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1.  Treatment Outcomes of Transurethral Macroplastique Injection for Postprostatectomy Incontinence 
Korean Journal of Urology  2014;55(3):182-189.
Purpose
We investigated the efficacy of transurethral injection of Macroplastique bulking agent (Uroplasty) for male stress urinary incontinence (SUI) after prostate surgery.
Materials and Methods
This retrospective review included men with SUI treated by transurethral injection for symptoms resulting from prostate surgery. Patients were evaluated at 1 month and 6 months after injection by determining the number of pads used per day and changes in incontinence symptoms. Treatment success was defined as use of 1 pad or fewer per day combined with subjective symptom improvement.
Results
The study population comprised 30 men with a mean age of 66.1±5.3 years. Of the 30 patients, 24 (80.0%) underwent prostate cancer surgery and the remaining 6 (20.0%) underwent surgery for benign prostatic hyperplasia. The preinjection pad number was 2.9±1.9 pads per day. After injection treatment, the mean follow-up period was 9.3±12.7 months and the success rate was 43% (13/30) at 1 month and 32% (6/19) at 6 months. Injection was more likely to result in a successful outcome in patients with no preinjection radiation treatment history and higher abdominal leak point pressure (ALPP) than in those with a previous history of radiation treatment and lower ALPP, although this result was not statistically significant. Acute urinary retention occurred in 5 patients (17%).
Conclusions
Transurethral Macroplastique injection treatment is a relatively non-invasive treatment method for male SUI with a success rate of 43% at 1 month and 32% at 6 months. Patients with a higher ALPP and no previous history of radiation therapy may experience better treatment outcomes.
doi:10.4111/kju.2014.55.3.182
PMCID: PMC3956947  PMID: 24648873
Dimethylpolysiloxanes; Male; Prostate; Urethra; Urinary incontinence
2.  Chlamydia and Male Lower Urinary Tract Diseases 
Korean Journal of Urology  2013;54(2):73-77.
Of the chlamydia species that can cause infections in humans, C. trachomatis is responsible for lower urinary tract diseases in men and women. C. trachomatis infections are prevalent worldwide, but current research is focused on females, with the burden of disease and infertility sequelae considered to be a predominantly female problem. However, a role for this pathogen in the development of male urethritis, epididymitis, and orchitis is widely accepted. Also, it can cause complications such as chronic prostatitis and infertility. This review summarizes C. trachomatis infection in the male genitourinary tract, including urethritis, epididymitis, orchitis, and its complications, and addresses the microbiology, epidemiology, screening, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment.
doi:10.4111/kju.2013.54.2.73
PMCID: PMC3580308  PMID: 23550267
Chlamydia; Chronic prostatitis; Epididymitis; Infertility orchitis; Urethritis
3.  Prevalence and Treatment Efficacy of Genitourinary Mycoplasmas in Women with Overactive Bladder Symptoms 
Korean Journal of Urology  2010;51(9):625-630.
Purpose
To evaluate the incidence of genitourinary mycoplasmas and the efficacy of antibiotics in women with overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms.
Materials and Methods
Women with OAB symptoms (micturition ≥8/24 hours and urgency ≥1/24 hours) for ≥3 months were screened for Mycoplasma hominis (M. hominis), Ureaplasma urealyticum (U. urealyticum), and Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis). Specimens from urethral and cervical vaginal swabs were examined for M. hominis and U. urealyticum by using the Mycoplasma IST2 kit and for C. trachomatis by using PCR. Women with positive results were treated with a 1 g dose of azithromycin. Persistent infection was treated with doxycycline. Changes in a 3-day bladder diary, Patient Perception of Bladder Condition (PPBC), and International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Female Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (ICIQ-FLUTS) were evaluated 4 weeks after negative conversion. Patient satisfaction was assessed.
Results
Of 84 women screened, 42.8% were positive (U. urealyticum, 40.5%; M. hominis, 7.1%; C. trachomatis, 3.6%; two organisms, 8.3%). After treatment, 82.7% obtained negative conversion, and their median number of micturition episodes decreased from 10.6/24 hours to 8.1/24 hours (p=0.002). PPBC and domain scores of the ICIQ-FLUTS (filling and quality of life) significantly improved. About 87.5% women with negative conversion were satisfied with the treatment.
Conclusions
Considering diagnostic tests and treatment for genitourinary mycoplasmas might be beneficial before invasive workup or treatment in women with OAB symptoms.
doi:10.4111/kju.2010.51.9.625
PMCID: PMC2941811  PMID: 20856647
Chlamydia trachomatis; Mycoplasma hominis; Overactive urinary bladder; Ureaplasma urealyticum
4.  Randomized Comparative Study of the U- and H-Type Approaches of the TVT-Secur Procedure for the Treatment of Female Stress Urinary Incontinence: One-Year Follow-Up 
Korean Journal of Urology  2010;51(4):250-256.
Purpose
We compared outcomes of the U- and H-type approaches of the tension-free vaginal tape (TVT)-Secur procedure for the treatment of female stress urinary incontinence (SUI).
Materials and Methods
From March 2007 to July 2008, 115 women with SUI underwent TVT-Secur by a single surgeon. Patients were randomly assigned to either the U- or the H-type approach. After 12 months, postoperative changes in the Sandvik questionnaire, incontinence quality of life questionnaire (I-QoL), Bristol female lower urinary tract symptoms-scored form (BFLUTS-SF), and postoperative patient satisfaction were evaluated. Cure was regarded as no leakage on the Sandvik questionnaire. Complications were also evaluated.
Results
Of 115 women, 53 were treated with the U approach, and 62 women were treated with the H approach. At 12 months, 88.7% of those treated with the U approach and 87.1% of those treated with the H approach were cured (p=0.796). The I-QoL and filling, incontinence, sexual function, and QoL sum (BFLUTS-SF) scores were improved with both approaches, and there were no significant differences in the degree of improvement between approaches. Approximately 83.7% and 82.9% of the women treated with the U and H approaches, respectively, were satisfied with the outcome (p=0.858). There were 3 cases of intra-operative vaginal wall perforation in the H-type group. Immediate postoperative retention was observed in 2 women in the U-type group and 1 woman in the H-type group. One woman in the U-type group underwent tape releasing and cutting procedures for persistent large post-void residuals.
Conclusions
The U- and the H-type approaches of the TVT-Secur procedure provided comparable effectiveness for the treatment of female SUI.
doi:10.4111/kju.2010.51.4.250
PMCID: PMC2858851  PMID: 20428427
Comparative study; Stress urinary incontinence; Therapy
5.  The Evolution of Surgical Treatment for Female Stress Urinary Incontinence: Era of Mid-Urethral Slings 
Korean Journal of Urology  2010;51(4):223-232.
Based on the integral theory, tension-free placement of a mid-urethral sling (MUS) for female stress urinary incontinence (SUI) has gained substantial popularity owing to the ease of the procedure and its effectiveness. Published series with long-term follow-up show continence rates after the MUS procedure ranging from 70% to 80%. Complication rates after MUS procedures are usually low. This review aimed to describe the historical change and the current use of the MUS. We discuss the efficacy and complications of various MUS procedures and the current strategies for managing failed slings.
doi:10.4111/kju.2010.51.4.223
PMCID: PMC2858859  PMID: 20428423
Stress urinary incontinence; Tension-free vaginal tape; Trans-obturator tape
6.  Long-Term Results of Laparoscopic Burch Colposuspension for Stress Urinary Incontinence in Women 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2009;24(6):1182-1186.
We evaluated the long-term efficacy of laparoscopic Burch colposuspension for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in women. A total of 68 patients who underwent extraperitoneal laparoscopic Burch colposuspensions with more than a 3-yr follow-up were included. The colposuspension was performed by using two non-absorbable sutures on each side. The patients were considered to be cured of SUI if they had a negative result of cough stress test and there were no reports of urine leakage during physical stress. The mean follow-up period was 52 months (range, 36 to 83 months). The overall subjective cure rate was reported in 49 patients (72%). There was no significant difference between the cured and non-cured group in terms of clinical parameters. The cure rate tended to decline gradually over time and it was more deteriorated significantly after 4 yr of surgery. Based on these results, we recommend that long-term follow-up is needed when evaluating the clinical efficacy of anti-incontinence surgery.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2009.24.6.1182
PMCID: PMC2775871  PMID: 19949679
Urinary Incontinence, Stress; Laparoscopy; Follow-Up Studies
7.  Feasibility and Outcomes of Hypofractionated Simultaneous Integrated Boost-Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy for Malignant Gliomas: A Preliminary Report 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2013;55(1):70-77.
Purpose
The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and efficacy of hypofractionated simultaneous integrated boost-intensity modulated radiotherapy (SIB-IMRT) using three-layered planning target volumes (PTV) for malignant gliomas.
Materials and Methods
We conducted a retrospective analysis of 12 patients (WHO grade IV-10; III-2) postoperatively treated with SIB-IMRT with concurrent temozolomide. Three-layered PTVs were contoured based on gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging as follows; high risk PTV (H-PTV) as the area of surgical bed including residual gross tumor with a 0.5 cm margin; low risk PTV (L-PTV) as the area surrounding the high risk PTV with 1.5 cm margin; moderate risk PTV (M-PTV) as a line at one-third the distance from high risk PTV to low risk PTV. Total dose to high risk PTV was 70 Gy in 8 and 62.5 Gy in 4 patients.
Results
The median follow-up time was 52 months in surviving patients. The 2- and 5-year overall survival (OS) rates were 66.6% and 47.6%, respectively. The 2- and 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) rates were 57.1% and 45.7%, respectively. The median OS and PFS were 48 and 31 months, respectively. Six patients (50%) progressed: in-field only in one, out-field or disseminated in 4, and both in one patient. All patients completed planned treatments without a toxicity-related gap. Asymptomatic radiation necrosis was observed in 4 patients at post-radiotherapy 9-31 months.
Conclusion
An escalated dose of hypofractionated SIB-IMRT using three-layered PTVs can be safely performed in patients with malignant glioma, and might contribute to better tumor control and survival.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2014.55.1.70
PMCID: PMC3874925  PMID: 24339289
Radiotherapy; intensity-modulated; malignant glioma; hypofractionation; simultaneous integrated boost
8.  Effectiveness of Retropubic Tension-Free Vaginal Tape and Transobturator Inside-Out Tape Procedures in Women With Overactive Bladder and Stress Urinary Incontinence 
Purpose
We compared the effectiveness of the retropubic tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) and the transobturator inside-out tape (TVT-O) in treating symptoms of overactive bladder (OAB) in women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI).
Methods
Women with urodynamic SUI and OAB (mean urgency episodes ≥1 and frequency ≥8/24 hours on a 3-day voiding diary) were assigned to the TVT or TVT-O group. Preoperative measures were based on a urodynamic study, 3-day voiding diary, the Bristol Female Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms questionnaire (BFLUTSSF), and the urgency perception scale (UPS). At 12 postoperative months, the 3-day voiding diary, symptoms questionnaire, patient satisfaction, and standing stress test were assessed. The primary endpoint was change in the number of urgency episodes/24 hours from baseline to 12 months.
Results
In this group of 132 women, 42 received TVT and 90 received TVT-O. The mean urgency episodes/24 hours decreased from 6.3±5.5 to 1.6±3.2 in the TVT group and from 5.1±4.4 to 1.8±3.0 in the TVT-O group. The mean percent change was significantly greater after TVT than after TVT-O (73% vs. 60%, P=0.049). All subscales of BFLUTSSF and UPS were significantly improved using either method, with significantly greater improvement seen in the quality of life (QoL) domain after TVT (P=0.002). There were no significant differences in the cure and satisfaction rates between the two groups.
Conclusions
Intervention with the TVT or the TVT-O significantly improved symptoms of OAB in women with SUI and OAB. Urgency and QoL significantly improved after TVT compared with that after TVT-O.
doi:10.5213/inj.2013.17.3.145
PMCID: PMC3797895  PMID: 24143294
Overactive urinary bladder; Stress urinary incontinence
9.  Transurethral Procedures for Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Resulting From Benign Prostatic Enlargement: A Quality and Meta-Analysis 
Purpose
Thanks to advancements in surgical techniques and instruments, many surgical modalities have been developed to replace transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). However, TURP remains the gold standard for the surgical treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). We conducted a meta-analysis on the efficacy and safety of minimally invasive surgical therapies for BPH compared with TURP.
Methods
This meta-analysis used a Medline search assessing the period from 1997 to 2011. A total of 784 randomized controlled trials were identified in an electronic search. Among the 784 articles, 36 randomized controlled trials that provided the highest level of evidence (level 1b) were included in the meta-analysis. We also conducted a quality analysis of selected articles.
Results
Only 2 articles (5.56%) were assessed as having a low risk of bias by use of the Cochrane collaboration risk of bias tool. On the other hand, by use of the Jadad scale, there were 26 high-quality articles (72.22%). Furthermore, 28 articles (77.78%) were assessed as high-quality articles by use of the van Tulder scale. Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) showed the highest reduction of the International Prostate Symptom Score compared with TURP (P<0.0001). Bipolar TURP, bipolar transurethral vaporization of the prostate, HoLEP, and open prostatectomy showed superior outcome in postvoid residual urine volume and maximum flow rate. The intraoperative complications of the minimally invasive surgeries had no statistically significant inferior outcomes compared with TURP. Also, there were no statistically significant differences in any of the modalities compared with TURP.
Conclusions
The selection of an appropriate surgical modality for BPH should be assessed by fully understanding each patient's clinical conditions.
doi:10.5213/inj.2013.17.2.59
PMCID: PMC3713243  PMID: 23869269
Prostatic hyperplasia; Holmium; Lasers; Potassium titanylphosphate; Transurethral resection of prostate; Meta-analysis
10.  Treatment of Urethral/Bladder Neck Stricture After High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound for Prostate Cancer With Holmium: Yttrium-Aluminium-Garnet Laser 
Purpose
To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the Holmium: yttrium-aluminium-garnet (YAG) laser for the treatment of urethral/bladder neck strictures after high-intensity focused ultrasound for prostate cancer.
Methods
Between February 2007 and July 2010, Holmium: YAG laser urethrotomies were performed in eleven patients for bladder neck strictures or prostatic urethral strictures. The laser was used with a 550-µm fiber at 2 J and frequency 30 to 50 Hz. The medical records were retrospectively reviewed for medical history, perioperative and postoperative data, uroflowmetry, International Prostate Symptoms Score/quality of life, and stricture recurrence.
Results
At a median follow-up of 12.0 months (range, 4 to 35 months), the mean postoperative maximal flow rate and residual volume were improved significantly (P<0.05). The mean postoperative total, voiding and quality of life of international prostate symptom score were improved significantly (P<0.05). Of the 11 patients, 7 patients required one treatment, 4 patients two treatment, and 1 patients three treatment. 2 patients who had a documented urinary incontinence prior to the laser treatment subsequently required artificial urinary sphincter implantation and reported satisfaction without developing any recurrent strictures or artificial urinary sphincter erosion. All patients exhibited well-healed strictures and could void without difficulty.
Conclusions
Holmium: YAG laser therapy represents a safe, effective and minimally invasive treatment for urethral/bladder neck strictures occurring secondary to high-intensity focused ultrasound for prostate cancer.
doi:10.5213/inj.2013.17.1.24
PMCID: PMC3627995  PMID: 23610708
Transrectal high-intensity focused ultrasound; Holmium; Prostate neoplasms; Urethral stricture; Urinary bladder neck obstruction
11.  Practice Patterns of Korean Urologists for Screening and Managing Prostate Cancer according to PSA Level 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2012;53(6):1136-1141.
Purpose
There are still debates on the benefit of mass screening for prostate cancer (PCA) by prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing, and on systemized surveillance protocols according to PSA level. Furthermore, there is a paucity of literature on current practice patterns according to PSA level in the Korean urologic field. Here, we report the results of a nationwide, multicenter, retrospective chart-review study.
Materials and Methods
Overall 2122 Korean men (>40 years old, PSA >2.5 ng/mL) were included in our study (from 122 centers, in 2008). The primary endpoint was to analyze the rate of prostate biopsy according to PSA level. Secondary aims were to analyze the detection rate of PCA, the clinical features of patients, and the status of surveillance for PCA according to PSA level.
Results
The rate of prostate biopsy was 7.1%, 26.3%, 54.2%, and 64.3% according to PSA levels of 2.5-3.0, 3.0-4.0, 4.0-10.0, and >10.0 ng/mL, respectively, and the PCA detection rate was 16.0%, 22.2%, 20.2%, and 59.6%, respectively. At a PSA level >4.0 ng/mL, we found a lower incidence of prostate biopsy in local clinics than in general hospitals (21.6% vs. 66.2%, respectively). A significant proportion (16.6%) of patients exhibited high Gleason scores (≥8) even in the group with low PSA values (2.5-4.0 ng/mL).
Conclusion
We believe that the results from this nationwide study might provide an important database for the establishment of practical guidelines for the screening and management of PCA in Korean populations.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2012.53.6.1136
PMCID: PMC3481378  PMID: 23074113
Mass screening; prostate biopsy; prostate specific antigen
12.  Psychometric Properties of the Korean Version of the Overactive Bladder Questionnaire (OAB-q) in a Korean Population 
Purpose
Psychometric properties of the overactive bladder questionnaire (OAB-q) were recently examined. However, since the cross-cultural adaptation of a non-English version of the OAB-q has never been demonstrated, we evaluated the psychometric properties of a Korean version of the OAB-q in a Korean population with OAB.
Methods
A prospective cohort study involving 116 women with 58 OAB and 58 control subjects was performed and convergent validity was assessed. Total and subscale OAB-q scores of the control and OAB groups were compared to their sensitivity to score changes before and after administering anti-cholinergic medication for 12 weeks. Short form 36 and King's health questionnaire (KHQ) were also used for comparison or correlation.
Results
Assessment of face validity showed that the Korean version of the OAB-q was reasonable with OAB-q subscale scores being significantly different between the control and patient groups. Significant correlation (range, -0.29 to -0.81) was found between the OAB-q scores and KHQ results for the OAB patients. Cronbach's alpha coefficients (range, 0.77 to 0.95) indicated excellent internal consistency and test-retest analysis involving 35 OAB patients showed that each questions as well as subscale scores were reproducible. Each score of OAB-q also showed statistically significant sensitivity to changes following anti-muscarinic treatment for OAB (n=27, P<0.001 except for social, P=0.059).
Conclusions
The Korean version of the OAB-q is a valid and reliable instrument to measure outcomes in Korean patients with OAB.
doi:10.5213/inj.2012.16.2.77
PMCID: PMC3395803  PMID: 22816048
Overactive urinary bladder; Quality of life; Questionnaires; Psychometrics
13.  Efficacy and Safety of Tamsulosin for Treating Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Associated with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: A Multicenter, Randomized, Controlled, Open-Label Non-Inferiority Study 
Korean Journal of Urology  2012;53(3):178-183.
Purpose
To compare the efficacy and safety of Sulosin D (PACIFICPHARMA, Korea) and Harnal D (ASTELLAS PHARMA KOREA, Korea) in treating patients with lower urinary tract symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).
Materials and Methods
This randomized, controlled, open-label, multicenter non-inferiority study was conducted at four sites in Korea. We randomly assigned 123 patients with an International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) ≥12 to receive either Sulosin D or Harnal D treatment for 8 weeks. The primary outcome was the mean change in IPSS from baseline to endpoint. Secondary outcomes were the mean change from baseline to endpoint in IPSS quality of life subscores, maximum uroflowmetry (Qmax), and post-voiding residuals (PVR).
Results
In all, 123 patients were randomly assigned (60 Sulosin D and 63 Harnal D). The changes in the total IPSS from baseline in the Sulosin D- and Harnal D-treated groups were -4.97 and -4.03, respectively. There were significant decreases compared with baseline in both groups. The mean difference (Sulosin D - Harnal D) was -0.91 (with a two-sided 90% confidence interval), inferring that Sulosin D was not inferior to Harnal D. The mean changes in the IPSS subscore, Qmax, and PVR from baseline were comparable between the groups (both p>0.05). During the treatment periods, the incidence of adverse events was 23.33% and 34.92% in the Sulosin D and Harnal D groups, respectively (p=0.1580).
Conclusions
We demonstrate the non-inferiority of Sulosin D to Harnal D in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms associated with BPH.
doi:10.4111/kju.2012.53.3.178
PMCID: PMC3312066  PMID: 22468213
Drugs, generic; Prostatic hyperplasia; Tamsulosin
14.  Laparoendoscopic Single-Site Pyeloplasty Using Additional 2 mm Instruments: A Comparison with Conventional Laparoscopic Pyeloplasty 
Korean Journal of Urology  2011;52(9):616-621.
Purpose
Despite a recent surge in the performance of laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS), concerns remain about performing LESS pyeloplasty (LESS-P) because of the technical difficulty in suturing. We report our techniques and initial experiences with LESS-P using additional needlescopic instruments and compare the results with conventional laparoscopic pyeloplasty (CL-P).
Materials and Methods
Nine patients undergoing LESS-P were matched 2:1 with regard to age and side of surgery to a previous cohort of 18 patients who underwent CL-P. In both groups, the operating procedures were performed equally except for the number of access points. In the LESS-P group, we made a single 2 cm incision at the umbilicus and used a homemade port. We also used additional 2 mm needlescopic instruments at the subcostal area to facilitate suturing and the ureteral stenting.
Results
The preoperative characteristics were comparable in both groups. Postoperatively, no significant differences were noted between the LESS-P and CL-P cases in regard to length of stay, estimated blood loss, analgesics required, and complications. But, LESS-P was associated with a shorter operative time (252.2 vs. 309.7 minutes, p=0.044) and less pain on postoperative day one (numeric rating scale 3.7 vs. 5.6, p=0.024). The success rate was 94% with CL-P (median, 23 months) and 100% with LESS-P (median, 14 months).
Conclusions
Our initial experiences suggest that LESS-P is a feasible and safe procedure. The use of additional 2 mm instruments can help to overcome the difficulties associated with LESS surgery.
doi:10.4111/kju.2011.52.9.616
PMCID: PMC3198235  PMID: 22025957
Laparoscopy; Minimally invasive; Surgical procedure; Ureteral obstruction
15.  Desmopressin is an Effective Treatment for Mixed Nocturia with Nocturnal Polyuria and Decreased Nocturnal Bladder Capacity 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2010;25(12):1792-1797.
To investigate the efficacy and safety of desmopressin in patients with mixed nocturia, Patients aged ≥18 yr with mixed nocturia (≥2 voids/night and a nocturnal polyuria index [NPi] >33% and a nocturnal bladder capacity index [NBCi] >1) were recruited. The optimum dose of oral desmopressin was determined during a 3-week dose-titration period and the determined dose was maintained for 4 weeks. The efficacy was assessed by the frequency-volume charts and the sleep questionnaire. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with a 50% or greater reduction in the number of nocturnal voids (NV) compared with baseline. Among 103 patients enrolled, 94 (79 men and 15 women) were included in the analysis. The proportion of patients with a 50% or greater reduction in NV was 68 (72%). The mean number of NV decreased significantly (3.20 to 1.34) and the mean nocturnal urine volume, nocturia index, NPi, and NBCi decreased significantly. The mean duration of sleep until the first NV was prolonged from 118.4±44.1 to 220.3±90.7 min (P<0.001). The overall impression of patients about their quality of sleep improved. Adverse events occurred in 6 patients, including one asymptomatic hyponatremia. Desmopressin is an effective and well-tolerated treatment for mixed nocturia.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2010.25.12.1792
PMCID: PMC2995235  PMID: 21165296
Urinary Bladder; Deamino Arginine Vasopressin; Hyponatremia; Nocturia; Nocturnal Polyuria
16.  Translation and Linguistic Validation of the Korean Version of the Pelvic Pain and Urgency/Frequency Patient Symptom Scale 
Purpose
The objective of this study was to achieve a linguistic adaptation of the original version of the Pelvic Pain and Urgency/Frequency (PUF) Patient Symptom Scale into Korean.
Materials and Methods
Between June 2008 and December 2008, a linguistic adaptation was carried out by 2 native Korean speakers who were also fluent in English. First, the original English version of the PUF was translated into Korean. A panel, which included the 2 translators, reviewed the translations to form a single reconciled forward translation of the Korean version. Then, another bilingual translator, having never seen the original version, back-translated the first draft of the Korean version of the PUF into English, and this back-translation was subsequently assessed for equivalence to the original. The panel discussed all discrepancies and produced a second version. After revising the 2nd version, 10 participants [5 interstitial cystitis (IC) patients and 5 persons from the general population], stratified variously by age, sex, and educational level, answered the PUF and were systematically debriefed afterwards. A summary of the changes from the patient interviews were incorporated into the third version. After the spelling, grammar, layout, and formatting were checked, the third version was verified as the final Korean version of the PUF, without modifications.
Results
The multi-step process of forward translation, reconciliation, back-translation, cognitive debriefing, and proofreading of the Korean version of the PUF was completed.
Conclusions
The Korean version of the PUF scale may be helpful for screening IC patients in the Korean population and can now be used in Korea.
doi:10.5213/inj.2010.14.2.112
PMCID: PMC2989468  PMID: 21120221
Interstitial Cystitis; Pelvic pain; Frequency; Scales; Translations
17.  The Urologist's View of Male Overactive Bladder: Discrepancy between Reality and Belief in Practical Setting 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2010;51(3):432-437.
Purpose
In order to gain insight into the physicians' awareness of and attitude towards management of overactive bladder (OAB) in males, we performed a nationwide survey of the current strategies that urologists use to diagnose and manage OAB in male patients.
Materials and Methods
A probability sample was taken from the Korean Urological Association Registry of Physicians, and a random sample of 289 Korean urologists were mailed a structured questionnaire that explored how they manage benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).
Results
A total of 185 completed questionnaires were returned. The consent rate in the survey was 64.5%. Eighty-one (44%) urologists believed that of all males with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), 20% or more had OAB and 72 (39%) believed that 10-20% had OAB. Half of the urologists surveyed believed that the most bothersome symptom in male OAB patients was nocturia. Seventy-three percent of respondents reported that they prescribed alpha blockers with anticholinergics for first line management, while 19% of urologists prescribed alpha blocker monotherapy but not anticholinergics for OAB patients. Though acute urinary retention (AUR) was considered the anticholinergic adverse event of most concern, the most frequently observed adverse event was dry mouth (95%).
Conclusion
The present study provides insights into urologist views of male OAB. There is a discrepancy between the awareness of urologists and actual patterns of diagnosis and treatment of male OAB. This finding indicates the need to develop further practical guidelines based on solid clinical data.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2010.51.3.432
PMCID: PMC2852801  PMID: 20376898
Overactive bladder; physician's practice patterns; bladder outlet obstruction; benign prostatic hyperplasia; anticholinergics
18.  Efficacy and Safety of "Tension-free" Placement of Gynemesh PS for the Treatment of Anterior Vaginal Wall Prolapse 
Purpose
To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the tension-free placement of a monofilament polypropylene mesh for the repair of an anterior vaginal wall prolapse (AVWP).
Materials and Methods
Women aged ≥ 30 years with an AVWP stage of II or greater were included. Forty-nine women underwent trans-vaginal repair using a Gynemesh™ PS. Forty-six women who had symptomatic stress urinary incontinence received a midurethral sling (MUS). At the 12-month follow-up, evaluations were made for changes in the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification (POP-Q) stage and Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory. Cure was defined as a POP-Q stage of 0 and improvement as a stage of I. Complications were also evaluated.
Results
The cure rate was 71.4%, and the improvement rate was 18.4%. Obstructive/discomfort, irritative, and stress subscale scores of the Urinary Distress Inventory anterior and posterior subscale scores of the POP Distress Inventory and the obstructive subscale score of the Colo-Rectal-Anal Distress Inventory were significantly improved. Thirty-two of the 46 women (69.6%) who received MUS procedures reported no leakage after surgery. Complications were 2 cases of increased intraoperative bleeding and 1 case of vaginal erosion.
Conclusions
Trans-vaginal repair using a Gynemesh™ PS is a feasible and effective procedure for the treatment of AVWP with no significant complications.
doi:10.5213/inj.2010.14.1.34
PMCID: PMC2989483  PMID: 21120174
Pelvic organ prolapse; Lower urinary tract symptoms; Surgery
19.  Anatomical and Functional Outcomes of Posterior Intravaginal Slingplasty for the Treatment of Vaginal Vault or Uterine Prolapse: A Prospective, Multicenter Study 
Korean Journal of Urology  2010;51(3):187-192.
Purpose
We aimed to evaluate the anatomical and functional outcomes of posterior intravaginal slingplasty (P-IVS) for the treatment of a vaginal vault or uterine prolapse (VP/UP).
Materials and Methods
This was a 12-month prospective, multicenter, observational study. Women aged over 30 years who presented with stage II or greater VP/UP underwent P-IVS by four urologists at four university hospitals. Preoperatively, pelvic examination by use of the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification (POP-Q) system, the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory (PFDI) questionnaire, the 3-day frequency volume chart, and uroflowmetry were completed. At the 12-month follow-up, changes in the POP-Q, PFDI, frequency volume chart, and uroflowmetry parameters were assessed. Cure was defined as VP/UP stage 0 and improvement as stage I.
Results
The cure and improvement rates among the 32 women were 65.6% and 34.4%, respectively. All subscale scores of the Urinary Distress Inventory, the general subscale score of the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Distress Inventory, and the rectal prolapse subscale score of the Colo-Rectal-Anal Distress Inventory were significantly improved. There were no significant changes in the frequency volume chart or uroflowmetry parameters. There was one case of surgery-related transfusion.
Conclusions
Trans-vaginal repair by P-IVS is an effective and safe procedure for restoring the anatomical defect and improving the associated pelvic floor symptoms in women with VP/UP.
doi:10.4111/kju.2010.51.3.187
PMCID: PMC2855447  PMID: 20414395
Prospective studies; Treatment outcome; Pelvic organ prolapse
20.  The Prismatic Effect on Stereoacuity in Intermittent Exotropia 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2009;51(1):117-120.
Purpose
To evaluate the effect of acrylic refractive prism and Fresnel membrane prism on stereoacuity in intermittent exotropia.
Materials and Methods
Stereoacuities of fifty-two patients (mean age, 12.4 years; range 6 to 45 years) with intermittent exotropia were measured using the Titmus and TNO stereotests, while they wore prisms of varying power on nonfixating eye or evenly on each eye.
Results
Stereoacuities were significantly reduced with increasing prism power for both prisms, ranging from 8 to 25 prism dipotres. The effects on stereoacuity in single acrylic prism and single Fresnel prism were similar, whereas spilt Fresnel prisms reduced stereoacuity more than spilt acrylic prisms. Spilt prisms were found to have much less effect on stereoacuity than single prisms for both acrylic and Fresnel prisms.
Conclusion
The use of acrylic refractive prism shared evenly on each eye would be optimal method to minimize the reduction of stereoacuity during the prismatic therapy for intermittent exotropia.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2010.51.1.117
PMCID: PMC2799967  PMID: 20046524
Strabismus; stereoacuity; Fresnel prism; acrylic prism
21.  Efficacy and Safety of Tamsulosin for the Treatment of Non-neurogenic Voiding Dysfunction in Females: A 8-Week Prospective Study 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2009;25(1):117-122.
We evaluated the therapeutic effects of tamsulosin for women with non-neurogenic voiding dysfunction. Women who had voiding dysfunctions for at least 3 months were included. Inclusion criteria were age ≥18 yr, International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) of ≥15, and maximum flow rate (Qmax) of ≥12 mL/sec and/or postvoid residuals (PVR) of ≥150 mL. Patients with neurogenic voiding dysfunction or anatomical bladder outlet obstruction were excluded. All patients were classified according to the Blaivas-Groutz nomogram as having no or mild obstruction (group A) or moderate or severe obstruction (group B). After 8 weeks of treatment, treatment outcomes and adverse effects were evaluated. One hundred and six patients were evaluable (70 in group A, 36 in group B). After treatments, mean IPSS, bother scores, Qmax, PVR, diurnal and nocturnal micturition frequencies and scored form of the Bristol Female Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms questionnaire (BFLUTS-SF) were changed significantly. Eighty-nine patients (84%) reported that the treatment was beneficial. The proportion of patients reported that their bladder symptoms caused "moderate to many severe problems" were significantly decreased. No significant difference were observed between the groups in terms of IPSS, bother score, Qmax, PVR, micturition frequency, and BFLUTS-SF changes. Adverse effects related to medication were dizziness (n=3), de novo stress urinary incontinence (SUI) (n=3), aggravation of underlying SUI (n=1), fatigue (n=1). Tamsulosin was found to be effective in female patients with voiding dysfunction regardless of obstruction grade.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2010.25.1.117
PMCID: PMC2800025  PMID: 20052356
Urination Disorders; Female; Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists; Outcomes Assessment
22.  A Long-Term Study of the Effects of the Tension-Free Vaginal Tape Procedure for Female Stress Urinary Incontinence on Voiding, Storage, and Patient Satisfaction: A Post-Hoc Analysis 
Korean Journal of Urology  2010;51(1):40-44.
Purpose
We assessed the long-term effects of the tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) procedure for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) on voiding, storage, and patient satisfaction.
Materials and Methods
This retrospective study examined the records of 134 patients who had undergone the TVT procedure for SUI and were followed up for more than 5 years. Voiding function was evaluated by measuring maximum urinary flow rate (MFR), post-void residual urine volume (PVR), and storage function by using a voiding diary. Patients were asked to describe their satisfaction with the operation.
Results
MFR was lower at 1 month compared with the preoperative level, but had recovered to preoperative levels by 5 years postoperatively. However, some patients with >50%, 25-50%, and <25% decreases in the MFR at 1 month postoperatively showed a decrease in the MFR of >50% at 5 years. PVR increased over the 5 postoperative years. Of the patients with urgency and urgency incontinence, 43.8% and 48.1% showed improvement, respectively, whereas new patients developed postoperatively. Thus, the total number of patients with urgency or urgency incontinence remained similar over the 5 years. In those with a changed voiding pattern, patient satisfaction was negatively affected by de novo urgency and urgency incontinence and decreased MFR.
Conclusions
Any obstructive effect of the TVT procedure diminished over time in most patients, although a decrease in the MFR was sustained in some patients. With regard to overactive bladder symptoms, some patients were cured and some patients complained of de novo symptoms. The most major factor affecting patient satisfaction was de novo urgency.
doi:10.4111/kju.2010.51.1.40
PMCID: PMC2855463  PMID: 20414409
Patient satisfaction; Suburethral slings; Stress urinary incontinence
23.  Selectively Decreased Expression of Peroxiredoxins Induced by Silica in Pulmonary Epithelial Cells 
Background/Aims
Peroxiredoxin (Prx) belongs to a ubiquitous family of antioxidant enzymes that regulates many cellular processes through intracellular oxidative signal transduction pathways. Silica-induced lung damage involves reactive oxygen species (ROS) that trigger subsequent toxic effects and inflammatory responses in alveolar epithelial cells resulting in fibrosis. Therefore, we investigated the role of Prx in the development of lung oxidant injury caused by silicosis, and determined the implication of ROS in that process.
Methods
Lung epithelial cell lines A549 and WI26 were treated with 1% silica for 0, 24, or 48 hours, following pretreatment of the A549 cells with N-acetyl-L-cysteine and diphenylene iodonium and no pretreatment of the WI26 cells. We transfected an HA-ubiquitin construct into the A549 cell line and then analyzed the cells via Western blotting and co-immunoprecipitation.
Results
Silica treatment induced cell death in the A549 lung epithelial cell line and selectively degraded Prx I without impairing protein synthesis in the A549 cells, even when the ROS effect was blocked chemically by N-acetyl-L-cysteine. A co-immunoprecipitation study revealed that Prx I did not undergo ubiquitination.
Conclusions
Silica treatment induces a decrease of Prx I expression in lung epithelial cell lines regardless of the presence of ROS. The silica-induced degradation of Prx does not involve the ubiquitin-proteasomal pathway.
doi:10.3904/kjim.2009.24.3.220
PMCID: PMC2732781  PMID: 19721858
Epithelial cell, lung; Lung injury; Peroxiredoxins; Reactive oxygen species; Silicosis
24.  Solitary skull metastasis as initial manifestation of hepatocellular carcinoma 
Background
A solitary skull metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) prior to diagnosis of the primary tumor without liver dysfunction is a very rare event.
Case presentation
A 71-year-old male, without known liver disease, presented to our institution with a palpable occipital scalp mass. On brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a highly enhanced and osteolytic skull tumor was observed. The histological diagnosis obtained from the percutaneous needle biopsy was a cranial metastasis from HCC. The metastatic tumor was removed via occipital craniectomy, and the two primary liver mass lesions were subsequently treated by transarterial chemoembolization.
Conclusion
An isolated skull metastasis may be the sole initial presentation of HCC. Early diagnosis is essential in order to treat the primary disease. A skull metastasis from HCC should be considered in the differential diagnosis in patients with subcutaneous scalp mass and osteolytic defects on X-ray.
doi:10.1186/1477-7819-6-66
PMCID: PMC2467423  PMID: 18570669
25.  Intracranial Dural Metastasis of Ewing's Sarcoma: a Case Report 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2008;9(1):76-79.
Although intracranial dural metastasis of Ewing's sarcoma is a very rare finding, its imaging characteristics are similar to those of its primary form in the central nervous system. Thus, this tumor must be considered in the differential diagnosis of extra-axial dural masses.
doi:10.3348/kjr.2008.9.1.76
PMCID: PMC2627171  PMID: 18253079
Sarcoma, Ewing's; Neoplasm metastasis; Meninges

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