), career development (60%), and to fulfill a mandatory scholarly activity requirement at their residency program (32%). The most common barriers were insufficient time (79%), inadequate research skills (45%), and lack of a research curriculum (44%). Residents who had presented research abstracts devoted more time (median, 200 vs 50 hours; P<.05) to their project than those who exhibited clinical vignettes. Sixty-nine percent of residents thought research should be a residency requirement.
CONCLUSIONS
The majority of respondents reported that their scholarly project was a worthwhile experience despite considerable barriers. Teaching research skills more explicitly with a focused curriculum and providing adequate protected time may enable residents to be successful.
doi:10.1111/j.1525-1497.2005.04157.x
PMCID: PMC1490090  PMID: 15857496
resident research; ACGME; graduate medical education
8.  Resident Research and Scholarly Activity in Internal Medicine Residency Training Programs 
OBJECTIVES
1) To describe how internal medicine residency programs fulfill the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) scholarly activity training requirement including the current context of resident scholarly work, and 2) to compare findings between university and nonuniversity programs.
DESIGN
Cross-sectional mailed survey.
SETTING
ACGME-accredited internal medicine residency programs.
PARTICIPANTS
Internal medicine residency program directors.
MEASUREMENTS
Data were collected on 1) interpretation of the scholarly activity requirement, 2) support for resident scholarship, 3) scholarly activities of residents, 4) attitudes toward resident research, and 5) program characteristics. University and nonuniversity programs were compared.
MAIN RESULTS
The response rate was 78%. Most residents completed a topic review with presentation (median, 100%) to fulfill the requirement. Residents at nonuniversity programs were more likely to complete case reports (median, 40% vs 25%; P =.04) and present at local or regional meetings (median, 25% vs 20%; P =.01), and were just as likely to conduct hypothesis-driven research (median, 20% vs 20%; P =.75) and present nationally (median, 10% vs 5%; P =.10) as residents at university programs. Nonuniversity programs were more likely to report lack of faculty mentors (61% vs 31%; P <.001) and resident interest (55% vs 40%; P =.01) as major barriers to resident scholarship. Programs support resident scholarship through research curricula (47%), funding (46%), and protected time (32%).
CONCLUSIONS
Internal medicine residents complete a variety of projects to fulfill the scholarly activity requirement. Nonuniversity programs are doing as much as university programs in meeting the requirement and supporting resident scholarship despite reporting significant barriers.
doi:10.1111/j.1525-1497.2005.40270.x
PMCID: PMC1490049  PMID: 15836549
ACGME; resident research; medical education; national survey
9.  Outcomes of a National Faculty Development Program in Teaching Skills 
Journal of General Internal Medicine  2004;19(12):1220-1228.
BACKGROUND
Awareness of the need for ambulatory care teaching skills training for clinician-educators is increasing. A recent Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA)-funded national initiative trained 110 teams from U.S. teaching hospitals to implement local faculty development (FD) in teaching skills.
OBJECTIVE
To assess the rate of successful implementation of local FD initiatives by these teams.
METHODS
A prospective observational study followed the 110 teams for up to 24 months. Self-reported implementation, our outcome, was defined as the time from the training conference until the team reported that implementation of their FD project was completely accomplished. Factors associated with success were assessed using Kaplan-Meier analysis.
RESULTS
The median follow-up was 18 months. Fifty-nine of the teams (54%) implemented their local FD project and subsequently trained over 1,400 faculty, of whom over 500 were community based. Teams that implemented their FD projects were more likely than those that did not to have the following attributes: met more frequently (P=.001), had less turnover (P=.01), had protected time (P=.01), rated their likelihood of success high (P=.03), had some project or institutional funding for FD (P=.03), and came from institutions with more than 75 department of medicine faculty (P=.03). The cost to the HRSA wwas $22,033 per successful team and $533 per faculty member trained.
CONCLUSIONS
This national initiative was able to disseminate teaching skills training to large numbers of faculty at modest cost. Smaller teaching hospitals may have limited success without additional support or targeted funding.
doi:10.1111/j.1525-1497.2004.40130.x
PMCID: PMC1492589  PMID: 15610333
continuing education; medical education; medical faculty; prospective study
10.  Teaching the Teachers 
OBJECTIVE
To determine the prevalence, topics, methods, and intensity of ongoing faculty development (FD) in teaching skills.
DESIGN
Mailed survey.
PARTICIPANTS
Two hundred and seventy-seven of the 386 (72%) U.S. teaching hospitals with internal medicine residency programs.
MEASUREMENTS
Prevalence and characteristics of ongoing FD.
RESULTS
One hundred and eight teaching hospitals (39%) reported ongoing FD. Hospitals with a primary medical school affiliation (university hospitals) were more likely to have ongoing FD than nonuniversity hospitals. For nonuniversity hospitals, funding from the Health Resources Services Administration and >50 house staff were associated with ongoing FD. For university hospitals, >100 department of medicine faculty was associated. Ongoing programs included a mean of 10.4 topics (standard deviation, 5.4). Most offered half-day workshops (80%), but 22% offered ≥1-month programs. Evaluations were predominantly limited to postcourse evaluations forms. Only 14% of the hospitals with ongoing FD (5% of all hospitals) had “advanced” programs, defined as offering ≥10 topics, lasting >2 days, and using ≥3 experiential teaching methods. These were significantly more likely to be university hospitals and to offer salary support and/or protected time to their FD instructors. Generalists and hospital-based faculty were more likely to receive training than subspecialist and community-based faulty. Factors facilitating participation in FD activities were supervisor attitudes, FD expertise, and institutional culture.
CONCLUSIONS
A minority of U.S. teaching hospitals offer ongoing faculty development in teaching skills. Continued progress will likely require increased institutional commitment, improved evaluations, and adequate resources, particularly FD instructors and funding.
doi:10.1111/j.1525-1497.2004.30334.x
PMCID: PMC1492160  PMID: 15009774
faculty development; teaching skills; survey

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