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1.  Enhancing the Organoleptic and Functional Properties of Jujube by a Quick Aging Process 
Black jujube was made by aging dried jujube and its physiochemical characteristics, antioxidant activities and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities were evaluated. The moisture and sugar contents were increased depending on the period of aging times and the pH was reduced thereby increasing acidity. The color of black jujube extract was changed from red to black resulting in decreases of Hunter color values L, a and b. As the aging progressed, sucrose was decomposed by increasing glucose and fructose, indicating higher contents of the total reducing sugars. Among the six different types of organic acids extracted from dried jujube, the levels of oxalic acid and citric acid were increased as the aging progressed. The total polyphenol contents in ethanol and water extracts of dried jujube were 7.74 and 8.12 mg/g, respectively. The water extract of black jujube aged for 48 hr contained the highest polyphenol contents at 16.82 mg/g. The 5’-hydroxymethylfurfural (5’-HMF) contents of black jujube extract significantly increased by longer aging times, and contained higher contents in the ethanol extract than water extract. The ethanol extract of black jujube showed the highest 5’-HMF content with 338.89 mg% after aging for 3 days. Also, IC50 values of black jujube aged for 72 hr evaluated by DPPH and ABTS radical assays were 0.54 and 0.59 mg/mL, respectively. α-Glucosidase inhibitory activities of black jujube at the concentration of 3.33 mg/mL (ethanol extract) increased from 65 to 80 % after aging for 72 hr.
PMCID: PMC3867154  PMID: 24471110
black jujube; antioxidant; aging; α-glucosidase; organic acid
2.  Influence of Extraction Method on Quality and Functionality of Broccoli Juice 
This study was performed to compare the quality and functionality of broccoli juice as affected by extraction method. Broccoli juice was extracted using method I (NUC Kuvings silent juicer), method II (NUC centrifugal juicer), and method III (NUC mixer), and the quality properties of the broccoli juices were analyzed using three different methods. Additionally, the antioxidative, anticancer, and anti-hyperglycemic activities of broccoli juice prepared by the three different methods were investigated in vitro. The broccoli juice made by method I contained the highest polyphenol and flavonoid contents at 1,226.24 mg/L and 1,018.32 mg/L, respectively. Particularly, broccoli juice prepared by method I showed higher DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities than those of the other samples. Additionally, broccoli juice made by method I showed the highest growth inhibitory effects against HeLa, A549, AGS, and HT-29 cancer cells. Broccoli juice prepared by method I had the highest α-glucosidase inhibitory effects. These results indicate that there are important differences in chemical and functional qualities between juice extraction techniques.
PMCID: PMC3892506  PMID: 24471122
broccoli; extraction; juice; antioxidative; anticancer
3.  Physicochemical Properties of Roasted Soybean Flour Bioconverted by Solid-State Fermentation Using Bacillus subtilis and Lactobacillus plantarum 
To produce novel cheese-like fermented soybean, the solid-state fermentation of roasted soybean flour (RSF) was performed using 1.0% inoculum Bacillus subtilis HA and Lactobacillus plantarum, with the initial 60% substrate moisture for 10 hr at 42°C, resulting in pH 6.5, 0.82% acidity, 3.5% mucilage, 14.3 unit/g protease activity, 7.6 unit/g fibrinolytic activity, 216 mg% tyrosine content and 1.7×1010 CFU/g of viable cell counts. After the second lactic acid fermentation with 10∼30% skim milk powder, the fermented RSF resulted in an increase in acidity with 1.64∼1.99%, tyrosine content with 246∼308 mg% and protease activity in the range of 5.2∼17.5 unit/g and 0.966 water activity. Viable cell counts as probiotics indicated 1.6×108 CFU/g of B. subtilis and 7.3×1010 CFU/g of L. plantarum. The firmness of the first fermented RSF with 2,491 g·ømm−1 greatly decreased to 1,533 g·ømm−1 in the second fermented RSF, although firmness was slightly increased by adding a higher content of skim milk. The consistency of the second fermented RSF also decreased greatly from 55,640 to 3,264∼3,998 in the presence of 10∼30% skim milk. The effective hydrolysis of soy protein and skim milk protein in the fermented RSF was confirmed. Thus, the second fermented RSF with a sour taste and flavor showed similar textural properties to commercial soft cheese.
PMCID: PMC3866766  PMID: 24471061
solid-state fermentation; Bacillus subtilis; Lactobacillus plantarum; peptides; probiotic
4.  A novel β-glucan produced by Paenibacillus polymyxa JB115 induces nitric oxide production in RAW264.7 macrophages 
Journal of Veterinary Science  2009;10(2):165-167.
The effect of extracellular β-(1→3), (1→6)-glucan, produced by Paenibacillus polymyxa JB115, on nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW264.7 macrophages was investigated. β-glucan induced the production of NO by RAW264.7 macrophages in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Moreover, β-glucan stimulation increased the mRNA expression of iNOS, COX-2 and IL-6 in RAW264.7 macrophages in a concentration-dependent manner.
PMCID: PMC2801109  PMID: 19461214
β-glucan; macrophages; nitric oxide; Paenibacillus polymyxa
5.  Radical Scavenging Activity of the Essential Oil of Silver Fir (Abies alba) 
The essential oil of silver fir (Abies alba) is known to help respiratory system and have easing and soothing effect for muscle. In the present study, we investigated the chemical composition, cytotoxicity and its biological activities of silver fir (Abies alba) essential oil. The composition of the oil was analyzed by GC-MS and bornyl acetate (30.31%), camphene (19.81%), 3-carene (13.85%), tricyclene (12.90%), dl-limonene (7.50%), α-pinene (2.87%), caryophyllene (2.18%), β-phellandrene (2.13%), borneol (1.74%), bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-ene,2,3-dimethyl (1.64%) and α-terpinene (1.24%) were the major components in the oil. The results tested by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay indicated that the oil showed no cytotoxic effect, at concentrations of 1 and 5%, for as long as 24 and 3 h, respectively. The antiradical capacity was evaluated by measuring the scavenging activity of the essential oil on the 2,20-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis 3-ethyl benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radicals. The oil was able to reduce the both radicals dose-dependently, and the concentration required for 50% reduction (RC50) against DPPH radicals (2.7 ± 0.63%) was lower than ABTS radicals (8.5 ± 0.27%). The antibacterial activity of the oil was also evaluated using disc diffusion method against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, Listeria monocytogenes, Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, and Vibrio parahaemolyticcus. The oil exhibited no antibacterial activity against all the bacterial strains tested except S. aureus of mild activity.
PMCID: PMC2675024  PMID: 19430614
silver fir essential oil; Abies alba; GC-MS; antiradical; antibacterial

Results 1-5 (5)