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1.  Missed Opportunities for Concurrent HIV-STD Testing in an Academic Emergency Department 
Public Health Reports  2014;129(Suppl 1):12-20.
Objectives
We evaluated emergency department (ED) provider adherence to guidelines for concurrent HIV-sexually transmitted disease (STD) testing within an expanded HIV testing program and assessed demographic and clinical factors associated with concurrent HIV-STD testing.
Methods
We examined concurrent HIV-STD testing in a suburban academic ED with a targeted, expanded HIV testing program. Patients aged 18–64 years who were tested for syphilis, gonorrhea, or chlamydia in 2009 were evaluated for concurrent HIV testing. We analyzed demographic and clinical factors associated with concurrent HIV-STD testing using multivariate logistic regression with a robust variance estimator or, where applicable, exact logistic regression.
Results
Only 28.3% of patients tested for syphilis, 3.8% tested for gonorrhea, and 3.8% tested for chlamydia were concurrently tested for HIV during an ED visit. Concurrent HIV-syphilis testing was more likely among younger patients aged 25–34 years (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.36, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.78, 2.10) and patients with STD-related chief complaints at triage (AOR=11.47, 95% CI 5.49, 25.06). Concurrent HIV-gonorrhea/chlamydia testing was more likely among men (gonorrhea: AOR=3.98, 95% CI 2.25, 7.02; chlamydia: AOR=3.25, 95% CI 1.80, 5.86) and less likely among patients with STD-related chief complaints at triage (gonorrhea: AOR=0.31, 95% CI 0.13, 0.82; chlamydia: AOR=0.21, 95% CI 0.09, 0.50).
Conclusions
Concurrent HIV-STD testing in an academic ED remains low. Systematic interventions that remove the decision-making burden of ordering an HIV test from providers may increase HIV testing in this high-risk population of suspected STD patients.
PMCID: PMC3862983  PMID: 24385644
2.  Integrated Screening for Tuberculosis and HIV in Tuberculosis Contact Investigations: Lessons Learned in North Carolina 
Public Health Reports  2014;129(Suppl 1):21-25.
Combating the syndemics of tuberculosis (TB) and HIV in the United States will require increasing efficiency as the incidence of TB declines. Fortunately, new tools such as the interferon gamma release assays can be combined with existing strategies such as opt-out HIV testing to facilitate simultaneous, integrated testing for both infections. We describe the lessons learned from our experience with integrated testing for TB and HIV in the setting of TB contact investigations in North Carolina. Integrated testing represents a unique opportunity to leverage TB and HIV program resources to enhance case detection and improve linkages to care. However, joint training in field investigations and diagnostics is critical prior to conducting contact investigations. Furthermore, integrated testing must be tightly coupled to treatment and prevention programs to reduce disease transmission and morbidity from untreated disease in communities.
PMCID: PMC3862984  PMID: 24385645
3.  Sexual Networks, Surveillance, and Geographical Space during Syphilis Outbreaks in Rural North Carolina 
Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.)  2012;23(6):845-851.
Background
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) spread along sexual networks whose structural characteristics promote transmission that routine surveillance may not capture. Cases who have partners from multiple localities may operate as spatial network bridges, thereby facilitating geographical dissemination. We investigated the relationships between surveillance, sexual networks, and spatial bridges for syphilis outbreaks in rural counties of North Carolina.
Methods
We selected from the state health department’s surveillance database cases diagnosed with primary, secondary, or early latent syphilis during October 1998 - December 2002 residing in central and southeastern North Carolina, along with their sex partners, and their social contacts irrespective of infection status. We applied matching algorithms to eliminate duplicate names and create a unique roster of partnerships from which networks were compiled and graphed. Network members were differentiated by disease status and county of residence.
Results
In the county most affected by the outbreak, densely connected networks indicative of STI outbreaks were consistent with elevated incidence and a large case load. In other counties, the case loads were low with fluctuating incidence, but network structures suggested the presence of outbreaks. In a county with stable, low incidence and a high number of cases, the networks were sparse and dendritic, indicative of endemic spread. Outbreak counties exhibited densely connected networks within well-defined geographic boundaries and low connectivity between counties; spatial bridges did not seem to facilitate transmission.
Conclusions
Simple visualization of sexual networks can provide key information to identify communities most in need of resources for outbreak investigation and disease control.
doi:10.1097/EDE.0b013e31826c2b7e
PMCID: PMC4074028  PMID: 23007041
4.  Response to Therapy Following Retreatment of Serofast Early Syphilis Patients With Benzathine Penicillin 
Persistent nontreponemal titers after treatment are common among patients with early syphilis. We retreated 82 human immunodeficiency virus–negative early syphilis participants who were serofast at 6 months using benzathine penicillin. Only 27% exhibited serological response after retreatment and after an additional 6 months of follow-up.
doi:10.1093/cid/cis918
PMCID: PMC3590030  PMID: 23118269
syphilis; serofast; retreatment; serological response
5.  Investigating A Sexual Network of Black Men Who Have Sex with Men: Implications for Transmission and Prevention of HIV Infection in the United States 
Background
HIV infections increased 48% among young, Black men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States between 2006–2009. Incomplete understanding of this trend undermines prevention strategy development. We investigated a sexual network to characterize the risk environment in which young, Black MSM acquire HIV.
Methods
Persons reported to the state following diagnosis of HIV or syphilis were included, along with sexual partners. We used network mapping alongside descriptive and bivariate statistics to characterize network connections. Generalized linear models assessed predictors of having untraceable sex partners.
Results
The network included 398 individuals and 419 sexual relationships. Three-quarters were Black (n=299); 92% were MSM. Median age at first network appearance was 26 years and decreased over time (P<0.001). HIV prevalence was at least 29% (n=117); serostatus was unknown for 47% of the network, either because they were untraceable (n=150) or refused HIV testing (n=39). One in 5 network members diagnosed with HIV had a subsequent incident sexually transmitted infection. In multivariable models, one-time encounters increased the risk of having an untraceable partner (risk ratio 4.51, 95% CI, 2.27, 8.97), while being acutely HIV infected at diagnosis reduced it (RR 0.27, 95% CI, 0.08, 0.89).
Conclusions
HIV prevalence in this sexual network of young, Black MSM rivals that of sub-Saharan Africa, reflecting dramatically increased risk of acquiring HIV from the moment one entered the network. Prevention efforts for this population must consider the effect of sexual networks on HIV risk, and find ways of leveraging network structure to reduce transmission.
doi:10.1097/QAI.0b013e31827076a4
PMCID: PMC3494769  PMID: 22972020
HIV; African-American; men who have sex with men; sexual networks
6.  The Association Between Oral Contraceptives, Depot-Medroxyprogesterone Acetate, and Trichomoniasis 
Sexually transmitted diseases  2009;36(6):336-340.
Background
Hormonal contraception use by women may increase the risk of acquiring certain sexually transmitted infections. We explored the effect of hormonal contraceptive use, specifically oral contraception (OC), and depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) on Trichomonas vaginalis infections in women.
Methods
We examined data from a prospective case–control study of women with trichomoniasis and noninfected female patients recruited from 3 public sexually transmitted disease clinics. Women with positive wet mount microscopy or T. vaginalis culture results were classified as having trichomoniasis. Participants underwent physical examinations, sexually transmitted infections testing and completed questionnaires which included information about demographics, sexual behavior, douching and contraceptive use. We assessed the association between hormonal contraceptives and trichomoniasis using bivariable and multivariable analysis and estimated exposure odds ratios (ORs) and adjusted odds ratios (aORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
Results
We identified 427 women with trichomoniasis and 144 uninfected women who had information reported about contraception use. Compared with nonhormonal contraceptive use, OC use was negatively associated with trichomoniasis in bivariable analysis (OR: 0.5; 95% CI: 0.3–0.8). This association was no longer statistically significant after adjusting for demographic variables, douching and condom use (aOR: 0.9; 95% CI: 0.5–1.6). Use of DMPA, compared with nonhormonal contraceptive use, was not associated with trichomoniasis in bivariable or multivariable analyses (OR: 1.0, 95% CI: 0.5–2.1; aOR = 1.4, 95% CI: 0.6–3.4, respectively).
Conclusions
Although OC use appeared to have a protective effect in the bivariable analysis, the hormonal contraceptives OC and DMPA were not associated with T. vaginalis infection after adjustment for other factors.
doi:10.1097/OLQ.0b013e318199723f
PMCID: PMC3790269  PMID: 19556926
7.  RPR Titer Variation in the Two Weeks Following Syphilis Therapy 
Sexually Transmitted Diseases  2012;39(8):645-647.
Background
Serologic tests for syphilis (STS) results at time of diagnosis are the basis for evaluating response to syphilis therapy. Following treatment, however, STS titers may continue to increase for several weeks. We evaluated RPR titer variation over the 14 days following therapy using data from a recent large, prospective RCT.
Methods
Prospectively enrolled participants in North America and Madagascar with primary, secondary or early latent syphilis were randomly assigned to penicillin, doxycycline (in the case of penicillin allergy) or azithromycin treatment. Blood for RPR analysis was drawn at days 0, 7, and 14 post-treatment. All RPR titers were determined simultaneously at a central laboratory.
Results
470 patients had data available for at least 2 of 3 RPR measurements. Overall, 20% of patients showed a titer increase of at least one dilution in the 14 days following therapy. The greatest proportion of titer increases following therapy was seen in patients with primary syphilis. Comparing outcome of therapy using the initial (day 0) RPR titer vs. the maximal RPR titer (over 14 days), resulted in outcome reclassification in 2.98% of participants.
Conclusions
Despite the fact that about 20% of early syphilis patients had increases in RPR titers immediately following treatment, these changes rarely influenced assessment of therapeutic outcome. Only 3% of patients treated would have been reclassified.
doi:10.1097/OLQ.0b013e3182536574
PMCID: PMC3399694  PMID: 22801348
Syphilis testing; RPR; Syphilis Treatment Outcome
8.  Developing a Predictive Model to Prioritize HIV Partner Notification in North Carolina 
Sexually transmitted diseases  2012;39(1):65-71.
Background
Disease Intervention Specialists (DIS) in North Carolina (NC) have less time to conduct partner notification due to competing responsibilities while simultaneously facing increased case loads due to increased HIV testing. We developed a model to predict undiagnosed HIV infection in sexual partners to prioritize DIS interviews.
Methods
We abstracted demographic, behavioral, and partnership data from DIS records of HIV-infected persons reported in two NC surveillance regions between January 1, 2003 and December 31, 2007. Multiple logistic regression with generalized estimating equations was used to develop a predictive model and risk scores among newly diagnosed persons and their partners. Sensitivities and specificities of the risk scores at different cutoffs were used to examine algorithm performance.
Results
Five factors predicted a partnership between a person with newly diagnosed HIV infection and an undiagnosed partner—four weeks or fewer between HIV diagnosis and DIS interview, no history of crack use, no anonymous sex, fewer total sexual partners reported to DIS, and sexual partnerships between an older index case and younger partner. Using this model, DIS could choose an appropriate cutoff for locating a particular partner by determining the weight of false negatives relative to false positives.
Conclusions
While the overall predictive power of the model is low, it is possible to reduce the number of partners that need to be located and interviewed while maintaining high sensitivity. If DIS continue to pursue all partners, the model would be useful in identifying partners in which to invest more resources for locating.
doi:10.1097/OLQ.0b013e318239da4e
PMCID: PMC3244826  PMID: 22183850
HIV; partner notification; modeling; decision
9.  Social support and delays seeking care after HIV diagnosis, North Carolina, 2000–2006 
AIDS care  2009;21(9):1148-1156.
Many adults in the United States enter primary care late in the course of HIV infection, countering the clinical benefits of timely HIV services and missing opportunities for risk reduction. Our objective was to determine if perceived social support was associated with delay entering care after an HIV diagnosis. Two hundred sixteen patients receiving primary care at a large, university-based HIV outpatient clinic in North Carolina were included in the study. Dimensions of functional social support (emotional/informational, tangible, affectionate and positive social interaction) were quantified with a modified Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Scale and included in proportional hazard models to determine their effect on delays seeking care. The median delay between diagnosis and entry to primary care was 5.9 months. Levels of social support were high but only positive social interaction was moderately associated with delayed presentation in adjusted models. The effect of low perceived positive social interaction on the time to initiation of primary care differed by history of alcoholism (no history of alcoholism, hazard ratio (HR): 1.43, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.88, 2.34; history of alcoholism, HR: 0.71, 95% CI: 0.40, 1.28). Ensuring timely access to HIV care remains a challenge in the southeastern United States. Affectionate, tangible, and emotional/informational social support were not associated with the time from diagnosis to care. The presence of positive social interaction may be an important factor influencing care seeking behavior after diagnosis.
doi:10.1080/09540120902730021
PMCID: PMC3529165  PMID: 20024774
HIV infection; social support; time factors; delivery of health care; southeastern United States
10.  Predictors of Serological Cure and Serofast State After Treatment in HIV-Negative Persons With Early Syphilis 
A substantial proportion of patients treated for early syphilis have serofast nontreponemal titers after therapy. Serological cure at 6 months is associated with age, number of sexual partners, Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction, and an interaction between syphilis stage and baseline nontreponemal titers.
Background. Syphilis management requires serological monitoring after therapy. We compared factors associated with serological response after treatment of early (ie, primary, secondary, or early latent) syphilis.
Methods. We performed secondary analyses of data from a prospective, randomized syphilis trial conducted in the United States and Madagascar. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–negative participants aged ≥18 years with early syphilis were enrolled from 2000–2009. Serological testing was performed at baseline and at 3 and 6 months after treatment. At 6 months, serological cure was defined as a negative rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test or a ≥4-fold decreased titer, and serofast status was defined as a ≤2-fold decreased titer or persistent titers that did not meet criteria for treatment failure.
Results. Data were available from 465 participants, of whom 369 (79%) achieved serological cure and 96 (21%) were serofast. In bivariate analysis, serological cure was associated with younger age, fewer sex partners, higher baseline RPR titers, and earlier syphilis stage (P ≤ .008). There was a less significant association with Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction after treatment (P = .08). Multivariate analysis revealed interactions between log-transformed baseline titer with syphilis stage, in which the likelihood of cure was associated with increased titers among participants with primary syphilis (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] for 1 unit change in log2 titer, 1.83; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.25–2.70), secondary syphilis (AOR, 3.15; 95% CI, 2.14–4.65), and early latent syphilis (AOR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.44–2.40).
Conclusions. Serological cure at 6 months after early syphilis treatment is associated with age, number of sex partners, Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction, and an interaction between syphilis stage and baseline RPR titer.
doi:10.1093/cid/cir671
PMCID: PMC3205200  PMID: 21998287
11.  Barriers and Facilitators to HIV Testing and Linkage to Primary Care: Narratives of People with Advanced HIV in the Southeast 
AIDS care  2009;21(10):1313-1320.
Persons with unrecognized HIV infection forgo timely clinical intervention and may unknowingly transmit HIV to partners. However, in the United States, unrecognized infection and late diagnosis are common. To understand barriers and facilitators to HIV testing and care, we conducted a qualitative study of 24 HIV infected persons attending a Southeastern HIV clinic who presented with clinically advanced illness. The primary barrier to HIV testing prior to diagnosis was perception of risk; consequently, most participants were diagnosed after the onset of clinical symptoms. While most patients were anxious to initiate care rapidly after diagnosis, some felt frustrated by the passive process of connecting to specialty care. The first visit with an HIV care provider was identified as critical in the coping process for many patients. Implications for the implementation of recent CDC HIV routine screening guidelines are discussed.
doi:10.1080/09540120902803174
PMCID: PMC3509799  PMID: 20024708
HIV Infection; Voluntary Counseling and Testing; Delivery of Health Care; Southeastern United States; Social Support
12.  Current management and recommendations for access to antiviral therapy of herpes labialis 
Herpes labialis is a common skin infective condition, worldwide, which is primarily caused by HSV-1. Recurrent episodes of herpes labialis, also known as cold sores, can be frequent, painful, long-lasting and disfiguring for infected patients. At present, there are two types of antivirals for the treatment of herpes labialis, topical and oral, which are available over the counter or as prescription-only. The aim of antiviral therapy is to block viral replication to enable shortening the duration of symptoms and to accelerate healing of the lesions associated with herpes labialis. This review examines the evidence for the effectiveness of current topical and oral antivirals in the management of recurrent episodes of herpes labialis. In most countries, oral antivirals for herpes labialis are available as prescription-only. However, in early 2010, the oral antiviral famciclovir was reclassified from prescription-only medicine to pharmacist-controlled status in New Zealand. The benefits and risks associated with moving an antiviral therapy for herpes labialis from prescription-only to pharmacist-controlled status are reviewed here, and the implications for patients, general physicians and pharmacists are considered.
doi:10.1016/j.jcv.2011.08.003
PMCID: PMC3423903  PMID: 21889905
Herpes labialis; Coldsores; Famciclovir; Aciclovir; Valaciclovir; HSV-1
13.  Efficacy Results of a Trial of a Herpes Simplex Vaccine 
Background
Two previous studies of a herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) subunit vaccine containing glycoprotein D in HSV-discordant couples revealed 73% and 74% efficacy against genital disease in women who were negative for both HSV type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2 antibodies. Efficacy was not observed in men or HSV-1 seropositive women.
Methods
We conducted a randomized, double-blind efficacy field trial involving 8323 women 18 to 30 years of age who were negative for antibodies to HSV-1 and HSV-2. At months 0, 1, and 6, some subjects received the investigational vaccine, consisting of 20 μg of glycoprotein D from HSV-2 with alum and 3-O-deacylated monophosphoryl lipid A as an adjuvant; control subjects received the hepatitis A vaccine, at a dose of 720 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) units. The primary end point was occurrence of genital herpes disease due to either HSV-1 or HSV-2 from month 2 (1 month after dose 2) through month 20.
Results
The HSV vaccine was associated with an increased risk of local reactions as compared with the control vaccine, and it elicited ELISA and neutralizing antibodies to HSV-2. Overall, the vaccine was not efficacious; vaccine efficacy was 20% (95% confidence interval [CI], −29 to 50) against genital herpes disease. However, efficacy against HSV-1 genital disease was 58% (95% CI, 12 to 80). Vaccine efficacy against HSV-1 infection (with or without disease) was 35% (95% CI, 13 to 52), but efficacy against HSV-2 infection was not observed (−8%; 95% CI, −59 to 26).
Conclusions
In a study population that was representative of the general population of HSV-1– and HSV-2–seronegative women, the investigational vaccine was effective in preventing HSV-1 genital disease and infection but not in preventing HSV-2 disease or infection. (Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and GlaxoSmithKline; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00057330.)
doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1103151
PMCID: PMC3287348  PMID: 22216840
14.  Mapping Health Data: Improved Privacy Protection With Donut Method Geomasking 
American Journal of Epidemiology  2010;172(9):1062-1069.
A major challenge in mapping health data is protecting patient privacy while maintaining the spatial resolution necessary for spatial surveillance and outbreak identification. A new adaptive geomasking technique, referred to as the donut method, extends current methods of random displacement by ensuring a user-defined minimum level of geoprivacy. In donut method geomasking, each geocoded address is relocated in a random direction by at least a minimum distance, but less than a maximum distance. The authors compared the donut method with current methods of random perturbation and aggregation regarding measures of privacy protection and cluster detection performance by masking multiple disease field simulations under a range of parameters. Both the donut method and random perturbation performed better than aggregation in cluster detection measures. The performance of the donut method in geoprivacy measures was at least 42.7% higher and in cluster detection measures was less than 4.8% lower than that of random perturbation. Results show that the donut method provides a consistently higher level of privacy protection with a minimal decrease in cluster detection performance, especially in areas where the risk to individual geoprivacy is greatest.
doi:10.1093/aje/kwq248
PMCID: PMC2984253  PMID: 20817785
cluster analysis; confidentiality; demography; epidemiologic methods; population surveillance; public health practice
15.  Geomasking sensitive health data and privacy protection: an evaluation using an E911 database 
Geocarto international  2010;25(6):443-452.
Geomasking is used to provide privacy protection for individual address information while maintaining spatial resolution for mapping purposes. Donut geomasking and other random perturbation geomasking algorithms rely on the assumption of a homogeneously distributed population to calculate displacement distances, leading to possible under-protection of individuals when this condition is not met. Using household data from 2007, we evaluated the performance of donut geomasking in Orange County, North Carolina. We calculated the estimated k-anonymity for every household based on the assumption of uniform household distribution. We then determined the actual k-anonymity by revealing household locations contained in the county E911 database. Census block groups in mixed-use areas with high population distribution heterogeneity were the most likely to have privacy protection below selected criteria. For heterogeneous populations, we suggest tripling the minimum displacement area in the donut to protect privacy with a less than 1% error rate.
doi:10.1080/10106049.2010.496496
PMCID: PMC2952889  PMID: 20953360
donut geomasking; confidentiality; k-anonymity; privacy protection; spatial resolution
16.  Does HAART Efficacy Translate to Effectiveness? Evidence for a Trial Effect 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(7):e21824.
Background
Patients who participate in clinical trials may experience better clinical outcomes than patients who initiate similar therapy within clinical care (trial effect), but no published studies have evaluated a trial effect in HIV clinical trials.
Methods
To examine a trial effect we compared virologic suppression (VS) among patients who initiated HAART in a clinical trial versus in routine clinical care. VS was defined as a plasma HIV RNA ≤400 copies/ml at six months after HAART initiation and was assessed within strata of early (1996–99) or current (2000–06) HAART periods. Risk ratios (RR) were estimated using binomial models.
Results
Of 738 persons initiating HAART, 30.6% were women, 61.7% were black, 30% initiated therapy in a clinical trial and 67% (n = 496) had an evaluable six month HIV RNA result. HAART regimens differed between the early and current periods (p<0.001); unboosted PI regimens (55.6%) were more common in the early and NNRTI regimens (46.4%) were more common in the current period. Overall, 78% (95%CI 74, 82%) of patients achieved VS and trial participants were 16% more likely to achieve VS (unadjusted RR 1.16, 95%CI 1.06, 1.27). Comparing trial to non-trial participants, VS differed by study period. In the early period, trial participants initiating HAART were significantly more likely to achieve VS than non-trial participants (adjusted RR 1.33; 95%CI 1.15, 1.54), but not in the current period (adjusted RR 0.98; 95%CI 0.87, 1.11).
Conclusions
A clear clinical trial effect on suppression of HIV replication was observed in the early HAART period but not in the current period.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0021824
PMCID: PMC3135599  PMID: 21765918
17.  Glen or Glenda: Reported Gender of Sex Partners in Two Statewide HIV Databases 
American journal of public health  2010;100(3):525-530.
Objectives
We assessed agreement of reported gender of sex partners in 2 statewide HIV databases linked by client identifiers.
Methods
Counseling, testing, and referral (CTR) records on all men aged 18 to 30 years who tested newly positive for HIV in North Carolina between 2000 and 2005 were matched to data abstracted from partner counseling and referral services (PCRS) records. We compared client-reported gender of sex partners at the time of testing (CTR records) with those reported during postdiagnosis partner notification (PCRS records).
Results
PCRS records appeared to be a more complete measure of the gender of sex partners. Of the 212 men who told their HIV test counselor that they had only had female sex partner or partners in their lifetime, 62 (29.2%) provided contact information for male sex partner(s) during partner notification.
Conclusions
During the test counseling risk assessment, many men did not fully report the gender of their sex partners; this suggests that CTR data may not fully capture clients’ risk behaviors.
doi:10.2105/AJPH.2009.162552
PMCID: PMC2820056  PMID: 20075318
18.  Pregnancy and HIV Infection in Young Women in North Carolina 
Public Health Reports  2010;125(1):96-102.
SYNOPSIS
Objectives
We described young women in North Carolina (NC) who were pregnant at the time of diagnosis with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection to identify an at-risk population that could be targeted for increased HIV screening. We investigated the combined effect of partner counseling and referral services (PCRS) and comprehensive prenatal HIV screening.
Methods
We conducted a retrospective review of PCRS charts on young women newly diagnosed with HIV in NC between 2002 and 2005. We determined the prevalence of pregnancy in the study sample and conducted bivariate analyses to assess predictors of pregnancy at the time of HIV diagnosis, calculating prevalence ratios (PRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We analyzed results of partner notification efforts, including timing and stage of diagnosis of HIV-positive partners.
Results
During the four-year period, 551 women aged 18–30 years were newly diagnosed with HIV; 30% were pregnant at the time of HIV diagnosis. Pregnant women were more likely to be Hispanic (PR=1.58, 95% CI 1.15, 2.17) and not report typical risk factors. Fourteen percent of pregnant women's partners had an undiagnosed infection compared with slightly more than 8% of nonpregnant women's partners (p<0.01).
Conclusions
Ethnic differences in co-diagnosis of pregnancy and HIV suggest that young Hispanic women may have differential access to and acceptance of routine HIV screening. Comprehensive prenatal screening combined with partner notification can be effective in reaching infected male partners who are undiagnosed.
PMCID: PMC2789821  PMID: 20402201
19.  Identifying People with Acute HIV Infection (AHI) – Demographic Features, Risk Factors, and Use of Health Care among Individuals with AHI in North Carolina 
AIDS and behavior  2009;13(6):1075-1083.
Identifying and counseling individuals with Acute HIV Infection (AHI) offers a critical opportunity to avert preventable HIV transmission, however opportunities to recognize these individuals may be missed. We surveyed 32 adults diagnosed with AHI during voluntary HIV testing from 1/1/03 to 2/28/05 in publicly funded testing sites in NC to describe their clinical, social, and behavioral characteristics. Eighty-one percent of participants were men; 59% were African American. Seventy-five percent experienced symptoms consistent with acute retroviral syndrome; although 83% sought medical care for these symptoms, only 15% were appropriately diagnosed at that initial medical visit, suggesting opportunities to diagnose these individuals earlier were missed. Eighty-five percent of the men engaged in sex with men. More than 50% of the participants thought they were infected with HIV by a steady partner. This study yields important information to assist in identifying populations at risk for or infected with AHI and designing both primary and secondary prevention interventions.
doi:10.1007/s10461-008-9519-5
PMCID: PMC2787774  PMID: 19127422
Acute HIV Infection (AHI); North Carolina (NC); HIV/AHI screening; AHI Epidemiology; HIV Risk Factors
20.  Methamphetamine Use among Newly Diagnosed HIV-Positive Young Men in North Carolina, United States, from 2000 to 2005 
PLoS ONE  2010;5(6):e11314.
Background
Methamphetamine (MA) is a new arrival to the Southeastern United States (US). Incidence of HIV is also increasing regionally, but data are limited regarding any association between this trend and MA use. We examined behavioral data from North Carolina (NC) residents newly diagnosed with HIV, collected by the Department of Health between 2000-2005.
Principal Findings
Among 1,460 newly diagnosed HIV-positive young men, an increasing trend was seen from 2000-2005 in MA use (p = 0.01, total n = 20). In bivariate analyses, users of MA had significantly greater odds of reporting other substance use, including alcohol, powder or crack cocaine, marijuana, and methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, “ecstasy”). They were also more likely to have reported sexual activity while traveling outside NC; sex with anonymous partners; and previous HIV testing. In a predictive model, MA use had a negative association with nonwhite race, and strong positive associations with powder cocaine, “ecstasy,” or intravenous drug use and being a university student.
Conclusions
Similar to trends seen in more urban parts of the US, MA use among newly diagnosed, HIV-positive young men is increasing in NC. These data are among the first to demonstrate this relationship in a region with a burgeoning epidemic of MA use. Opportunities exist for MA-related HIV risk-reduction interventions whenever young men intersect the healthcare system.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0011314
PMCID: PMC2892509  PMID: 20593025
21.  Sexually Transmitted Infections among Patients with Acute HIV in North Carolina 
Sexually transmitted diseases  2009;36(6):372-374.
doi:10.1097/OLQ.0b013e3181997252
PMCID: PMC2708082  PMID: 19387421
HIV transmission; acute HIV infection; sexually transmitted infections; viral load; Southeastern United States
22.  Transmitted Antiretroviral Drug Resistance among Acute and Recent HIV Infections in North Carolina, 1998 to 2007 
Antiviral therapy  2009;14(5):673-678.
Background
Transmitted drug resistance (TDR) limits antiretroviral options, complicating management of HIV-positive patients. HIV disproportionately affects the Southern United States (US), but available national estimates of TDR prevalence principally reflect large metropolitan centers outside this region.
Methods
The Duke/UNC Acute HIV Program has collected data on acute or recent HIV infections (ARHI) in North Carolina (NC) since 1998. Acute infections represent antibody-negative, RNA-positive subjects; recent infection was determined by history of HIV testing, or concordance between detuned ELISA and antibody avidity assays. Genotypic sequence data from the earliest collected pre-treatment plasma sample were analyzed with the Stanford HIV Database and screened for Surveillance Drug Resistance Mutations (SDRMs).
Results
253 individuals with ARHI between 1998 and May 2007 had complete genotypic sequence data for analysis; 39.5% were acute infections, 78.7% were male, 64.8% were non-white, and 53.8% were men who have sex with men. The overall prevalence of TDR was 17.8%, with SDRMs for non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) in 9.5% of the cohort. Mutations for nucleos(t)ide RT inhibitors (NRTIs) were detected in 7.5%, and for protease inhibitors (PIs) in 3.2%. K103N was the most common mutation (7.5%). Thymidine analogue mutations were found in 4.7% of samples; the most common PI SDRM was L90M (2.4%). Dual-or triple-class antiretroviral resistance was rare, encountered in only six samples (2.4%).
Conclusions
The prevalence of TDR in NC is similar to estimates from US metropolitan areas. These findings have implications for initial regimen selection and secondary prevention efforts outside of large, metropolitan HIV epicenters.
PMCID: PMC2860724  PMID: 19704170
HIV Infections/epidemiology; HIV Infections/transmission; North Carolina/epidemiology; Drug resistance, viral; Antiretroviral therapy, highly active
23.  Targeted Testing for Acute HIV Infection in North Carolina 
AIDS (London, England)  2009;23(7):835-843.
Background
Persons with acute HIV infection contribute disproportionately to HIV transmission. Identification of these persons is a critical public health challenge. We developed targeted approaches to detect HIV RNA in persons with negative serological tests.
Methods
Persons undergoing publicly funded HIV testing in North Carolina between October, 2002 and April, 2005 were included in this cross-sectional study. We used logistic regression to develop targeted testing approaches. We also assessed simple approaches based on clinic type and geography. Algorithm development used persons with recent HIV infection, determined by a detuned ELISA. Validation used persons with acute HIV infection, identified with an HIV RNA pooling procedure.
Results
Among 215,528 eligible persons, 232 persons had recent HIV infection and 44 acute HIV infection. A combination of five indicators (testing site, sexual preference, sex with a person with HIV infection, county HIV incidence, and race) identified 92% of recent infections when testing 50% of the population. In validation among persons with acute HIV infection, this indicator combination had sensitivities of 98% in years 1 & 2 and 88% in year 3. A simple combination of testing site and county performed nearly as well (Development (recent infections): Sensitivity = 95%; Validation (acute infections): Sensitivity = 86% in years 1 & 2; 81% in year 3; cutoff established for testing 50% of population.)
Conclusions
Acute HIV infection can be identified accurately using targeted testing. Simple approaches to identify the types of clinics and geographical areas where infections are concentrated may be logistically feasible and cost-efficient.
doi:10.1097/QAD.0b013e328326f55e
PMCID: PMC2828678  PMID: 19318909
24.  Once Daily Valacyclovir for Reducing Viral Shedding in Subjects Newly Diagnosed with Genital Herpes 
Objective. Genital herpes (GH) recurrences and viral shedding are more frequent in the first year after initial HSV-2 infection. The objective of this study was to provide the first evaluation of valacyclovir 1 g once daily compared to placebo in reducing viral shedding in subjects newly diagnosed with GH. Methods. 70 subjects were randomized to receive valacyclovir 1 g daily or placebo in a crossover design for 60 days with a 7-day washout period. A daily swab of the genital/anal-rectal area was self-collected for HSV-2 detection by PCR. Subjects attended the clinic for routine study visits and GH recurrence visits. Treatment differences were assessed using a nonparametric crossover analysis. Results. 52 subjects had at least one PCR measurement in both treatment periods and comprised the primary efficacy population. Valacyclovir significantly reduced HSV-2 shedding during all days compared to placebo (mean 2.9% versus 13.5% of all days (P < .01), a 78% reduction). Valacyclovir significantly reduced subclinical HSV-2 shedding during all days compared to placebo (mean 2.4% versus 11.0% of all days (P < .01), a 78% reduction). However, 79% of subjects had no GH recurrences while receiving valacyclovir compared to 52% of subjects receiving placebo (P < .01). Conclusion. In this study, the frequency of total and subclinical HSV-2 shedding was greater than reported in earlier studies involving subjects with a history of symptomatic genital recurrences. Our study is the first to demonstrate a significant reduction in viral shedding with valacyclovir 1 g daily compared to placebo in a population of subjects newly diagnosed with HSV-2 infection.
doi:10.1155/2009/105376
PMCID: PMC2724712  PMID: 19680456
25.  Screening Young Adults for Prevalent Chlamydial Infection in Community Settings 
Annals of epidemiology  2008;18(7):560-571.
PURPOSE
Community-based testing may identify young adults in the general population with sexually transmitted chlamydial infection. To develop selective screening guidelines appropriate for community settings, the authors conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health Wave III (April 2, 2001 – May 9, 2002).
METHODS
Separately for women and men, we developed three predictive models using unconditional multiple logistic regression for survey data. To account for racial/ethnic disparity in prevalence, initial models included identical predictor characteristics plus information on 1) respondent’s race/ethnicity; or 2) respondent’s most recent partner’s race/ethnicity; or 3) no information on race/ethnicity.
RESULTS
C. trachomatis diagnosis was available for 10,928 (88.6%) of the sexually experienced respondents. A combination of five characteristics for women and six characteristics for men identified approximately 80% of infections while testing ≤50% of the population. Information regarding race/ethnicity dramatically affected algorithm performance.
CONCLUSION
Using race/ethnicity in any screening algorithm is problematic and controversial, but the model without race information missed many diagnoses in the minority groups. Universal screening in high prevalence regions and selective screening in low prevalence regions may be one method of reaching the affected populations while avoiding the stigma of guidelines incorporating race/ethnicity.
doi:10.1016/j.annepidem.2008.03.002
PMCID: PMC2490822  PMID: 18504140

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