The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and risk factors for vascular diseases in a population-based cohort study, the Hallym Aging Study (HAS).
Materials and Methods
Among the 1,520 participants in HAS, 280 men aged more than 50 years, who underwent detailed health evaluations, including health-related questionnaires, evaluations of their medical history, and various life style factors, as well as clinical measurements, were included in the study. Vascular risk factors used in the present study including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, and smoking and were assessed by medical history and clinical measurements. LUTS were assessed by validated questionnaires, the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), and the relationship between LUTS and vascular risk factors was investigated.
Of the 280 men, 175 (62.5%) had moderate/severe LUTS (IPSS>7) and 260 (93%) had one or more vascular risk factors. The IPSS was similar in those with no (11.6±9.7) and one or two (11.5±8.5) vascular risk factors, but increased to 15.1±9.3 in those with 3 or more vascular risk factors (p<0.05). The multiple logistic regression analysis, controlling for age and body mass index (BMI) showed that men with 3 or more vascular risk factors were 3 times more likely to have moderate/severe LUTS than men without vascular risk factors (p<0.05).
Men with risk factors for vascular diseases are more likely to have LUTS and these findings suggest that vascular risk factors play a role in the development of LUTS.
Diagnosis; Risk factors; Urinary tract; Vascular diseases
Damnacanthal, an anthraquinone compound, is isolated from the roots of Morinda citrifolia L. (noni), which has been used for traditional therapy in several chronic diseases including cancer. Although noni has been consumed for a long time in Asian and Polynesian countries, the molecular mechanisms by which it exerts several benefits are starting to emerge. In this report, we examined systematic approaches on the cancer suppressing capability of damnacanthal in colorectal tumorigenesis. Damnacanthal exhibits cell growth arrest as well as caspase activity induction in colorectal cancer cells. We also examined several potential target proteins and found that the pro-apoptotic protein Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory activated gene-1 (NAG-1) is highly induced. Subsequently, we have found that damnacanthal also enhances transcription factor C/EBPβ, which controls NAG-1 transcriptional activity. Blocking of C/EBPβ by shRNA results in the reduction of NAG-1 expression as well as caspase activity in the presence of damnacanthal. Taken together, these results indicate that damnacanthal increases anti-tumorigenic activity in human colorectal cancer cells, and C/EBPβ plays a role in damnacanthal-induced NAG-1 expression.
Damnacanthal; Noni; NAG-1; GDF15; C/EBPβ; Colorectal cancer
Capsaicin is a pungent ingredient in chili red peppers and has been linked to suppression of growth in various cancer cells. However, the underlying mechanism(s) by which capsaicin induces growth arrest and apoptosis of cancer cells is not completely understood. In the present study, we investigated whether capsaicin alters β-catenin-dependent signaling in human colorectal cancer cells in vitro. Exposure of SW480, LoVo, and HCT-116 cells to capsaicin suppressed cell proliferation. Transient transfection with a β-catenin/T-cell factor (TCF)-responsive reporter indicated that capsaicin suppressed the transcriptional activity of β-catenin/TCF. Capsaicin treatment resulted in a decrease of intracellular β-catenin levels and a reduction of transcripts from the β-catenin gene (CTNNB1). These results were confirmed by a reduced luciferase reporter activity driven by promoter-reporter construct containing the promoter region of the Catnb gene. In addition, capsaicin destabilized β-catenin through enhancement of proteosomal-dependent degradation. Western blot and immunoprecipitation studies indicated that capsaicin treatment suppressed TCF-4 expression and disrupted the interaction of TCF-4 and β-catenin. This study identifies a role for the β-catenin/TCF-dependent pathway that potentially contributes to the anti-cancer activity of capsaicin in human colorectal cancer cells.
Capsaicin; β-catenin; TCF-4; Colorectal cancer
Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic parasite resulting in human infections and one of the infectious pathogens leading to uveitis and retinochoroiditis. The present study was performed to assess T. gondii infection in 20 ocular patients with chronic irregular recurrent uveitis (20 aqueous humor and 20 peripheral blood samples) using PCR. All samples were analyzed by nested PCR targeting a specific B1 gene of T. gondii. The PCR-positive rate was 25% (5/20), including 5% (1) in blood samples, 25% (5) in aqueous humor samples, and 5% (1) in both sample types. A molecular screening test for T. gondii infection in ocular patients with common clinical findings of an unclear retinal margin and an inflammatory membrane over the retina, as seen by fundus examination, may be helpful for early diagnosis and treatment.
Toxoplasma gondii; toxoplasmosis; uveitis; nested PCR; B1 gene
The pathogenesis of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) is uncertain. We investigated the potential role of inflammation in the development of LUTS, with the use of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) as an inflammatory marker, in a population-based study of aging men in Korea.
Materials and Methods
Our study used a multistage stratified design to recruit a random sample of 1,510 men aged 45 years or older in Chuncheon, Korea, in 2003. Men with urologic or neurologic diseases that could cause voiding dysfunction were excluded. Also, men with medical conditions that could affect inflammation, such as infection or the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, were excluded. LUTS were defined according to the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS). Various potential confounding factors were included in the analyses.
A total of 330 subjects were included in the final analyses. There were 155 (47.0%) with an IPSS<8 and 175 (53%) with an IPSS≥8. The mean age of all subjects was 69.2±8.4 years. The mean hsCRP level of all subjects was 2.30±3.27 (median, 1.19) mg/l. The hsCRP levels in subjects with an IPSS≥8 differed significantly from those in subjects with an IPSS<8. Also, IPSS, storage symptom, voiding symptom, and quality of life (QoL) scores increased as hsCRP levels increased, respectively. The hsCRP level remained an independent risk factor of LUTS (IPSS≥8, storage symptom score≥4, incomplete voiding, intermittency, and QoL) after adjustment for variable possible confounding factors.
Our results suggest that inflammatory processes may play an important role in the pathogenesis of LUTS and that hsCRP levels may indicate the severity of LUTS in aging men.
C-reactive protein; Inflammation; Lower urinary tract symptoms
With the improved surgical techniques and immunosuppression available today, conventional prognostic factors have taken on less significance. Accordingly, the native renal function of the donor is thought to be more important. Thus, we analyzed the prognostic significance of the donor's renal function as assessed by 24-hour urine creatinine clearance on kidney graft survival for 10 years after living kidney transplantation.
Materials and Methods
From January 1998 to July 2000, 71 living kidney transplantations were performed at a single institution. From among these, 68 recipients were followed for more than 6 months and were included in the present analysis. We analyzed kidney graft survival according to clinical parameters of the donor and the recipient.
Mean follow-up duration of recipients after living kidney transplantation was 115.0±39.4 months (range, 10 to 157 months), and 31 recipients (45.6%) experienced kidney graft loss during this time period. Estimated mean kidney graft survival time was 131.8±6.2 months, and 5-year and 10-year kidney graft survival rates were estimated as 88.2% and 61.0%, respectively. Donor's mean 24-hour urine creatinine clearance (Ccr) before kidney transplantation was 122.8±21.2 ml/min/1.73 m2 (range, 70.1 to 186.6 ml/min/1.73 m2). The 10-year kidney graft survival rates for cases stratified by a donor's Ccr lower and higher than 120 ml/min/1.73 m2 were 39.0% and 67.2%, respectively (p=0.005). In univariate and multivariate analysis, donor's Ccr was retained as an independent prognostic factor of kidney graft survival (p=0.001 and 0.005, respectively).
Donor's 24-hour urine Ccr before living kidney transplantation was an independent prognostic factor of kidney graft survival. Therefore, it should be considered before living kidney transplantation.
Creatinine; Kidney transplantation; Survival
Resveratrol, a dietary phytoalexin readily available in the diet, is reported to possess anti-tumorigenic properties in several cancers, including colorectal. However, the underlying mechanism(s) involved is not completely understood. In the present study, we investigated the effect of resveratrol treatment on gene modulation in human colorectal cancer cells and identified activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) as the most highly induced gene after treatment. We confirmed that resveratrol up-regulates ATF3 expression, both at the mRNA and protein level, and showed resveratrol involvement in ATF3 transcriptional regulation. Analysis of the ATF3 promoter revealed the importance of early growth response-1 (Egr-1; located at −245 to −236) and Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4; located at −178 to −174) putative binding sites in resveratrol-mediated ATF3 transactivation. Specificity of these sites to the Egr-1 and KLF4 protein was confirmed by electrophoretic mobility shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Resveratrol increased Egr-1 and KLF4 expression, which preceded ATF3 expression, and further suggests Egr-1 and KLF4 involvement in resveratrol-mediated activity. We provide evidence for Egr-1 and KLF4 interaction in the presence of resveratrol, which may facilitate ATF3 transcriptional regulation by this compound. Furthermore, we demonstrate induction of apoptosis by resveratrol is mediated, in part, by increased ATF3 expression. Taken together, these results provide a novel mechanism by which resveratrol induces ATF3 expression and represent an additional explanation of how resveratrol exerts its anti-tumorigenic effects in human colorectal cancer cells.
resveratrol; apoptosis; ATF3; Egr-1; and KLF4
Persuasive epidemiological and experimental evidence suggests that dietary flavonoids have anti-cancer activity. Since conventional therapeutic and surgical approaches have not been able to fully control the incidence and outcome of most cancer types, including colorectal neoplasia, there is an urgent need to develop alternative approaches for the management of cancer. We sought to develop the best flavonoids for the inhibition of cell growth, and apigenin (flavone) proved the most promising compound in colorectal cancer cell growth arrest. Subsequently, we found that pro-apoptotic proteins (NAG-1 and p53) and cell cycle inhibitor (p21) were induced in the presence of apigenin, and kinase pathways, including PKCδ and ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), play an important role in activating these proteins. The data generated by in vitro experiments were confirmed in an animal study using APCMIN+ mice. Apigenin is able to reduce polyp numbers, accompanied by increasing p53 activation through phosphorylation in animal models. Our data suggest apparent beneficial effects of apigenin on colon cancer.
Apigenin; p53; p21; NAG-1; PKCδ; colorectal cancer
To investigate pathophysiological consequences and spontaneous recovery after cavernous nerve crush injury (CNCI) in a rat model.
Materials and Methods
Twenty 4-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the following groups: sham-operated group (n=10) and bilateral CNCI groups (n=10) for two different durations (12 and 24 weeks). At both time points, CN electrical stimulation was used to assess erectile function by measuring the intracavernous pressure. The expression of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α and sonic hedgehog (SHH) was examined in penile tissue. Immunohistochemical staining was performed for nerve growth factor (NGF), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), and smooth muscle α-actin.
CNCI significantly decreased erectile function at 12 weeks (51.7% vs. 71.9%, mean ICP/BP ratio, p<0.05) and increased the expression of HIF-1α and decreased the expression of eNOS, nNOS, and SHH. At 24 weeks, erectile function in the CNCI group was improved with no significant difference versus the sham group (70.5% vs. 63.3%, mean ICP/BP ratio, p<0.05) or the CN group at 12 weeks (51.7% vs. 63.3%, mean ICP/BP ratio, p<0.05). By RT-PCR, the increase in HIF-1α and decrease in SHH mRNA was restored at 24 weeks. By immunohistochemistry, the expression of eNOS and nNOS was increased at 24 weeks.
CN injury induces significantly impaired erectile function and altered gene and protein expression, which suggests that local hypoxic and inflammatory processes may contribute to this change. Significant spontaneous recovery of erectile function was observed at 6 months after CN crush injury.
Erectile dysfunction; Hedgehog proteins; Nerve injury
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) plays a central role in cell differentiation, metabolism and tumorigenesis. We have investigated the therapeutic properties of 5-[[6-[(2-fluorophenyl)-methoxy]-2-napthalenyl]-methyl]-2,4-thiazolidinedione (MCC-555) a PPARγ agonist in human colorectal cancer cells. To elucidate the molecular mechanism(s), by which MCC-555 exerts its effects on the human colorectal cancer cells, we have analyzed the expression of two proapoptotic proteins, Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-activated gene-1 (NAG-1). MCC-555-induced expression of the transcription factor, KLF-4 was blocked by a PPARγ specific antagonist GW9662 in PPARγ-dependent manner in HCT-116 cells. We further identified a new KLF4 target gene NAG-1, which shows a pro-apoptotic activity. We confirmed that PPARγ agonists-induced NAG-1 expression was abolished using KLF4 siRNA in HCT-116 cells. Subsequently, KLF4 expression enhances the NAG-1 promoter activity in HCT-116 cells, and functional KLF4 binding sites in the NAG-1 promoter were also identified. MCC-555, a PPARγ agonist induced the expression of Klf4 mRNA and protein in murine intestinal tumors from MCC-555-treated mice, as assessed by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. This study shows that PPARγ agonists up-regulate KLF4 expression in receptor-dependent manner, and KLF4 was identified as a novel transcription factor that controls NAG-1 promoter activity in human and mouse colorectal cancers.
MCC-555; KLF4; NAG-1; thiazolidinediones
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of desmopressin combined with anticholinergics on daytime frequency and urgency in female patients with overactive bladder (OAB).
Materials and Methods
We included 68 female patients with OAB. Patients were randomly assigned to receive 5 mg of solifenacin (group I) or 5 mg of solifenacin and 0.2 mg of desmopressin (group II) for 2 weeks. A pre/post-treatment 3-day voiding diary and the Urinary Distress Inventory (UDI-6) and Incontinence Impact Questionnaire (IIQ-7) were used to assess changes in voiding symptoms and quality of life (QoL); results were compared between the two groups.
Groups I and II included 31 and 37 patients, respectively. Time to first void was 12 min later in group II (105 min vs. 117 min), but this difference was not statistically significant. However, time to the second and third voids (203 min vs. 255 min, 312 min vs. 368 min) and the first urgency episode (212 min vs. 255 min) were significantly longer in group II. Compared with group I, patients in group II showed significant improvement in QoL scores. When improvement after treatment was defined as increase in time to first void of greater than 10% after 2 weeks of treatment, desmopressin with anticholinergics was more effective in patients over the age of 65 years and with more than 150 ml of voided volume.
Desmopressin combined with anticholinergics was more effective than anticholinergics only in the treatment of female patients with OAB.
Anticholinergics; Desmopressin; Overactive bladder
Capsaicin, a natural product of the Capsicum species of red peppers, is known to induce apoptosis and suppress growth. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-activated gene-1 (NAG-1) is a cytokine associated with pro-apoptotic and antitumorigenic property in colorectal and lung cancer. Our data demonstrate that capsaicin leads to induction of apoptosis and up-regulates NAG-1 gene expression at the transcriptional level. Overexpression of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β (C/EBPβ) caused a significant increase of basal and capsaicin-induced NAG-1 promoter activity. We subsequently identified C/EBPβ binding sites in the NAG-1 promoter responsible for capsaicin-induced NAG-1 transactivation. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay confirmed binding of C/EBPβ to the NAG-1 promoter. Capsaicin treatment resulted in an increase of phosphorylated serine/threonine residues on C/EBPβ, and the immunoprecipitation study showed that capsaicin enhanced binding of C/EBPβ with glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) and activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3). The phosphorylation and interaction of C/EBPβ with GSK3β and ATF3 are decreased by the inhibition of the GSK3β and Protein Kinase C pathways. Knockdown of C/EBPβ, GSK3β or ATF3 ameliorates NAG-1 expression induced by capsaicin treatment. These data indicate that C/EBPβ phosphorylation through GSK3β may mediate capsaicin-induced expression of NAG-1 and apoptosis through cooperation with ATF3 in human colorectal cancer cells.
Tolfenamic acid (TA) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug associated with anti-tumorigenic and pro-apoptotic properties in animal and in vitro models of cancer. However, the underlying cellular mechanisms by which TA exerts its effects are only partially understood. Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) is a member of the ATF/CREB subfamily of the basic region-leucine zipper family and has been known as a tumor suppressor in human colorectal cancer cells. The present study was performed to observe whether ATF3 mediates TA-induced apoptosis and to elucidate the molecular mechanism of ATF3 transcription induced by TA. TA treatment and ectopic expression of ATF3 increased apoptosis whereas knockdown of ATF3 resulted in significant repression of TA-activated apoptosis. The TA treatment also induced ATF3 promoter activity. Internal deletion and point mutation of the predicted ATF/C/EBP binding site in ATF3 promoter abolished luciferase activation by TA. Overexpression of ATF2 resulted in significant increase of ATF3 promoter activity, and electrophoretic mobility shift assay identified this region as a core sequence to which ATF2 binds. TA treatment resulted in an increase of ATF2 phosphorylation, which was followed by a subsequent increase of ATF3 transcription. Knockdown of ATF2 abolished TA-induced ATF3 expression. We further provide evidence that TA leads to increases of phospho-p38 MAPK, JNK, and ERK levels. Inhibition of these pathways using selective inhibitors and dominant negative constructs ameliorated TA-induced ATF3 expression and promoter activities. The current study demonstrates that TA stimulates ATF3 expression and subsequently induces apoptosis. These pathways are mediated through phosphorylation of ATF2, which is mediated by p38 MAPK, JNK, and ERK-dependent pathways.
Tolfenamic acid; ATF2; ATF3; apoptosis; colorectal cancer
Abutilon indicum (L.) Sweet is an Asian phytomedicine traditionally used to treat several disorders, including diabetes mellitus. However, molecular mechanisms supporting the antidiabetic effect of A. indicum L. remain unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether extract of A. indicum L. improves insulin sensitivity. First, we observed the antidiabetic activity of aqueous extract of the entire plant (leaves, twigs and roots) of A. indicum L. on postprandial plasma glucose in diabetic rats. The subsequent experiments revealed that butanol fractions of the extract bind to PPARγ and activate 3T3-L1 differentiation. To measure glucose uptake enhanced by insulin-like activity, we used rat diaphragm incubated with various concentrations of the crude extract and found that the extract enhances glucose consumption in the incubated solution. Our data also indicate that the crude extract and the fractions (water and butanol) did not affect the activity of kinases involved in Akt and GSK-3β pathways; however, the reporter assay showed that the crude extract could activate glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) promoter activity. These results suggest that the extract from A. indicum L. may be beneficial for reducing insulin resistance through its potency in regulating adipocyte differentiation through PPARγ agonist activity, and increasing glucose utilization via GLUT1.
Expression of cyclooxygenases (COX) and lipoxygenases (LOX) has been linked to many pathophysiological phenotypes, including cell adhesion. However, many current approaches to measure cellular changes are performed only in a fixed time point. Since cells dynamically move in conjunction with the cell matrix, there is a pressing need for dynamic or time-dependent methods for the investigation of cell properties. In the presented study, we used stable human colorectal cancer cell lines ectopically expressing COX-1, COX-2, and 15LOX-1, to investigate whether expression of COX-1, COX-2, or 15LOX-1 would affect cell adhesion using our opto-electric methodology. In a fixed time point experiment, only COX-1- and COX-2-expressing cells enhanced phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase, but all the transfected cells showed invasion activity. However, in a real-time experiment using opto-electric approaches, transmitted cellular morphology was much different with tight adhesion being shown in COX-2 expressing cells, as imaged by differential interference contrast microscopy (DICM) and interference reflection contrast microscopy (IRCM). Furthermore, micro-impedance measurements showed a continued increase in both resistance and reactance of COX- and LOX-transfected cells, consistent with the imaging data. Our data indicate that both COX- and LOX-expressing cells have strong cell-to-cell and cell-to-substrate adhesions, and that cell imaging analysis with cell impedance data generates fully reliable results on cell adhesion measurement.
Cyclooxygenase; DICM; IRCM; Lipoxygenase; Impedance
To evaluate the clinical factors that impact ureteral stent-related lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) after ureteroscopic ureterolithotomy, including the stent position and medication.
Materials and Methods
Fifty-three patients who underwent ureteroscopic ureterolithotomy with indwelling a stent were distributed into three groups. On demand analgesics were given to the group 1 (n=18). Daily tamsulosin 0.2 mg was added for group 2 (n=15) and daily tamsulosin 0.2 mg and tolterodine 4 mg was added for group 3 (n=20). The patients were also subclassified into appropriate or inappropriate group according to stent position. All the patients completed a visual analogue scale (VAS) and International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) on the 1st and 7th postoperative days. The VAS and IPSS were analyzed according to the medication groups and the stent position.
In the appropriate stent potion group, only the storage symptom scores of groups 2 and 3 on the 1st postoperative day were significantly lower than those of the group 1 (p=0.001). This medication effect on LUTS was not observed in the inappropriate stent position group. In this group, total IPSS (p=0.015) and storage symptom scores (p=0.002) were higher than in the appropriate stent position group on the 7th postoperative day.
Correct placement of the stent was more important than medication for lessening stent-related storage symptoms.
Adrenergic alpha-antagonists; Cholinergic antagonists; Ureteroscopy; Urinary catheterization; Urological manifestations
Expression of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-activated gene-1 (NAG-1) inhibits gastrointestinal tumorigenesis in NAG-1 transgenic mice (C57/BL6 background). In the present study, we investigated whether NAG-1 protein would alter urethane-induced pulmonary lesions in NAG-1 transgenic mice on an FVB background (NAG-1Tg+/FVB). NAG-1Tg+/FVB mice had both decreased number and size of urethane-induced tumors, compared to control littermates (NAG-1Tg+/FVB = 16 ± 4 per mouse versus control = 20 ± 7 per mouse, p<0.05). Urethane-induced pulmonary adenomas (PAs) and adenocarcinomas (PACs) were observed in control mice, but only PAs were observed in NAG-1Tg+/FVB mice. Urethane-induced tumors from control littermates and NAG-1Tg+/FVB mice highly expressed proteins in the arachidonic acid pathway (cyclooxygenases 1/2, prostaglandin E synthase, and prostaglandin E2 receptor) and highly activated several kinases (phospho-Raf-1 and phospho-ERK1/2). However, only urethane-induced p38 MAPK phosphorylation was decreased in NAG-1Tg+/FVB mice. Furthermore, significantly increased apoptosis in tumors of NAG-1Tg+/FVB mice compared to control mice was observed as assessed by caspase 3/7 activity. In addition, fewer inflammatory cells were observed in the lung tissue isolated from urethane-treated NAG-1Tg+/FVB mice compared to control mice. These results paralleled in vitro assays using human A549 pulmonary carcinoma cells. Less phosphorylated p38 MAPK was observed in cells over-expressing NAG-1, compared to control cells. Overall, our study revealed for the first time that NAG-1 protein inhibits urethane-induced tumor formation, probably mediated by the p38 MAPK pathway, and is a possible new target for lung cancer chemoprevention.
NAG-1; lung tumorigenesis; p38 MAPK; apoptosis; inflammation
We used warming fluid for maintenance of body temperature in operating room or intensive care unit. This study was aimed to investigate the effect of infusion rate and catheter length on the temperature of warming fluid.
Normal saline was used for testing infusion and temperature of infusion was maintained by a warmer as 40℃. The temperatures of solution in infusion line were measured at 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100 cm apart from warmer at six different flow rates (100, 200, 300, 700, 1,400, and 2,100 ml/h). We also measured the temperature changes at room temperature (RT) and 5℃, 10℃, and 15℃ above RT.
The time to maintain solution temperature as 40℃ was 165, 122, 37, 37, 21, and 19 s at flow rate 100, 200, 300, 700, 1,400, and 2,100 ml/h. The peak temperature was 43.58 ± 0.58, 44.43 ± 1.18, 44.37 ± 0.70, 43.79 ± 0.61, 42.82 ± 0.97, and 42.11 ± 0.92℃ according to increasing flow rate. The temperature at 100 cm apart from warmer was 23.96 ± 1.53, 25.46 ± 2.76, 29.32 ± 3.47, 31.40 ± 5.38, 31.39 ± 6.75, and 38.14 ± 0.96℃ according to increasing flow rate.
These results suggested that the decreasing rate of temperature was related inversely to the flow rate and directly to the catheter length. There may be needed a rapid infusion pump with adequate heating system at a high flow rate and to locate the warmer close to patient for reserving a heating effect.
Fluid temperature; Infusion rate; Warmer
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are known to prevent colorectal tumorigenesis. Although anti-tumor effects of NSAIDs are mainly due to inhibition of cyclooxgenase (COX) activity, there is increasing evidence that COX-independent mechanisms may also play an important role. The early growth response-1 (EGR-1) gene is a member of the immediate early gene family and has been identified as a tumor suppressor gene. Tolfenamic acid (TA) is an NSAID that exhibits anti-cancer activity in a pancreatic cancer model. In the present study, we investigated the anti-cancer activity of TA in human colorectal cancer cells. TA treatment inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis as measured by caspase activity and bioelectric impedance. TA induced EGR-1 expression at the transcription level, and analysis of the EGR-1 promoter showed that a putative ETS binding site (EBS), located at −400 and −394 bp, was required for activation by TA. The electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay confirmed that this sequence specifically bound to the ETS family protein ESE-1 transcription factor. TA also facilitated translocation of endogenous and exogenous ESE-1 to the nucleus in colorectal cancer cells, and gene silencing using ESE-1 siRNA attenuated TA-induced EGR-1 expression and apoptosis. Overexpression of EGR-1 increased apoptosis and decreased bioelectrical impedance, and silencing of endogenous EGR-1 prevented TA-induced apoptosis. These results demonstrate that activation of ESE-1 via enhanced nuclear translocation mediates TA-induced EGR-1 expression, which plays a critical role in the activation of apoptosis.
Tolfenamic acid; EGR-1; ESE-1; NAG-1; NSAID
Epicatechin gallate (ECG) is the third major catechin component in green tea, but it shows strong biological activity in some aspects, including apoptosis, cell growth inhibition, and membrane transport system in various cells. We previously reported that ECG induces activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), which is involved in pro-apoptosis in HCT-116 cells. In this report, we present a molecular mechanism by which ECG induces ATF3 expression at the transcriptional level. We found that Sp3 contributed to the basal expression of the ATF3 gene, whereas EGR-1 played an important role in ECG-induced ATF3 expression in HCT-116 cells, as assessed by EMSA and co-transfection experiments. These results suggested that EGR-1, a tumour suppressor protein, could substantiate ECG’s role of ATF3 expression in human colorectal cancer cells. We also found that pro-oxidant activity of ECG contributed to ECG-induced ATF3 expression.
ATF3; ECG; EGCG; EGR-1
Background & Aims
Green tea catechins are known to have anticarcinogenic effects. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) accounts for almost 50% of the total catechin content in green tea extract and has very potent antioxidant effects. EGCG also inhibits angiogenesis, possibly through the inhibition of proangiogenic factors including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), which in turn, inhibits tumor growth and metastasis. However, the exact molecular mechanism by which EGCG suppresses bFGF expression is not known. Our objective was to elucidate the molecular mechanisms by which EGCG inhibits bFGF expression in colorectal cancer.
We examined posttranslational regulation of bFGF by EGCG in human colorectal cancer cells. We also examined bFGF in intestinal tumor formation of APCMin/+ mice with and without catechin treatment.
The bFGF protein was quickly degraded in the presence of EGCG, but a proteasome inhibitor suppressed this degradation. EGCG was also found to increase ubiquitination of bFGF and trypsin-like activity of the 20S proteasome, thereby resulting in the degradation of bFGF protein. Furthermore, EGCG suppressed tumor formation in APCMin/+ mice, compared with vehicle-treated mice, in association with reduced bFGF expression.
The ubiquitin-proteasome degradation pathway contributes significantly to down-regulation of bFGF expression by EGCG. Catechin compounds have fewer adverse effects than chemotherapeutic agents and hence can be used as proof-of-concept in cancer therapeutics to suppress growth and metastasis by targeting proteins such as bFGF.
In recent studies, green tea components have been shown to induce cell growth arrest and apoptosis in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cells. In this report, we have investigated the effects of epicatechin gallate (ECG), one of the catechins in green tea, on anti-cancer activity in vitro. We found that cyclin D1 was highly expressed in HNSCC cells, and ECG suppressed 90% of cyclin D1 expression in SCC7 cells. We have also evaluated the effect of ECG on cell growth and apoptosis, showing that ECG (50 μM) exhibited a significant inhibition (50%) on the growth of SCC7 cells via G1 cell cycle arrest. ECG suppressed cyclin D1 in SCC7 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and the suppression of the β-catenin pathway by ECG is one of the mechanism to facilitate ECG-induced cell growth arrest. These results suggest that ECG has a potential usage as a chemopreventive agent in HNSCC.
ECG; Cyclin D1; Apoptosis; HNSCC; β-Catenin; Chemoprevention
6-Gingerol, a natural product of ginger, has been known to possess anti-tumorigenic and pro-apoptotic activities. However, the mechanisms by which it prevents cancer are not well understood in human colorectal cancer. Cyclin D1 is a proto-oncogene that is overexpressed in many cancers and plays a role in cell proliferation through activation by β-catenin signaling. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-activated gene-1 (NAG-1) is a cytokine associated with pro-apoptotic and anti-tumorigenic properties. In the present study, we examined whether 6-gingerol influences cyclin D1 and NAG-1 expression and determined the mechanisms by which 6-gingerol affects the growth of human colorectal cancer cells in vitro. 6-Gingerol treatment suppressed cell proliferation and induced apoptosis and G1 cell cycle arrest. Subsequently, 6-gingerol suppressed cyclin D1 expression and induced NAG-1 expression. Cyclin D1 suppression was related to inhibition of β-catenin translocation and cyclin D1 proteolysis. Furthermore, experiments using inhibitors and siRNA transfection confirm the involvement of the PKCε and glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β pathways in 6-gingerol-induced NAG-1 expression. The results suggest that 6-gingerol stimulates apoptosis through upregulation of NAG-1 and G1 cell cycle arrest through downregulation of cyclin D1. Multiple mechanisms appear to be involved in 6-gingerol action, including protein degradation as well as β-catenin, PKCε, and GSK-3β pathways.
6-gingerol; NAG-1; cyclin D1; β-catenin; PKC; GSK-3β
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-activated gene-1 (NAG-1) is induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and possesses proapoptotic and antitumorigenic activities. Although tolfenamic acid (TA) induces apoptosis in head and neck cancer cells, the relationship between NAG-1 and TA has not been determined. This study investigated the induction of apoptosis in head and neck cancer cells treated by TA and the role of NAG-1 expression in this induction. TA reduced head and neck cancer cell viability in a dose-dependent manner and induced apoptosis. The induced apoptosis was coincident with the expression of NAG-1. Overexpression of NAG-1 enhanced the apoptotic effect of TA, whereas suppression of NAG-1 expression by small interfering RNA attenuated TA-induced apoptosis. TA significantly inhibited tumor formation as assessed by xenograft models, and this result accompanied the induction of apoptotic cells and NAG-1 expression in tumor tissue samples. Taken together, these results demonstrate that TA induces apoptosis via NAG-1 expression in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, providing an additional mechanistic explanation for the apoptotic activity of TA.