In skeletogenic mesenchyme, SOXC proteins enter the APC–Axin destruction complex to inhibit β-catenin phosphorylation by GSK3 and thereby synergize with canonical WNT signaling to inhibit chondrogenesis.
Canonical WNT signaling stabilizes β-catenin to determine cell fate in many processes from development onwards. One of its main roles in skeletogenesis is to antagonize the chondrogenic transcription factor SOX9. We here identify the SOXC proteins as potent amplifiers of this pathway. The SOXC genes, i.e., Sox4, Sox11, and Sox12, are coexpressed in skeletogenic mesenchyme, including presumptive joints and perichondrium, but not in cartilage. Their inactivation in mouse embryo limb bud caused massive cartilage fusions, as joint and perichondrium cells underwent chondrogenesis. SOXC proteins govern these cells cell autonomously. They replace SOX9 in the adenomatous polyposis coli–Axin destruction complex and therein inhibit phosphorylation of β-catenin by GSK3. This inhibition, a crucial, limiting step in canonical WNT signaling, thus becomes a constitutive event. The resulting SOXC/canonical WNT-mediated synergistic stabilization of β-catenin contributes to efficient repression of Sox9 in presumptive joint and perichondrium cells and thereby ensures proper delineation and articulation of skeletal primordia. This synergy may determine cell fate in many processes besides skeletogenesis.
Two decades after the discovery that heterozygous mutations within and around SOX9 cause campomelic dysplasia, a generalized skeleton malformation syndrome, it is well established that SOX9 is a master transcription factor in chondrocytes. In contrast, the mechanisms whereby translocations in the –350/–50-kb region 5′ of SOX9 cause severe disease and whereby SOX9 expression is specified in chondrocytes remain scarcely known. We here screen this upstream region and uncover multiple enhancers that activate Sox9-promoter transgenes in the SOX9 expression domain. Three of them are primarily active in chondrocytes. E250 (located at –250 kb) confines its activity to condensed prechondrocytes, E195 mainly targets proliferating chondrocytes, and E84 is potent in all differentiated chondrocytes. E84 and E195 synergize with E70, previously shown to be active in most Sox9-expressing somatic tissues, including cartilage. While SOX9 protein powerfully activates E70, it does not control E250. It requires its SOX5/SOX6 chondrogenic partners to robustly activate E195 and additional factors to activate E84. Altogether, these results indicate that SOX9 expression in chondrocytes relies on widely spread transcriptional modules whose synergistic and overlapping activities are driven by SOX9, SOX5/SOX6 and other factors. They help elucidate mechanisms underlying campomelic dysplasia and will likely help uncover other disease mechanisms.
Landscape ecology plays a vital role in understanding the impacts of land-use change on biodiversity, but it is not a predictive discipline, lacking theoretical models that quantitatively predict biodiversity patterns from first principles. Here, we draw heavily on ideas from phylogenetics to fill this gap, basing our approach on the insight that habitat fragments have a shared history. We develop a landscape ‘terrageny’, which represents the historical spatial separation of habitat fragments in the same way that a phylogeny represents evolutionary divergence among species. Combining a random sampling model with a terrageny generates numerical predictions about the expected proportion of species shared between any two fragments, the locations of locally endemic species, and the number of species that have been driven locally extinct. The model predicts that community similarity declines with terragenetic distance, and that local endemics are more likely to be found in terragenetically distinctive fragments than in large fragments. We derive equations to quantify the variance around predictions, and show that ignoring the spatial structure of fragmented landscapes leads to over-estimates of local extinction rates at the landscape scale. We argue that ignoring the shared history of habitat fragments limits our ability to understand biodiversity changes in human-modified landscapes.
Distance-dissimilarity curve; habitat fragmentation; habitat loss; landscape divergence hypothesis; nested communities; neutral model; random sampling; spatial autocorrelation; spatial insurance; vicariance model
Mutation or epigenetic silencing of the transcription factor C/EBPα is observed in ~10% of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In both cases, a common global gene expression profile is observed, but down-stream targets relevant for leukemogenesis are not known. Here we identify Sox4 as a direct target of C/EBPα whereby its expression is inversely correlated with C/EBPα activity. Downregulation of Sox4 abrogated increased self-renewal of leukemic cells and restored their differentiation. Gene expression profiles of leukemia initiating cells (LICs) from both Sox4 overexpression and murine C/EBPα mutant AML models clustered together, but differed from other types of AML. Our data demonstrate that Sox4 overexpression resulting from C/EBPα inactivation contributes to the development of leukemia with a distinct LIC phenotype.
Assessing cell proliferation in situ is an important phenotyping component of skeletal tissues from development to adult stages and disease. Various methods exist including immunostaining for proteins and protein modifications associated with specific steps of the cell cycle, but the gold standard is to quantify the percentage of DNA-synthesizing cells. The thymidine analog 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) has been widely used in the last decades for this purpose, with the inconvenience that its detection is lengthy and requires harsh treatment of tissue sections to give access of anti-BrdU antibody to nucleosides in genomic DNA. In 2008, Salic and Mitchison developed a new method and proved it to be quicker, simpler, and highly sensitive in non-skeletal tissues. This method relies on incorporation of 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU) into de novo DNA. This other thymidine analog is readily detected by click chemistry, i.e., covalent cross-linking of its ethynyl group with a fluorescent azide, a molecule small enough to diffuse freely through native tissues and DNA. Here, we describe and compare the BrdU and EdU approaches in skeletal tissues and conclude that in these tissues too EdU provides an easy and very sensitive alternative to BrdU.
Bone; Cartilage; BrdU; EdU; In situ; Proliferation; Skeleton
The development of mature B cells from hematopoietic stem cells is a strictly orchestrated process involving multiple regulatory genes. The transcription factor Sox4 is required for this process but its role has not been systematically studied, and the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. To determine when and how Sox4 functions in the stepwise process of B cell development, we used mice harboring conditional null alleles for Sox4 and a Cre transgene. Sox4 deletion in hematopoietic stem cells almost entirely eliminated pro-B cells in both fetal livers and adult bone marrow, resulting in a severe deficiency in later stage B cells including circulating mature B cells. Sox4-deficient pro-B cells, particularly those expressing the stem cell factor receptor c-Kit, readily underwent apoptosis, and even more so when c-Kit activity was inhibited by imatinib. C-Kit-expressing pro-B cells showed decreased activation of the c-Kit downstream protein Src upon Sox4 deletion. Likewise, the level of the anti-apoptotic Bcl2 protein was decreased in residual pro-B cells, and its restoration using a Bcl2 transgene not only allowed partial rescue of pro-B cell survival, but also B cell maturation in the absence of Sox4. Our findings indicate that Sox4 is required for the survival of pro-B cells and may functionally interact with c-Kit and Bcl2.
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) has important roles in supporting the proliferation and/or survival of murine neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs), but downstream effectors remain unknown. We show here that MIF robustly increases the expression of Sox6 in NSPCs in vitro. During neural development, Sox6 is expressed in the ventricular zone of the ganglionic eminence (GE) of mouse brains at embryonic day 14.5 (E14.5), cultured NSPCs from E14.5 GE, and NSPCs in the subventricular zone (SVZ) around the lateral ventricle (LV) of the adult mouse forebrain. Retroviral overexpression of Sox6 in NSPCs increases the number of primary and secondary neurospheres and inhibits cell differentiation. This effect is accompanied with increased expression of Hes1 and Bcl-2 and Akt phosphorylation, thus suggesting a role for Sox6 in promoting cell survival and/or self-renewal ability. Constitutive activation of the transcription factor Stat3 results in up-regulation of Sox6 expression and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showed that MIF increases Stat3 binding to the Sox6 promoter in NSPCs, indicating that Stat3 stimulates Sox6 expression downstream of MIF. Finally, the ability of MIF to increase the number of primary and secondary neurospheres is inhibited by Sox6 gene silencing. Collectively, our data identify Sox6 as an important downstream effector of MIF signaling in stemness maintenance of NSPCs.
The transcription factor Sox9 is necessary for early chondrogenesis, but its subsequent roles in the cartilage growth plate, a highly specialized structure that drives skeletal growth and endochondral ossification, remain unclear. Using a doxycycline-inducible Cre transgene and Sox9 conditional null alleles in the mouse, we show that Sox9 is required to maintain chondrocyte columnar proliferation and generate cell hypertrophy, two key features of functional growth plates. Sox9 keeps Runx2 expression and β-catenin signaling in check, and thereby inhibits not only progression from proliferation to prehypertrophy, but also subsequent acquisition of an osteoblastic phenotype. Sox9 protein outlives Sox9 RNA in upper hypertrophic chondrocytes, where it contributes with Mef2c to directly activate the major marker of these cells, Col10a1. These findings thus reveal that Sox9 remains a central determinant of the lineage fate and multi-step differentiation program of growth plate chondrocytes, and thereby illuminate our understanding of key molecular mechanisms underlying skeletogenesis.
SOX9 encodes a transcription factor that presides over the specification and differentiation of numerous progenitor and differentiated cell types, and although SOX9 haploinsufficiency and overexpression cause severe diseases in humans, including campomelic dysplasia, sex reversal and cancer, the mechanisms underlying SOX9 transcription remain largely unsolved. We identify here an evolutionarily conserved enhancer located 70-kb upstream of mouse Sox9 and call it SOM because it specifically activates a Sox9 promoter reporter in most Sox9-expressing somatic tissues in transgenic mice. Moreover, SOM-null fetuses and pups reduce Sox9 expression by 18–37% in the pancreas, lung, kidney, salivary gland, gut and liver. Weanlings exhibit half-size pancreatic islets and underproduce insulin and glucagon, and adults slowly recover from acute pancreatitis due to a 2-fold impairment in Sox9 upregulation. Molecular and genetic experiments reveal that Sox9 protein dimers bind to multiple recognition sites in the SOM sequence and are thereby both necessary and sufficient for enhancer activity. These findings thus uncover that Sox9 directly enhances its functions in somatic tissue development and adult regeneration through SOM-mediated positive auto-regulation. They provide thereby novel insights on molecular mechanisms controlling developmental and disease processes and suggest new strategies to improve disease treatments.
Rationale: Chromosome 12p has been linked to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the Boston Early-Onset COPD Study (BEOCOPD), but a susceptibility gene in that region has not been identified.
Objectives: We used high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mapping to implicate a COPD susceptibility gene and an animal model to determine the potential role of SOX5 in lung development and COPD.
Methods: On chromosome 12p, we genotyped 1,387 SNPs in 386 COPD cases from the National Emphysema Treatment Trial and 424 control smokers from the Normative Aging Study. SNPs with significant associations were then tested in the BEOCOPD study and the International COPD Genetics Network. Based on the human results, we assessed histology and gene expression in the lungs of Sox5−/− mice.
Measurements and Main Results: In the case-control analysis, 27 SNPs were significant at P ≤ 0.01. The most significant SNP in the BEOCOPD replication was rs11046966 (National Emphysema Treatment Trial–Normative Aging Study P = 6.0 × 10−4, BEOCOPD P = 1.5 × 10−5, combined P = 1.7 × 10−7), located 3′ to the gene SOX5. Association with rs11046966 was not replicated in the International COPD Genetics Network. Sox5−/− mice showed abnormal lung development, with a delay in maturation before the saccular stage, as early as E16.5. Lung pathology in Sox5−/− lungs was associated with a decrease in fibronectin expression, an extracellular matrix component critical for branching morphogenesis.
Conclusions: Genetic variation in the transcription factor SOX5 is associated with COPD susceptibility. A mouse model suggests that the effect may be due, in part, to its effects on lung development and/or repair processes.
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; emphysema; knockout mice; lung development; single nucleotide polymorphism
Since the discovery of SOX9 mutations in the severe human skeletal malformation syndrome campomelic dysplasia in 1994, Sox9 was shown to be both required and sufficient for chondrocyte specification and differentiation. At the same time, its distant relatives Sox5 and Sox6 were shown to act in redundancy with each other to robustly enhance its functions. The Sox trio is currently best known for its ability to activate the genes for cartilage-specific extracellular matrix components. Sox9 and Sox5/6 homodimerize through domains adjacent to their Sry-related high-mobility-group DNA-binding domain to increase the efficiency of their cooperative binding to chondrocyte-specific enhancers. Sox9 possesses a potent transactivation domain and thereby recruits diverse transcriptional co-activators, histone-modifying enzymes, subunits of the mediator complex, and components of the general transcriptional machinery, such as CBP/p300, Med12, Med25, and Wwp2. This information helps us begin to unravel the mechanisms responsible for Sox9-mediated transcription. We review here the discovery of this master chondrogenic trio and its roles in chondrogenesis in vivo and at the molecular level, and we discuss how these pioneering studies open the way for many additional studies that are needed to further increase our understanding of the transcriptional regulatory machinery operating in chondrogenesis.
Sox9; Sox5; Sox6; Transcription; Chondrogenesis
The mechanisms underlying synovial joint development remain poorly understood. Here we use complete and cell-specific gene inactivation to identify the roles of the redundant chondrogenic transcription factors Sox5 and Sox6 in this process. We show that joint development aborts early in complete mutants (Sox5−/−6−/−). Gdf5 and Wnt9a expression is punctual in articular progenitor cells, but Sox9 downregulation and cell condensation in joint interzones are late. Joint cell differentiation is unsuccessful, regardless of lineage, and cavitation fails. Sox5 and Sox6 restricted expression to chondrocytes in wild-type embryos and continued Erg expression and weak Ihh expression in Sox5−/−6−/− growth plates suggest that growth plate failure contribute to this Sox5−/−6−/− joint morphogenesis block. Sox5/6 inactivation in specified joint cells and chondrocytes (Sox5fl/fl6fl/flCol2Cre) also results in a joint morphogenesis block, whereas Sox5/6 inactivation in specified joint cells only (Sox5fl/fl6fl/flGdf5Cre) results in milder joint defects and normal growth plates. Sox5fl/fl6fl/flGdf5Cre articular chondrocytes remain undifferentiated, as shown by continued Gdf5 expression and pancartilaginous gene downregulation. Along with Prg4 downregulation, these defects likely account for joint tissue overgrowth and incomplete cavitation in adult mice. Together, these data suggest that synovial joint morphogenesis relies on essential roles for Sox5/6 in promoting both growth plate and articular chondrocyte differentiation.
articular cartilage; development; differentiation; Erg; growth plate; Sox5; Sox6; Sox9; synovial joint; transcription factor
Vertebrate skeletogenesis consists in elaborating an edifice of more than 200 pieces of bone and cartilage. Each skeletal piece is crafted at a distinct location in the body, is articulated with others, and reaches a specific size, shape, and tissue composition according to both species instructions and individual determinants. This complex, customized body frame fulfills multiple essential tasks. It confers morphological features, allows controlled postures and movements, protects vital organs, houses hematopoiesis, stores minerals, and adsorbs toxins. This review provides an overview of the multiple facets of this ingenious process for experts as well as non-experts of skeletogenesis. We explain how the developing vertebrate uses both specific and ubiquitously expressed genes to generate multipotent mesenchymal cells, specify them to a skeletogenic fate, control their survival and proliferation, and direct their differentiation into cartilage, bone and joint cells. We review milestone discoveries made towards uncovering the intricate networks of regulatory factors that are involved in these processes, with an emphasis on signaling pathways and transcription factors. We describe numerous skeletal malformation and degeneration diseases that occur in humans as a result of mutations in regulatory genes, and explain how these diseases both help and motivate us to further decipher skeletogenic processes. Upon discussing current knowledge and gaps in knowledge in the control of skeletogenesis, we highlight ultimate research goals, and propose research priorities and approaches for future endeavors.
Sox5, Sox6, and Sox13 constitute the group D of sex-determining region (Sry)-related transcription factors. They are highly conserved in the family-specific high-mobility-group (HMG) box DNA-binding domain and in a group-specific coiled-coil domain. The latter mediates SoxD protein dimerization and thereby preferential binding to pairs of DNA recognition sites. The SoxD genes have overlapping expression and cell-autonomously control discrete lineages. Sox5 and Sox6 redundantly enhance chondrogenesis, but retard gliogenesis. Sox5 hinders melanogenesis, promotes neural crest generation, and controls the pace of neurogenesis. Sox6 promotes erythropoiesis, and Sox13 modulates T cell specification and is an autoimmune antigen. SoxD proteins enhance transactivation by Sox9 in chondrocytes, but antagonize Sox9 and other SoxE proteins in oligodendrocytes and melanocytes, and also repress transcription through various mechanisms in several other lineages. While their biological and molecular functions remain incompletely understood, the SoxD proteins have thus already proven that they critically modulate cell fate in major lineages.
Sox5; Sox6; Sox13; cell fate; differentiation
Integrating QTL results from independent experiments performed on related species helps to survey the genetic diversity of loci/alleles underlying complex traits, and to highlight potential targets for breeding or QTL cloning. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) late blight resistance has been thoroughly studied, generating mapping data for many Rpi-genes (R-genes to Phytophthora infestans) and QTLs (quantitative trait loci). Moreover, late blight resistance was often associated with plant maturity. To get insight into the genomic organization of late blight resistance loci as compared to maturity QTLs, a QTL meta-analysis was performed for both traits.
Nineteen QTL publications for late blight resistance were considered, seven of them reported maturity QTLs. Twenty-one QTL maps and eight reference maps were compiled to construct a 2,141-marker consensus map on which QTLs were projected and clustered into meta-QTLs. The whole-genome QTL meta-analysis reduced by six-fold late blight resistance QTLs (by clustering 144 QTLs into 24 meta-QTLs), by ca. five-fold maturity QTLs (by clustering 42 QTLs into eight meta-QTLs), and by ca. two-fold QTL confidence interval mean. Late blight resistance meta-QTLs were observed on every chromosome and maturity meta-QTLs on only six chromosomes.
Meta-analysis helped to refine the genomic regions of interest frequently described, and provided the closest flanking markers. Meta-QTLs of late blight resistance and maturity juxtaposed along chromosomes IV, V and VIII, and overlapped on chromosomes VI and XI. The distribution of late blight resistance meta-QTLs is significantly independent from those of Rpi-genes, resistance gene analogs and defence-related loci. The anchorage of meta-QTLs to the potato genome sequence, recently publicly released, will especially improve the candidate gene selection to determine the genes underlying meta-QTLs. All mapping data are available from the Sol Genomics Network (SGN) database.
We describe the role of Sox6 in cortical interneuron development, from a cellular to a behavioral level. We identify Sox6 as a protein expressed continuously within MGE-derived cortical interneurons from postmitotic progenitor stages into adulthood. Both its expression pattern and null phenotype suggests that Sox6 gene function is closely linked to that of Lhx6. In both Lhx6 and Sox6 null animals the expression of PV and SST, as well as the position of both basket and Martinotti neurons are abnormal. We find that Sox6 functions downstream of Lhx6. Electrophysiological analysis of Sox6 mutant cortical interneurons revealed that basket cells, even when mis-positioned, retain characteristic but immature FS physiological features. Our data suggest that Sox6 is not required for the specification of MGE-derived cortical interneurons. It is however, necessary for their normal positioning and maturation. As a consequence, the specific removal of Sox6 from this population results in a severe epileptic encephalopathy.
cortical interneurons; development; genetics; Sox6; Lhx6; Nkx2-1; epilepsy
Definitive erythropoiesis is a vital process throughout life. Both its basal activity under physiological conditions and its increased activity under anemia-induced stress conditions are highly stimulated by the hormone erythropoietin. The transcription factor Sox6 was previously shown to enhance fetal erythropoiesis together and beyond erythropoietin signaling, but its importance in adulthood and mechanisms of action remain unknown. We used here Sox6 conditional null mice and molecular assays to address these questions.
Sox6fl/flErGFPCre adult mice, which lacked Sox6 in erythroid cells, exhibited compensated anemia, erythroid cell developmental defects, and anisocytotic, short-lived red cells under physiological conditions, proving that Sox6 promotes basal erythropoiesis. Tamoxifen treatment of Sox6fl/flCaggCreER mice induced widespread inactivation of Sox6 in a timely controlled manner and resulted in erythroblast defects before reticulocytosis, demonstrating that impaired erythropoiesis is a primary cause rather than consequence of anemia in the absence of Sox6. Twenty five percent of Sox6fl/flErGFPCre mice died 4 or 5 days after induction of acute anemia with phenylhydrazine. The others recovered slowly. They promptly increased their erythropoietin level and amplified their erythroid progenitor pool, but then exhibited severe erythroblast and reticulocyte defects. Sox6 is thus essential in the maturation phase of stress erythropoiesis that follows the erythropoietin-dependent amplification phase. Sox6 inactivation resulted in upregulation of embryonic globin genes, but embryonic globin chains remained scarce and apparently inconsequential. Sox6 inactivation also resulted in downregulation of erythroid terminal markers, including the Bcl2l1 gene for the anti-apoptotic factor Bcl-xL, and in vitro assays indicated that Sox6 directly upregulates Bcl2l1 downstream of and beyond erythropoietin signaling.
This study demonstrates that Sox6 is necessary for efficient erythropoiesis in adult mice under both basal and stress conditions. It is primarily involved in enhancing the survival rate and maturation process of erythroid cells and acts at least in part by upregulating Bcl2l1.
During organogenesis, neural and mesenchymal progenitor cells give rise to many cell lineages, but their molecular requirements for self-renewal and lineage decisions are incompletely understood. In this study, we show that their survival critically relies on the redundantly acting SoxC transcription factors Sox4, Sox11 and Sox12. The more SoxC alleles that are deleted in mouse embryos, the more severe and widespread organ hypoplasia is. SoxC triple-null embryos die at midgestation unturned and tiny, with normal patterning and lineage specification, but with massively dying neural and mesenchymal progenitor cells. Specific inactivation of SoxC genes in neural and mesenchymal cells leads to selective apoptosis of these cells, suggesting SoxC cell-autonomous roles. Tead2 functionally interacts with SoxC genes in embryonic development, and is a direct target of SoxC proteins. SoxC genes therefore ensure neural and mesenchymal progenitor cell survival, and function in part by activating this transcriptional mediator of the Hippo signalling pathway.
The Sry-related high-mobility-group box transcription factor Sox9 recruits the redundant L-Sox5 and Sox6 proteins to effect chondrogenesis, but the mode of action of the trio remains unclear. We identify here a highly conserved 359-bp sequence 10 kb upstream of the Agc1 gene for aggrecan, a most essential cartilage proteoglycan and key marker of chondrocyte differentiation. This sequence directs expression of a minimal promoter in both embryonic and adult cartilage in transgenic mice, in a manner that matches Agc1 expression. The chondrogenic trio is required and sufficient to mediate the activity of this enhancer. It acts directly, Sox9 binding to a critical cis-acting element and L-Sox5/Sox6 binding to three additional elements, which are cooperatively needed. Upon binding to their specific sites, L-Sox5/Sox6 increases the efficiency of Sox9 binding to its own recognition site and thereby robustly potentiates the ability of Sox9 to activate the enhancer. L-Sox5/Sox6 similarly secures Sox9 binding to Col2a1 (encoding collagen-2) and other cartilage-specific enhancers. This study thus uncovers critical cis-acting elements and transcription factors driving Agc1 expression in cartilage and increases understanding of the mode of action of the chondrogenic Sox trio.
The group C of Sry-related high-mobility group (HMG) box (Sox) transcription factors has three members in most vertebrates: Sox4, Sox11 and Sox12. Sox4 and Sox11 have key roles in cardiac, neuronal and other major developmental processes, but their molecular roles in many lineages and the roles of Sox12 remain largely unknown. We show here that the three genes are co-expressed at high levels in neuronal and mesenchymal tissues in the developing mouse, and at variable relative levels in many other tissues. The three proteins have conserved remarkable identity through evolution in the HMG box DNA-binding domain and in the C-terminal 33 residues, and we demonstrate that the latter residues constitute their transactivation domain (TAD). Sox11 activates transcription several times more efficiently than Sox4 and up to one order of magnitude more efficiently than Sox12, owing to a more stable α-helical structure of its TAD. This domain and acidic domains interfere with DNA binding, Sox11 being most affected and Sox4 least affected. The proteins are nevertheless capable of competing with one another in reporter gene transactivation. We conclude that the three SoxC proteins have conserved overlapping expression patterns and molecular properties, and might therefore act in concert to fulfill essential roles in vivo.
Maintain stemness, commit to a specific lineage, differentiate, proliferate, or die. These are essential decisions that every cell is constantly challenged to make in multi-cellular organisms to ensure proper development, adult maintenance, and adaptability. SRY-related high-mobility-group box (Sox) transcription factors have emerged in the animal kingdom to help cells effect such decisions. They are encoded by twenty genes in humans and mice. They share a highly conserved high-mobility-group box domain that was originally identified in SRY, the sex-determining gene on the Y chromosome, and that has derived from a canonical high-mobility-group domain characteristic of chromatin-associated proteins. The high-mobility-group box domain binds DNA in the minor groove and increases its DNA binding affinity and specificity by interacting with many types of transcription factors. It also bends DNA and may thereby confer on Sox proteins a unique and critical role in the assembly of transcriptional enhanceosomes. Sox proteins fall into eight groups. Most feature a transactivation or transrepression domain and thereby also act as typical transcription factors. Each gene has distinct expression pattern and molecular properties, often redundant with those in the same group and overlapping with those in other groups. As a whole the Sox family controls cell fate and differentiation in a multitude of processes, such as male differentiation, stemness, neurogenesis, and skeletogenesis. We review their specific molecular properties and in vivo roles, stress recent advances in the field, and suggest directions for future investigations.
Sox; transcription factor; stem cell; differentiation; HMG
The long-term integrity of an articulating joint is dependent upon the nourishment of its cartilage component and the protection of the cartilage surface from friction-induced wear. Loss-of-function mutations in lubricin (a secreted glycoprotein encoded by the gene PRG4) cause the human autosomal recessive disorder camptodactyly-arthropathy-coxa vara-pericarditis syndrome (CACP). A major feature of CACP is precocious joint failure. In order to delineate the mechanism by which lubricin protects joints, we studied the expression of Prg4 mRNA during mouse joint development, and we created lubricin-mutant mice. Prg4 began to be expressed in surface chondrocytes and synoviocytes after joint cavitation had occurred and remained strongly expressed by these cells postnatally. Mice lacking lubricin were viable and fertile. In the newborn period, their joints appeared normal. As the mice aged, we observed abnormal protein deposits on the cartilage surface and disappearance of underlying superficial zone chondrocytes. In addition to cartilage surface changes and subsequent cartilage deterioration, intimal cells in the synovium surrounding the joint space became hyperplastic, which further contributed to joint failure. Purified or recombinant lubricin inhibited the growth of these synoviocytes in vitro. Tendon and tendon sheath involvement was present in the ankle joints, where morphologic changes and abnormal calcification of these structures were observed. We conclude that lubricin has multiple functions in articulating joints and tendons that include the protection of surfaces and the control of synovial cell growth.
Sox5 and Sox6 encode Sry-related transcription factors that redundantly promote early chondroblast differentiation. Using mouse embryos with three or four null alleles of Sox5 and Sox6, we show that they are also essential and redundant in major steps of growth plate chondrocyte differentiation. Sox5 and Sox6 promote the development of a highly proliferating pool of chondroblasts between the epiphyses and metaphyses of future long bones. This pool is the likely cellular source of growth plates. Sox5 and Sox6 permit formation of growth plate columnar zones by keeping chondroblasts proliferating and by delaying chondrocyte prehypertrophy. They allow induction of chondrocyte hypertrophy and permit formation of prehypertrophic and hypertrophic zones by delaying chondrocyte terminal differentiation induced by ossification fronts. They act, at least in part, by down-regulating Ihh signaling, Fgfr3, and Runx2 and by up-regulating Bmp6. In conclusion, Sox5 and Sox6 are needed for the establishment of multilayered growth plates, and thereby for proper and timely development of endochondral bones.
chondrogenesis; development; differentiation; mouse; transcription factor
Sox9 is a high-mobility-group domain-containing transcription factor required for chondrocyte differentiation and cartilage formation. We used a yeast two-hybrid method based on Son of Sevenless (SOS) recruitment to screen a chondrocyte cDNA library and found that the catalytic subunit of cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase A (PKA-Cα) interacted specifically with SOX9. Next we found that two consensus PKA phosphorylation sites within SOX9 could be phosphorylated by PKA in vitro and that SOX9 could be phosphorylated by PKA-Cα in vivo. In COS-7 cells cotransfected with PKA-Cα and SOX9 expression plasmids, PKA enhanced the phosphorylation of wild-type SOX9 but did not affect phosphorylation of a SOX9 protein in which the two PKA phosphorylation sites (S64 and S211) were mutated. Using a phosphospecific antibody that specifically recognized SOX9 phosphorylated at serine 211, one of the two PKA phosphorylation sites, we demonstrated that addition of cAMP to chondrocytes strongly increased the phosphorylation of endogenous Sox9. In addition, immunohistochemistry of mouse embryo hind legs showed that Sox9 phosphorylated at serine 211 was principally localized in the prehypertrophic zone of the growth plate, corresponding to the major site of expression of the parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) receptor. Since cAMP has previously been shown to effectively increase the mRNA levels of Col2a1 and other specific markers of chondrocyte differentiation in culture, we then asked whether PKA phosphorylation could modulate the activity of SOX9. Addition of 8-bromo-cAMP to chondrocytes in culture increased the activity of a transiently transfected SOX9-dependent 48-bp Col2a1 chondrocyte-specific enhancer; similarly, cotransfection of PKA-Cα increased the activity of this enhancer. Mutations of the two PKA phosphorylation consensus sites of SOX9 markedly decreased the PKA-Cα activation of this enhancer by SOX9. PKA phosphorylation and the mutations in the consensus PKA phosphorylation sites of SOX9 did not alter its nuclear localization. In vitro phosphorylation of SOX9 by PKA resulted in more efficient DNA binding. We conclude that SOX9 is a target of cAMP signaling and that phosphorylation of SOX9 by PKA enhances its transcriptional and DNA-binding activity. Because PTHrP signaling is mediated by cAMP, our results support the hypothesis that Sox9 is a target of PTHrP signaling in the growth plate and that the increased activity of Sox9 might mediate the effect of PTHrP in maintaining the cells as nonhypertrophic chondrocytes.