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1.  The Efficacy and Safety of Postoperative Autologous Transfusion of Filtered Shed Blood and Anticoagulant Prophylaxis in Total Knee Arthroplasty Patients 
To assess the efficacy and safety of autologous transfusion of filtered shed blood in total knee arthroplasty (TKA).
Materials and Methods
A total of 42 patients with TKA (group A; without autologous transfusion in 15 patients, group B; with autologous transfusion in 27 patients) were evaluated retrospectively. The influence of autologous reinfusion of filtered blood, bleeding tendency, amount of blood drainage, rate of allogenic transfusion, and the postoperative changes of hemoglobin were analyzed.
Allogenic transfusion was needed in 26.7% (4/15) of group A and none of group B till postoperative 48 hours. Till postoperative 14 days, 46.7% (7/15) of group A needed allogenic transfusion while 7.4% (2/27) in group B. The average drained blood volume was 1,197±400 mL in group A and 975±422 mL in group B. The average decrease of hemoglobin at postoperative 1, 7, and 14 days was 2.9±1.5, 2.9±1.6, and 2.3±1.5 g/dL respectively in group A and 2.7±0.8, 4.0±1.0, and 2.9±1.3 g/dL respectively in group B.
An autotransfusion system lowered the allogenic transfusion rate, while anticoagulants did not increase the amount of drained blood. An autotransfusion system with anticoagulants was effective and safe to save the shed blood in TKA.
PMCID: PMC3341817  PMID: 22570847
Total knee arthroplasty; Autotransfusion; Anticoagulants
2.  Evaluation of Femoral Tunnel Positioning Using 3-Dimensional Computed Tomography and Radiographs after Single Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction with Modified Transtibial Technique 
Clinics in Orthopedic Surgery  2013;5(3):188-194.
The purpose of this study is to report a modified transtibial technique to approach the center of anatomical femoral footprint in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction and to investigate the accurate femoral tunnel position with 3-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) and radiography after reconstruction.
From December 2010 to October 2011, we evaluated 98 patients who underwent primary ACL reconstruction using a modified transtibial technique to approach the center of anatomical femoral footprint in single bundle ACL reconstruction with hamstring autograft. Their femoral tunnel positions were investigated with 3D-CT and radiography postoperatively. Femoral tunnel angle was measured on the postoperative anteroposterior (AP) radiograph and the center of the femoral tunnel aperture on the lateral femoral condyle was assessed with 3D-CT according to the quadrant method by two orthopedic surgeons.
According to the quadrant method with 3D-CT, the femoral tunnel was measured at a mean of 32.94% ± 5.16% from the proximal condylar surface (parallel to the Blumensaat line) and 41.89% ± 5.58% from the notch roof (perpendicular to the Blumensaat line) with good interobserver (intraclass correlation coefficients [ICC], 0.766 and 0.793, respectively) and intraobserver reliability (ICC, 0.875 and 0.893, respectively). According to the radiographic measurement on the AP view, the femoral tunnel angles averaged 50.43° ± 7.04° (ICC, 0.783 and 0.911, respectively).
Our modified transtibial technique is anticipated to provide more anatomical placement of the femoral tunnel during ACL reconstruction than the former traditional transtibial techniques.
PMCID: PMC3758988  PMID: 24009904
Femoral tunnel; Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction; Transtibial technique; 3-Dimensional computed tomography
3.  Effect of Correction of the Contractured Flexed Osteoarthritic Knee on the Sagittal Alignment by Total Replacement 
Asian Spine Journal  2013;7(3):204-211.
Study Design
A prospective analysis of an adaptive change of the spinopelvic alignment after total knee arthroplasty.
To evaluate the effect of correction of the contractured knee in flexion on the spinopelvic alignment by total knee arthroplasty.
Overview of Literature
Flexion contracture of the knee joint may affect the body posture and precipitate the symptoms in the lumbar spine, which is known as the 'knee-spine syndrome'.
Fifteen patients who could be followed at least over 12 months were used in this study. Neutral whole spine lateral standing radiograms taken at certain intervals were analyzed. The subjects were divided into two groups (group A, the patients who obtained over 10° correction; group B, the others). The sacral slope, the pelvic tilt and the pelvic incidence were measured preoperatively and at 12 months and thereafter postoperatively in all the patients. Also, the thoracic kyphosis, lumbar lordosis, and lumbosacral angle were measured, including the spinal sagittal balance, S1 overhang and spino-sacral angle.
The average correction of the contractured knee in flexion were 13.8° in group A and 2.7° in group B. The median of changes of the sacral slope were 4.2° in group A and -0.4° in group B. These results revealed that there was a significant increase of the sacral slope for group A (p=0.001). However, there were no significant differences between the other parameters.
The sacral slope appears to be affected by the change of the flexion contracture after total knee arthroplasty.
PMCID: PMC3779772  PMID: 24066216
Sagittal; Alignment; Spine; Pelvis; Total knee arthroplasty
4.  Morbidity and Mortality in Jeju Residents over 50-Years of Age with Hip Fracture with Mean 6-Year Follow-Up: A Prospective Cohort Study 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2013;28(7):1089-1094.
This prospective cohort study was performed to estimate the morbidity and mortality with 790 patients over 50-yr of age that sustained a femoral neck or intertrochanteric fracture from 2002 to 2006, followed-up for a mean of 6 yr (range, 4 to 9 yr). Crude and annual standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated; and mortalities in the cohort and the age and sex matched general population were compared. The risk factors on mortality and activities pre- and post-injury were assessed. Accumulated mortality was 16.7% (132 patients) at 1 yr, 45.8% (337 patients) at 5 yr, and 60% (372 patients) at 8 yr. SMR at 5 yr post-injury was 1.3 times that of the general population. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that age (OR, 1.074; 95% CI, 1.050-1.097; P<0.001), woman (OR, 1.893; 95% CI, 1.207-2.968; P=0.005), and medical comorbidity (OR, 1.334; 95% CI, 1.167-1.524 P<0.001) were independently associated with mortality after hip fracture. Only 59 of the 150 patients (39.3%) who were able to ambulate normally outdoors at preinjury retained this ability at final follow-up. Patients with a hip fracture exhibits higher mortality at up to 5 yr than general population. Age and a preinjury comorbidity are associated with mortality.
PMCID: PMC3708083  PMID: 23853495
Hip Fracture; Mortality; Standardized Mortality Ratio; Risk Factor; Morbidity
5.  The Stability Score of the Intramedullary Nailed Intertrochanteric Fractures: Stability of Nailed Fracture and Postoperative Patient Mobilization 
Clinics in Orthopedic Surgery  2013;5(1):10-18.
Intertrochanteric fractures of the femur are the most common type of fracture, and are an increasing occurrence due to the aging of the population. The objectives of our study are to predict the fate of intertrochanteric fractures treated with intramedullary hip nails by assessing the postoperative fracture stability utilizing the newly developed scoring system, and to help rehabilitate these patients.
Eighty-two patients with intertrochanteric fractures that were treated with intramedullary hip nails between December, 2004 and January, 2011 were subjected to this study. The patients who could be followed for a minimum of one year postoperatively were enrolled. The immediate postoperative conditions were determined by radiograms: reduction status (3 parameters/4 points: contact accuracy of posteromedial cortex, severity of angulation, and distraction), fixation status (3 parameters/3 points: tip-apex distance, location of tip of the lag screw, entry point of the intramedullary nail), and fracture type (1 parameter/1 point: stable or unstable type by the Kyle's classification). Postoperative reduction loss and fixation failure were checked by radiograms taken at a minimum 3 months postoperative.
Reduction loss and fixation failure were observed in 14 consecutive patients (17%). The fixation failure rate was 100% (2 patients) in score 1, 60% (3 out of the 5 patients) in score 2, 39% (3 out of the 8 patients) in score 3, and 50% (4 out of the 8 patients) in score 4 groups. There were fixation failures only in 1 out of 13 patients with score 5, and in 1 out of 18 patients with score 6. There was no fixation failure in 17 patients with score 7 and 11 patients with score 8.
Maintenance of the fracture reduction by the stable fixation in the patient scores over 5 could be predicted by the postoperative radiograms.
PMCID: PMC3582866  PMID: 23467110
Intertrochanteric; Fracture; Intramedullary hip nail; Fixation stability score
6.  The Tips and Pitfalls of Meniscus Allograft Transplantation 
Knee Surgery & Related Research  2012;24(3):137-145.
When faced with an irrepairable meniscus or a patient who has had a total or subtotal meniscectomy, meniscus allograft transplantation (MAT) is the preferred modality to restore biomechanical function of the meniscus. The indications for meniscus allograft transplantation are yet to be established. However, currently, MAT has previously been indicated for symptomatic patients who have mild or early osteoarthritis, are younger than 50 years of age, and present with an Outerbridge grade II or lower. The short- to intermediate-term results confirmed noteworthy clinical improvements and consistent objective findings. On the other hand, the successful outcome would be reduced by various complications. Therefore, long-term observation required to evaluate the longevity of these results. The purpose of this article is to review the current research of concerns on the results of MAT, and to describe the technical tips and pitfalls so as to successful clinical results.
PMCID: PMC3438274  PMID: 22977790
Knee; Meniscus; Meniscus allograft transplantation
7.  Tuberculosis of hip in children: A retrospective analysis 
Indian Journal of Orthopaedics  2012;46(2):191-199.
Tuberculosis (TB) of hip constitutes nearly 15% of all cases of osteoarticular tuberculosis. We report a retrospective study carried out on 43 children with hip TB.
Materials and Methods:
Forty-three children of TB hip treated between 1971 and 2000 were analysed. Twenty-four children of the early series were treated with streptomycin (S), isoniazid (H) and PAS (Pa) for 18 months (3HPaS, 15 HPa), while 19 children in the later series were treated with isoniazid (H), rifampicin (R) and ethambutol (E) or pyrazinamide (Z) for 12 months [(12 RHE(Z)]. Five out of 18 children with radiologically normal appearing type hip TB were treated with chemotherapy alone and 38 children were subjected to surgery; simple synovectomy alone in 31 hips, joint debridement in six hips, and proximal femoral varisation osteotomy in one. After surgery hips were immobilized in cast for one to three months according to the severity of the disease and patients pain tolerance, and then were mobilized under leg traction in bed gradually till pain subsided completely.
TB of hip healed with minimum sequelae in all children. In 18 Type one hip TB, normal hip (synovial form) anatomy was maintained, and in 25 patients with advanced lesions some defect in the femoral head and acetabulum was noticed, though painless good hip motion was maintained. Excellent to good results were obtained in 31 children (73.1%), fair in eight (18.6%), and poor in four (9.3%). In four patients with poor results, there was some residual morphological defect in the hip. None developed ankylosis of hip.
We achieved good outcome with minimum sequelae in this series. The management goal should be aimed not only to heal the disease but also to maintain a painless mobile hip and anatomical cephalocotyloid relationship until maturity, and retard the development of secondary osteoarthritis.
PMCID: PMC3308661  PMID: 22448058
Tuberculosis; hip; osteoarticular; infective arthritis
8.  Orthopedic Surgeon's Awareness Can Improve Osteoporosis Treatment Following Hip Fracture: A Prospective Cohort Study 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2011;26(11):1501-1507.
Through retrospective Jeju-cohort study at 2005, we found low rates of detection of osteoporosis (20.1%) and medication for osteoporosis (15.5%) in those who experienced hip fracture. This study was to determine the orthopedic surgeons' awareness could increase the osteoporosis treatment rate after a hip fracture and the patient barriers to osteoporosis management. We prospectively followed 208 patients older than 50 yr who were enrolled for hip fractures during 2007 in Jeju-cohort. Thirty four fractures in men and 174 in women were treated at the eight hospitals. During the study period, orthopedic surgeons who worked at these hospitals attended two education sessions and were provided with posters and brochures. Patients were interviewed 6 months after discharge using an evaluation questionnaire regarding their perceptions of barriers to osteoporosis treatment. The patients were followed for a minimum of one year. Ninety-four patients (45.2%) underwent detection of osteoporosis by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and 67 (32.2%) were prescribed medication for osteoporosis at the time of discharge. According to the questionnaire, the most common barrier to treatment for osteoporosis after a hip fracture was patients reluctance. The detection and medication rate for osteoporosis after hip fracture increased twofold after orthopedic surgeons had attended the intervention program. Nevertheless, the osteoporosis treatment rate remains inadequate.
PMCID: PMC3207055  PMID: 22065908
Hip Fractures; Orthopedic Surgeon; Osteoporosis; Treatment
9.  Spinal Epidural Abscess with Pyogenic Arthritis of Facet Joint Treated with Antibiotic-Bone Cement Beads - A Case Report - 
Asian Spine Journal  2007;1(1):61-64.
Most epidural abscesses are a secondary lesion of pyogenic spondylodiscitis. An epidural abscess associated with pyogenic arthritis of the facet joint is quite rare. To the best of our knowledge, there is no report of the use of antibiotic-cement beads in the surgical treatment of an epidural abscess. This paper reports a 63-year-old male who sustained a 1-week history of radiating pain to both lower extremities combined with lower back pain. MRI revealed space-occupying lesions, which were located in both sides of the anterior epidural space of L4, and CT scans showed irregular widening and bony erosion of the facet joints of L4-5. A staphylococcal infection was identified after a posterior decompression and an open drainage. Antibiotic- bone cement beads were used as a local controller of the infection and as a spacer or an indicator for the second operation. An intravenous injection of anti-staphylococcal antibiotics resolved the back pain and radicular pain and normalized the laboratory findings. We point out not only the association of an epidural abscess with facet joint infection, but also the possible indication of antibiotic-bone cement beads in the treatment of epidural abscesses.
PMCID: PMC2857502  PMID: 20411156
Epidural abscess; Facet joint infection; Lumbar spine; Antibiotic-bone cement bead

Results 1-9 (9)