To identify the prevalence and clinical features of detrusor underactivity (DU) in elderly men and women presenting with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS).
Materials and Methods
We reviewed 1,179 patients aged over 65 years who had undergone a urodynamic study for LUTS with no neurological or anatomical conditions. DU was defined as a bladder contractility index <100 and a maximal flow rate (Qmax) ≤12 ml/s combined with a detrusor pressure at Qmax ≤10 cmH2O for men and women, respectively.
Of the patients, 40.2% of men and 13.3% of women were classified as having DU (p<0.001). Types of clinical symptoms were not significantly different between patients with and without DU. In men, whereas the prevalence of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) was constant across the age spectrum, the prevalence of DU and detrusor overactivity (DO) increased with age, and 46.5% of men with DU also had DO or BOO. In women, the prevalence of DU also increased with age, and the trend was more remarkable in women aged over 70 years. DU was accompanied by DO or urodynamic stress urinary incontinence (USUI) in 72.6% of the women with DU. Women with DU were found to have lower cystometric capacity and exhibited a greater incidence of reduced compliance than did women without DU.
DU was a common mechanism underlying LUTS in the elderly population, especially in men. One half of the men and three quarters of the women with DU also had other pathologies such as DO, BOO, or USUI.
Aged; Prevalence; Urinary bladder; Urination disorders; Urodynamics
Sunitinib malate (Sutent; Pfizer, New York, NY, USA) is a highly selective multi-targeted agent and has been reported to have potent anti-tumor effects against various tumors, including renal cell carcinoma and gastrointestinal stromal tumors. In this study, we explored in vitro the anti-tumor effect and related molecular mechanisms of sunitinib malate against human bladder cancer cell lines. We also determined the synergistic anti-tumor effect between sunitinib and conventional cytotoxic drugs, cisplatin and gemcitabine, in bladder cancer cells.
Materials and Methods
Six human cancer cell lines (HTB5, HTB9, T24, UMUC14, SW1710, and J82) were exposed to an escalating dose of sunitinib alone or in combination with cisplatin/gemcitabine, and the cytotoxic effect of the drugs was examined by CCK-8 assay. The synergistic effect between sunitinib and cisplatin/gemcitabine was determined by the combination index (CI) and clonogenic assay. Alterations in cell cycle (cyclin D, B1), survival (p-Akt, t-Akt), and apoptosis (Bax, Bad) regulator expression were analyzed by Western blotting.
Like cisplatin and gemcitabine, sunitinib exerted a dose- and time-dependent anti-tumor effect in bladder cancer cells. However, sunitinib exhibited entirely different sensitivity profiles from cisplatin and gemcitabine. Sunitinib suppressed the expression of cyclin B1, p-Akt, and t-Akt while augmenting the expression of cyclin D and pro-apoptotic Bax and Bad in HTB5 cells. Analysis of the drug combination by the isobolic method and clonogenic assay revealed that sunitinib acts in synergy with gemcitabine in HTB5 cells.
These results indicate that sunitinib malate has a potent anti-tumor effect and may synergistically enhance the anti-tumor effect of gemcitabine in human bladder cancer cells.
Carcinoma; Cisplatin; Gemcitabine; Sunitinib; Urinary bladder
Cell cycle plays a crucial role in regulating the pathway used to repair DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, homologous recombination is primarily limited to non-G1 cells as the formation of recombinogenic single-stranded DNA requires CDK1-dependent 5′ to 3′ resection of DNA ends. However, the effect of cell cycle on non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) is not yet clearly defined. Using an assay to quantitatively measure the contributions of each repair pathway to repair product formation and cellular survival after DSB induction, we found that NHEJ is most efficient at G1, and markedly repressed at G2. Repression of NHEJ at G2 is achieved by efficient end resection and by the reduced association of core NHEJ proteins with DNA breaks, both of which depend on the CDK1 activity. Importantly, repression of 5′ end resection by CDK1 inhibition at G2 alone did not fully restore either physical association of Ku/Dnl4-Lif1 with DSBs or NHEJ proficiency to the level at G1. Expression of excess Ku can partially offset the inhibition of end joining at G2. The results suggest that regulation of Ku/Dnl4-Lif1 affinity for DNA ends may contribute to the cell cycle-dependent modulation of NHEJ efficiency.
Double strand break; End joining; Repair choice; Cell cycle
Various laparoscopic nephroureterectomy techniques for urothelial carcinoma of the upper urinary tract have been developed to minimize postoperative discomfort and the necessity for a lengthy convalescence. We performed hand-assisted retroperitoneoscopic nephroureterectomy without hand-assisted device in 3 male patients with urothelial carcinoma of the distal ureter. Average operative time and estimated blood loss were 251 min (range 235 to 280) and 250 mL (range 200 to 300), respectively. Complication did not occur and conversion to open surgery was not necessary in all cases. Postoperative analgesic requirements were moderate and the time to regular diet intake averaged 3 days (range 2 to 4). None of the patients had a positive margin on the final pathologic specimen. At the average follow-up of 8.1 months, no regional recurrence, port-site metastasis, bladder recurrence, or distant metastasis were noted in any patient. We described our initial experience with the described technique, which obviates the need for midprocedural patient repositioning.
Ureteral Neoplasms; Retroperitoneal Space; Laparoscopy
A prospective study was performed to compare the efficacy and safety of intravesical mitomycin C (MMC) instillation for the prophylaxis of bladder cancer at different concentrations (30 mg or 40 mg).
Materials and Methods
Ninety-seven patients that received complete transurethral resection for superficial bladder cancer were divided into two-randomized groups. One group (n=53) received 30 mg and the other group (n=44) received 40 mg dose of MMC weekly for 8 weeks, which was followed monthly for 10 months as maintenance therapy. The recurrence rates and side effects in both groups were recorded. The mean follow-up period was 32.4 months in the 30 mg group, and 32.0 months in the 40 mg group.
The overall one and two year recurrence rates were 19% and 24% in the 30 mg group, and 12% and 22% in the 40 mg group, which was not significantly different (p>0.05). Most of the side effects were mild and transient. Moreover, the rates of the individual side effects were not statistically different in the two groups.
Our comparison of 30 mg and 40 mg intravesical MMC instillation showed no difference in either response or side effects. Thus, we tentatively conclude that we can use 30 mg instead of 40 mg as an intravesical MMC instillation dose.
Bladder neoplasms; Mitomycin C; Instillation therapy
To evaluate the recovery of continence after robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP) and open radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP).
Materials and Methods
We identified 258 patients who underwent surgery by a single surgeon to treat localized prostate cancer. The patients were divided into two groups according to operative method. In group 1, 146 consecutive patients underwent RALP, and in group 2, 112 patients underwent RRP. To compare the interval until the return of urinary continence between the two groups, we used the Kaplan-Meier method and the log-rank test and Cox proportional hazard regression analyses.
Differences between the two groups were found in mean estimated blood loss (EBL; p<0.001) and the rate of nerve sparing (p=0.004). When continence was defined as the use of 0 to 1 pad per day, 100% of group 1 and 98.2% of group 2 reported continence at 12 months (p=0.189). When continence was defined as no pad use, however, there was a significant difference between the two groups at 12 months: group 1, 95.7%, and group 2, 70.7% (p<0.001). The factors affecting time until no pad use in the univariate analysis with a Cox proportional hazards model were operation method, age, neurovascular bundle saving, membranous urethral length (MUL), EBL, and apical shape. In the multivariate analysis, only operation method, age, and MUL retained significance.
Our study suggests that RALP is an independent factor for the recovery of continence and that RALP has advantages for postoperative continence recovery and the quality of continence compared with RRP.
Prostate neoplasms; Prostatectomy; Robotics; Urinary incontinence
Several epidemiological surveys have reported the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in stray cats in Korea, but little information is available on T. gondii infection in household cats. The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence and risk factors of T. gondii infection among household cats reared in Seoul, Korea. A total of 474 blood samples were collected from clinically healthy household cats. All samples were tested using ELISA and PCR. The risk factor analysis was based on a questionnaire filled out by the owners. The overall positive rate for ELISA and PCR assays was 2.2% (10/437) and 2.1% (10/474), respectively. With regard to the origin of cats, the positive rates among cats adopted from the animal shelter and veterinary clinic for stray cats were significantly different (P<0.05). Our study demonstrated that the positive rate of T. gondii infection in household cats was low and that this low prevalence was assumed to be associated with keeping the cats indoors and restriction of eating raw food and uncooked meat. Therefore, we suggest that the owners check the origin of the cats prior to adoption to prevent infection of other animals, including humans.
Toxoplasma gondii; risk factor; household cat; PCR; ELISA
Tight junction (TJ) is recognized as a second barrier of the skin. Altered expression of TJ proteins in various skin diseases characterized by the abnormal permeability barrier such as psoriasis suggests that TJ could be affected by stratum corneum (SC) barrier status. However, the physiological relationship between SC and TJ barrier remains to be investigated. Therefore, we examined the effect of SC barrier disruption on the expression of TJ proteins, claudin (Cldn)-1 and Cldn-4, and TJ barrier function in hairless mouse skin. We also investigated whether the alterations in epidermal Ca2+ affected TJ proteins expression in vivo. Repeated tape-stripping induced a sequential change of the expression and function of TJ. As early as 15-30 minutes after tape-stripping, downregulation of Cldn-1 and Cldn-4 immunoreactivity and protein level without change in mRNA level was found. This was accompanied by the abnormal leakage of lanthanum. However, by 1 hour Cldn-1 and Cldn-4 immunolocalization recovered along with normalized lanthanum permeation pattern. Moreover, the mRNA and protein levels of Cldn-1 and Cldn-4 were increased by 1 to 6 hours after tape-stripping. Inhibition of calcium loss by immersion of barrier-disrupted skin into a high Ca2+ solution prevented the dislocation of Cldn-1 and Cldn-4. Occlusion of barrier-disrupted skin delayed the restoration of Cldn-1 and Cldn-4. Our results suggest that the alteration of epidermal Ca2+ gradient caused by SC barrier perturbation affects the TJ structure and function and the faster recovery of TJ as compared to the SC barrier may imply the protective homeostatic mechanism of skin barrier.
Tight junction; claudin-1; claudin-4; calcium gradient; stratum corneum permeability barrier
Paraoxonase (PON) is a high-density-lipoprotein (HDL) associated enzyme with antioxidative and anti-atherogenic property. Its function is associated with coronary artery disease and its activity genetically controlled. We evaluated whether genetic variation of PON-1 is associated with clinical outcome in a large cohort of Korean patients with drug-eluting stents implantation.
A total of 1676 patients with drug-eluting stent implantation were enrolled in the prospective CROSS-VERIFY cohort from June 2006 to June 2010. We genotyped the PON1-Q192R gene, measured clopidogrel on-treatment platelet reactivity (OPR), and analyzed lipid profiles. The primary endpoint was the composite of cardiac death, myocardial infarction, and stent thrombosis at 12 months.
PON-1 genotyping data were available in 1336 patients. Since the Q-allele is associated with decreased PON-activity, we analyzed the outcome between patients with QQ/QR (815 patients, 61%) and those with RR-genotype (521 patients, 39%). After adjustment for common cardiac risk factors, the QQ/QR-genotype was an independent predictor of the primary thrombotic endpoint with an 11-fold increased risk (HR 11.6, 95% CI: 1.55–87.0), but not repeat revascularization (HR 1.12, 95% CI: 0.78–1.61). The QQ/QR-genotype was not associated with OPR (QQ/QR: 231±86 PRU vs. RR 236±82 PRU, p = 0.342) but higher small-dense LDL levels (1.20±0.12 mg/dL vs. 0.76±0.15 mg/dL, p = 0.027). The increased risk of thrombotic outcomes was more profound in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients compared with non-ACS patients.
PON1 Q-allele is an independent predictor of worse cardiovascular outcome independent of platelet function and is associated with significantly higher levels of small dense LDL-C.
Recent studies have investigated a combination of two antimuscarinics for adult neurogenic bladder managed with clean intermittent catheterization or pediatric refractory overactive bladder (OAB). We assessed the efficacy and tolerability of this strategy in adults with idiopathic OAB.
We reviewed 49 patients with idiopathic OAB who received combined antimuscarinic medication. Patients had serially received different kinds of antimuscarinics as monotherapy, but wished to take combined medication due to a lack of sufficient subjective improvement in urgency, even with dosage escalation. Efficacy was measured by changes of episodes of urgency, daytime voiding, nocturia and mean voided volume before and after the addition of the second antimuscarinic.
The mean duration of combined medication was 9.3 months. After adding the second antimuscarinic, urgency per day decreased from 3.8 to 1.9 (p < 0.001) and daytime voiding decreased from 10.4 to 7.4 (p < 0.001). The number of nocturia episodes and the mean voided volume also improved, although there was no statistical significance. Efficacy did not differ between the 29 cases, with non-selective and non-selective drugs and 20 cases with non-selective and M3 selective drugs. Thirty-three (67.3%) patients reported to have benefited from combined medication. Maximal flow rate and post-void residual volume did not change in either of the sexes. Eleven (22.4%) patients discontinued the combination due to continued ineffectiveness and dry mouth.
This retrospective study suggests that combined medication can help adults with refractory idiopathic OAB. Combined medication was tolerated in most of our patients.
Knowledge of the prevalence of human Toxoplasma gondii infection is required in the Republic of Korea. In this study, we surveyed the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection and analyzed the risk factors associated with seropositivity among residents in 2 administrative districts; Seoul and the island of Jeju-do, which have contrasting epidemiologic characteristics. Sera and blood collected from 2,150 residents (1,114 in Seoul and 1,036 in Jeju-do) were checked for IgG antibody titers using ELISA and for the T. gondii B1 gene using PCR. In addition, participants completed a questionnaire that solicited information on gender, age, occupation, eating habits, history of contact with animals, and travel abroad. The T. gondii B1 gene was not detected in all residents examined. However, ELISA showed 8.0% (89 of 1,114 sera) positive for IgG antibodies against T. gondii in Seoul and 11.3% (117 of 1,036 sera) in Jeju-do. In both districts, the positive rates were higher in males than in females, and those 40-79 years of age showed higher rates than other ages. In Seoul, residents older than 70 years of age showed the highest positive rate, 14.9%, whereas in Jeju-do the highest prevalence, 15.6%, was in those in their sixties. The higher seropositive rate in Jeju-do than in Seoul may be related to eating habits and occupations. The present results and a review of related literature are indicative of an increased seroprevalence of T. gondii in Korea in recent years.
Toxoplasma gondii; seroprevalence; B1 gene; resident; Seoul; Jeju-do; IgG; ELISA
The present study was performed to determine the infection status of anisakid larvae in marine fish collected from 3 sea areas of the Republic of Korea. Total 86 marine fish (8 species) collected from the East Sea (Goseong-gun, Gangwon-do), 171 fish (10 species) from the South Sea (Sacheon-si, Gyeongsangnam-do), and 92 fish (7 species) from the Yellow Sea (Incheon Metropolitan City) were examined by both naked eyes and artificial digestion method. Among the total of 349 fish examined, 213 (61.0%) were infected with 8 species of anisakid larvae, i.e., Anisakis simplex, 6 types of Contracaecum spp., and Raphidascaris sp., and the mean larval density was 13.8 per infected fish. Anisakid larvae were detected in 45 fish (52.3%) from the East Sea, 131 fish (76.6%) from the South Sea, and 37 fish (40.2%) from the Yellow Sea. The average numbers of larvae detected were 4.0, 16.6, and 15.9, respectively. Anisakis simplex larvae were detected in 149 fish (42.7%), and the mean larval density was 9.0 per infected fish. They were found in 26 fish (30.2%) collected from the East Sea, 96 fish (56.1%) from the South Sea, and 27 fish (29.3%) from the Yellow Sea. The average numbers of larvae detected were 2.9, 10.3, and 10.5, respectively. Conclusively, the present study suggests that the infection rate and density of anisakid larvae are more or less higher in the fish from the South Sea than those from the East Sea or the Yellow Sea.
Anisakis simplex; anisakid larva; marine fish; the East Sea; the South Sea; the Yellow Sea
To evaluate the impact of primary Gleason grade in Gleason score (GS) 7 prostate cancer on biochemical recurrence (BCR) after radical prostatectomy in Korean men.
Materials and Methods
We retrospectively reviewed records of 1,026 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital between November 2003 and June 2009. We excluded patients who had received neoadjuvant therapy and had positive resection margins. Finally, 295 and 113 patients with GS 3+4 and GS 4+3, respectively, were included in this study. All patients were followed for at least 2 years.
Of the 408 GS 7 patients, 295 (72.3%) were 3+4 and 113 (27.7%) were 4+3. Mean serum prostate specific antigen level in primary Gleason 3 was 8.99 ng/ml and primary Gleason 4 was 11.11 ng/ml. Patients with GS 4+3 were more likely to have extracapsular extension (30.1% vs. 17.6%, p<0.010) and lymphatic invasion (16.8% vs. 7.1%, p<0.005). After 2 years follow up BCR was detected in a total of 40 patients. In GS 7 with primary Gleason 3, BCR occurred in 15 (5.08%) patients while 20 (17.70%) showed BCR in GS 7 with primary Gleason 4.
In this study of a large, single center cohort of Korean men with GS 7 prostate cancer a noticeable difference in BCR was seen. Primary Gleason grade 4 have a higher risk of BCR compared to primary Gleason grade 3. This information may be useful when counseling patients on their prognosis and further management options.
Biopsy; Prostate; Prostatectomy
Chromosome integrity in response to chemically or radiation-induced chromosome breaks and the perturbation of ongoing replication forks relies on multiple DNA repair mechanisms. However, repair of these lesions may lead to unwanted chromosome rearrangement if not properly executed or regulated. As these types of chromosomal alterations threaten the cell’s and the organism’s very own survival, multiple systems are developed to avoid or at least limit break-induced chromosomal rearrangements. In this review, we highlight cellular strategies for repressing DNA break-induced chromosomal translocations in multiple model systems including yeast, mouse, and human. These pathways select proper homologous templates or broken DNA ends for the faithful repair of DNA breaks to avoid undesirable chromosomal translocations.
Chromosomal translocation; Double strand break; DNA repair; Homologous recombination; End joining
Chromosomal structural change triggers carcinogenesis and the formation of other genetic diseases. The breakpoint junctions of these rearrangements often contain small overlapping sequences called “microhomology,” yet the genetic pathway(s) responsible have yet to be defined. We report a simple genetic system to detect microhomology-mediated repair (MHMR) events after a DNA double-strand break (DSB) in budding yeast cells. MHMR using >15 bp operates as a single-strand annealing variant, requiring the non-essential DNA polymerase subunit Pol32. MHMR is inhibited by sequence mismatches, but independent of extensive DNA synthesis like break-induced replication. However, MHMR using less than 14 bp is genetically distinct from that using longer microhomology and far less efficient for the repair of distant DSBs. MHMR catalyzes chromosomal translocation almost as efficiently as intra-chromosomal repair. The results suggest that the intrinsic annealing propensity between microhomology sequences efficiently leads to chromosomal rearrangements.
Cancer results from an accumulation of mutations that transform a normal cell into one that proliferates uncontrollably. DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) can lead to genetic mutations and chromosome rearrangements, underscoring the importance of functional DNA DSB repair pathways in the maintenance of chromosome integrity and tumor suppression. Ample evidence suggests that cells possess multiple DSB repair mechanisms with distinct mutational potentials, and one or more of these pathways is likely responsible for the formation of chromosomal translocations. Importantly, at the junctions of many rearrangements, small (2–20 bp in length) overlapping sequences from each of the original sequences, termed “microhomology,” are found, and they may provide a clue as to how these rearrangements form. Here, we describe our genetic investigation into how flanking microhomology influences the type and frequency of DSB repair. We also show that microhomology-mediated repair (MHMR) efficiently induces chromosomal translocations. This research provides a basic understanding of the mechanisms that utilize microhomology for mutagenic repair.
We investigated the correlation between body mass index (BMI) and the prognosis of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) in patients who received docetaxel treatment.
Materials and Methods
A retrospective study was conducted of 55 patients who were diagnosed with CRPC and received docetaxel treatment between 2003 and 2009 at our institution. Patients with a normal or lower BMI (<23.0 kg/m2) were categorized as group I and patients with an overweight or greater BMI (≥23.0 kg/m2) were categorized as group II. Clinicopathological features and survival rates were evaluated by using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards models.
On the basis of BMI, 27 patients (49.1%) belonged to group I and 28 (50.9%) patients belonged to group II. Mean follow-up periods were 30 months and 34.2 months, respectively (p=0.381). There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of age, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), Gleason score, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status, hemoglobin level, alkaline phosphatase level, distant metastasis, radiation treatments, or performance of radical prostatectomy (p>0.05). In the univariate analysis for predicting survival rates, BMI (p=0.005; hazard ratio [HR], 0.121), logPSA (p=0.044; HR, 2.878), and alkaline phosphatase level (p=0.039; HR, 8.582) were significant factors for prediction. In the multivariate analysis, BMI (p=0.005; HR, 0.55), logPSA (p=0.008; HR, 7.836), Gleason score (p=0.018; HR, 6.434), hemoglobin (p=0.006; HR, 0.096), alkaline phosphatase level (p=0.005; HR, 114.1), and metastasis to the internal organs (p=0.028; HR, 5.195) were significant factors for prediction.
Better effects on the cancer-specific survival rate were observed in cases with higher BMI.
Cancer specific survival; Castration-resistant prostate cancer; Obesity
Angiokeratoma is a rare vascular malformation of the upper dermis that presents clinically as deep red to blue-black in color and tends to take a diverse configuration without self-limiting. Here, we reported dermoscopic findings by two cases of angiokeratoma; solitary angiokeratoma and angiokeratoma circumscriptum. A 24-year-old male presented with a 2-months history of 5 mm sized black colored papule on the right buttock. A dermoscopic pattern characterized by red and dark lacunae, whitish veil covered with scale. A 26-year-old woman presented with multiple, 2~10 mm, dark colored papules on the anterior neck with zosteriform fashion since childhood. A dermoscopic pattern presented by red lacunae intermingled with whitish veil. As a previous report, our two cases was the most common dermoscopic pattern of angiokeratoma; red lacunae and whitish veil. Angiokeratoma is often diagnosed as melanocytic nevi, Spitz nevi, malignant melanomas, pigmented basal cell carcinomas, seborrheic keratoses, dermatofibromas and other vascular lesions including hemangiomas and pyogenic granulomas. However, in the dermoscopic view, these above lesions hardly show red lacunae with whitish veils. Therefore, the dermscopic view is a useful differential method of angiokeratoma.
Using meta-analysis, the study's aim was to evaluate the efficacy of tamsulosin, an alpha-blocker, in the treatment of ureteral stones with or without shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) in Korean patients.
Materials and Methods
Relevant randomized controlled studies published through June 2011 were identified in a search of MEDLINE, KoreaMed, and the Korean Medical Database. No language restriction was applied. Only randomized controlled trials conducted with Korean patients were eligible for the analysis. The primary outcome assessed was the stone clearance rate. Two reviewers independently assessed the quality of the study and extracted the data. Meta-analysis was conducted by using R, version 2.13.0.
A total of 6 articles were selected as being suitable for evaluation. Pooling of the trials demonstrated a 43% higher expulsion rate for tamsulosin treatment compared to a control group (risk ratio [RR], 1.43; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.24 to 1.65). Similar results were obtained in all subgroup analyses according to stone location (upper: RR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.68, lower: RR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.20 to 1.88) or concomitant SWL (yes: RR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.68, no: RR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.21 to 1.83).
This meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies provides a high level of evidence supporting the suggestion that treatment with tamsulosin augments the stone expulsion rate for ureter stones with or without SWL in a Korean population. However, a high-quality, large-scale, multicenter, randomized controlled trial is warranted to fully support this hypothesis.
Adrenergic alpha-antagonists; Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy; Meta-analysis; Tamsulosin; Ureteral calculi
Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic parasite resulting in human infections and one of the infectious pathogens leading to uveitis and retinochoroiditis. The present study was performed to assess T. gondii infection in 20 ocular patients with chronic irregular recurrent uveitis (20 aqueous humor and 20 peripheral blood samples) using PCR. All samples were analyzed by nested PCR targeting a specific B1 gene of T. gondii. The PCR-positive rate was 25% (5/20), including 5% (1) in blood samples, 25% (5) in aqueous humor samples, and 5% (1) in both sample types. A molecular screening test for T. gondii infection in ocular patients with common clinical findings of an unclear retinal margin and an inflammatory membrane over the retina, as seen by fundus examination, may be helpful for early diagnosis and treatment.
Toxoplasma gondii; toxoplasmosis; uveitis; nested PCR; B1 gene
We assessed the prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis infection and changes in the egg positive rate (EPR) over 1-year time, using the adhesive cellophane-tape perianal swab method in 2,347 preschool children in Muan-gun, Jeollanam-do, Republic of Korea in 2008 and 2009. The overall EPR for E. vermicularis was 4.1% in 2008 and 4.5% in 2009. A study population of 389 children was repeatedly examined for 2 years. Within this group, the EPR in 2009 was twice higher than in 2008, and the EPR of the group of 5-7-year-old children was significantly higher than that of other age groups. Moreover, in the group of 5-7-year-old children in 2009, the rates of positive and negative conversion were significantly higher and lower, respectively, than in other age groups. Conclusively, enterobiasis was prevalent during 2008-2009 among preschool children in Muan-gun, Jeollanam-do, and the increased EPR in 2009 was due to an increase in newly acquired infections among 5-7-year-old children.
Enterobius vermicularis; prevalence; egg positive rate; preschool children; Muan-gun
Emergence agitation is associated with increased morbidity and hospital costs. However, there have been few reports in the medical literature on the occurrence of emergence agitation in adults. The aim of this study was to compare emergence agitation between sevoflurane and propofol anesthesia in adults after closed reduction of nasal bone fracture.
Forty adults (ASA I-II, 20-60 yr) undergoing closed reduction of nasal bone fracture were randomly assigned to either sevoflurane or propofol group and anesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane or propofol. The bispectral index (BIS) was monitored and maintained within 40-60. At the end of surgery, patients were transported to the post anesthetic care unit (PACU) and agitation state scale was checked by Aono's four-point scale (AFPS). Emergence agitation was defined as and AFPS score of 3 or 4. Pain score were measured by numeric rating scale (NRS) on arrival and peak value at PACU.
Nine (45.0%) patients in the sevoflurane group and 2 (10.0%) patients in the propofol group developed emergence agitation in the PACU (P = 0.031). There was no correlation between peak NRS and Aono's four-point scale.
Propofol may decrease incidence of emergence agitation compared to sevoflurane in adults undergoing closed reduction of nasal bone fracture.
Adult; Emergence agitation; Propofol; Sevoflurane
The aim of this study was to evaluate the recent changes in the clinicopathologic features of prostate cancer in Korea and to compare these features with those of Western populations.
Materials and Methods
We retrospectively reviewed the data of 1582 men undergoing radical prostatectomy for clinically localized prostate cancer between 1995 and 2007 at 10 institutions in Korea for comparison with Western studies. The patients were divided into two groups in order to evaluate the recent clinicopathological changes in prostate cancer: Group 1 had surgery between 1995 and 2003 (n=280) and Group 2 had surgery between 2004 and 2007 (n=1302). The mean follow-up period was 24 months.
Group 1 had a higher prostate-specific antigen level than Group 2 (10.0 ng/mL vs. 7.5 ng/mL, respectively; p<0.001) and a lower proportion of biopsy Gleason scores ≤6 (35.0% vs. 48.1%, respectively; p<0.001). The proportion of patients with clinical T1 stage was higher in Group 2 than in Group 1. Group 1 had a lower proportion of organ-confined disease (59.6% vs. 68.6%; p<0.001) and a lower proportion of Gleason scores ≤6 (21.3% vs. 33.0%; p<0.001), compared to Group 2. However, the relatively higher proportion of pathologic Gleason scores ≤6 in Group 2 was still lower than those of Western men, even though the proportion of organ-confined disease reached to that of Western series.
Korean men with prostate cancer currently present better clinicopathologic parameters. However, in comparison, Korean men still show relatively worse pathologic Gleason scores than Western men.
Prostate neoplasms; prostatectomy; treatment outcome; ethnic groups
Homologous recombination repairs DNA double-strand breaks by searching for, invading, and copying information from a homologous template, typically the homologous chromosome or sister chromatid. Tight wrapping of DNA around histone octamers, however, impedes access of repair proteins to DNA damage. To facilitate DNA repair, modifications of histones and energy-dependent remodeling of chromatin are required, but the precise mechanisms by which chromatin modification and remodeling enzymes contribute to homologous DNA repair are unknown. Here we have systematically assessed the role of budding yeast RSC (remodel structure of chromatin), an abundant, ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling complex, in the cellular response to spontaneous and induced DNA damage. RSC physically interacts with the recombination protein Rad59 and functions in homologous recombination. Multiple recombination assays revealed that RSC is uniquely required for recombination between sister chromatids by virtue of its ability to recruit cohesin at DNA breaks and thereby promoting sister chromatid cohesion. This study provides molecular insights into how chromatin remodeling contributes to DNA repair and maintenance of chromatin fidelity in the face of DNA damage.