Of the chlamydia species that can cause infections in humans, C. trachomatis is responsible for lower urinary tract diseases in men and women. C. trachomatis infections are prevalent worldwide, but current research is focused on females, with the burden of disease and infertility sequelae considered to be a predominantly female problem. However, a role for this pathogen in the development of male urethritis, epididymitis, and orchitis is widely accepted. Also, it can cause complications such as chronic prostatitis and infertility. This review summarizes C. trachomatis infection in the male genitourinary tract, including urethritis, epididymitis, orchitis, and its complications, and addresses the microbiology, epidemiology, screening, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment.
Chlamydia; Chronic prostatitis; Epididymitis; Infertility orchitis; Urethritis
To evaluate the incidence of genitourinary mycoplasmas and the efficacy of antibiotics in women with overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms.
Materials and Methods
Women with OAB symptoms (micturition ≥8/24 hours and urgency ≥1/24 hours) for ≥3 months were screened for Mycoplasma hominis (M. hominis), Ureaplasma urealyticum (U. urealyticum), and Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis). Specimens from urethral and cervical vaginal swabs were examined for M. hominis and U. urealyticum by using the Mycoplasma IST2 kit and for C. trachomatis by using PCR. Women with positive results were treated with a 1 g dose of azithromycin. Persistent infection was treated with doxycycline. Changes in a 3-day bladder diary, Patient Perception of Bladder Condition (PPBC), and International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Female Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (ICIQ-FLUTS) were evaluated 4 weeks after negative conversion. Patient satisfaction was assessed.
Of 84 women screened, 42.8% were positive (U. urealyticum, 40.5%; M. hominis, 7.1%; C. trachomatis, 3.6%; two organisms, 8.3%). After treatment, 82.7% obtained negative conversion, and their median number of micturition episodes decreased from 10.6/24 hours to 8.1/24 hours (p=0.002). PPBC and domain scores of the ICIQ-FLUTS (filling and quality of life) significantly improved. About 87.5% women with negative conversion were satisfied with the treatment.
Considering diagnostic tests and treatment for genitourinary mycoplasmas might be beneficial before invasive workup or treatment in women with OAB symptoms.
Chlamydia trachomatis; Mycoplasma hominis; Overactive urinary bladder; Ureaplasma urealyticum
We compared outcomes of the U- and H-type approaches of the tension-free vaginal tape (TVT)-Secur procedure for the treatment of female stress urinary incontinence (SUI).
Materials and Methods
From March 2007 to July 2008, 115 women with SUI underwent TVT-Secur by a single surgeon. Patients were randomly assigned to either the U- or the H-type approach. After 12 months, postoperative changes in the Sandvik questionnaire, incontinence quality of life questionnaire (I-QoL), Bristol female lower urinary tract symptoms-scored form (BFLUTS-SF), and postoperative patient satisfaction were evaluated. Cure was regarded as no leakage on the Sandvik questionnaire. Complications were also evaluated.
Of 115 women, 53 were treated with the U approach, and 62 women were treated with the H approach. At 12 months, 88.7% of those treated with the U approach and 87.1% of those treated with the H approach were cured (p=0.796). The I-QoL and filling, incontinence, sexual function, and QoL sum (BFLUTS-SF) scores were improved with both approaches, and there were no significant differences in the degree of improvement between approaches. Approximately 83.7% and 82.9% of the women treated with the U and H approaches, respectively, were satisfied with the outcome (p=0.858). There were 3 cases of intra-operative vaginal wall perforation in the H-type group. Immediate postoperative retention was observed in 2 women in the U-type group and 1 woman in the H-type group. One woman in the U-type group underwent tape releasing and cutting procedures for persistent large post-void residuals.
The U- and the H-type approaches of the TVT-Secur procedure provided comparable effectiveness for the treatment of female SUI.
Comparative study; Stress urinary incontinence; Therapy
Based on the integral theory, tension-free placement of a mid-urethral sling (MUS) for female stress urinary incontinence (SUI) has gained substantial popularity owing to the ease of the procedure and its effectiveness. Published series with long-term follow-up show continence rates after the MUS procedure ranging from 70% to 80%. Complication rates after MUS procedures are usually low. This review aimed to describe the historical change and the current use of the MUS. We discuss the efficacy and complications of various MUS procedures and the current strategies for managing failed slings.
Stress urinary incontinence; Tension-free vaginal tape; Trans-obturator tape
We evaluated the long-term efficacy of laparoscopic Burch colposuspension for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in women. A total of 68 patients who underwent extraperitoneal laparoscopic Burch colposuspensions with more than a 3-yr follow-up were included. The colposuspension was performed by using two non-absorbable sutures on each side. The patients were considered to be cured of SUI if they had a negative result of cough stress test and there were no reports of urine leakage during physical stress. The mean follow-up period was 52 months (range, 36 to 83 months). The overall subjective cure rate was reported in 49 patients (72%). There was no significant difference between the cured and non-cured group in terms of clinical parameters. The cure rate tended to decline gradually over time and it was more deteriorated significantly after 4 yr of surgery. Based on these results, we recommend that long-term follow-up is needed when evaluating the clinical efficacy of anti-incontinence surgery.
Urinary Incontinence, Stress; Laparoscopy; Follow-Up Studies
There are still debates on the benefit of mass screening for prostate cancer (PCA) by prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing, and on systemized surveillance protocols according to PSA level. Furthermore, there is a paucity of literature on current practice patterns according to PSA level in the Korean urologic field. Here, we report the results of a nationwide, multicenter, retrospective chart-review study.
Materials and Methods
Overall 2122 Korean men (>40 years old, PSA >2.5 ng/mL) were included in our study (from 122 centers, in 2008). The primary endpoint was to analyze the rate of prostate biopsy according to PSA level. Secondary aims were to analyze the detection rate of PCA, the clinical features of patients, and the status of surveillance for PCA according to PSA level.
The rate of prostate biopsy was 7.1%, 26.3%, 54.2%, and 64.3% according to PSA levels of 2.5-3.0, 3.0-4.0, 4.0-10.0, and >10.0 ng/mL, respectively, and the PCA detection rate was 16.0%, 22.2%, 20.2%, and 59.6%, respectively. At a PSA level >4.0 ng/mL, we found a lower incidence of prostate biopsy in local clinics than in general hospitals (21.6% vs. 66.2%, respectively). A significant proportion (16.6%) of patients exhibited high Gleason scores (≥8) even in the group with low PSA values (2.5-4.0 ng/mL).
We believe that the results from this nationwide study might provide an important database for the establishment of practical guidelines for the screening and management of PCA in Korean populations.
Mass screening; prostate biopsy; prostate specific antigen
Psychometric properties of the overactive bladder questionnaire (OAB-q) were recently examined. However, since the cross-cultural adaptation of a non-English version of the OAB-q has never been demonstrated, we evaluated the psychometric properties of a Korean version of the OAB-q in a Korean population with OAB.
A prospective cohort study involving 116 women with 58 OAB and 58 control subjects was performed and convergent validity was assessed. Total and subscale OAB-q scores of the control and OAB groups were compared to their sensitivity to score changes before and after administering anti-cholinergic medication for 12 weeks. Short form 36 and King's health questionnaire (KHQ) were also used for comparison or correlation.
Assessment of face validity showed that the Korean version of the OAB-q was reasonable with OAB-q subscale scores being significantly different between the control and patient groups. Significant correlation (range, -0.29 to -0.81) was found between the OAB-q scores and KHQ results for the OAB patients. Cronbach's alpha coefficients (range, 0.77 to 0.95) indicated excellent internal consistency and test-retest analysis involving 35 OAB patients showed that each questions as well as subscale scores were reproducible. Each score of OAB-q also showed statistically significant sensitivity to changes following anti-muscarinic treatment for OAB (n=27, P<0.001 except for social, P=0.059).
The Korean version of the OAB-q is a valid and reliable instrument to measure outcomes in Korean patients with OAB.
Overactive urinary bladder; Quality of life; Questionnaires; Psychometrics
To compare the efficacy and safety of Sulosin D (PACIFICPHARMA, Korea) and Harnal D (ASTELLAS PHARMA KOREA, Korea) in treating patients with lower urinary tract symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).
Materials and Methods
This randomized, controlled, open-label, multicenter non-inferiority study was conducted at four sites in Korea. We randomly assigned 123 patients with an International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) ≥12 to receive either Sulosin D or Harnal D treatment for 8 weeks. The primary outcome was the mean change in IPSS from baseline to endpoint. Secondary outcomes were the mean change from baseline to endpoint in IPSS quality of life subscores, maximum uroflowmetry (Qmax), and post-voiding residuals (PVR).
In all, 123 patients were randomly assigned (60 Sulosin D and 63 Harnal D). The changes in the total IPSS from baseline in the Sulosin D- and Harnal D-treated groups were -4.97 and -4.03, respectively. There were significant decreases compared with baseline in both groups. The mean difference (Sulosin D - Harnal D) was -0.91 (with a two-sided 90% confidence interval), inferring that Sulosin D was not inferior to Harnal D. The mean changes in the IPSS subscore, Qmax, and PVR from baseline were comparable between the groups (both p>0.05). During the treatment periods, the incidence of adverse events was 23.33% and 34.92% in the Sulosin D and Harnal D groups, respectively (p=0.1580).
We demonstrate the non-inferiority of Sulosin D to Harnal D in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms associated with BPH.
Drugs, generic; Prostatic hyperplasia; Tamsulosin
Despite a recent surge in the performance of laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS), concerns remain about performing LESS pyeloplasty (LESS-P) because of the technical difficulty in suturing. We report our techniques and initial experiences with LESS-P using additional needlescopic instruments and compare the results with conventional laparoscopic pyeloplasty (CL-P).
Materials and Methods
Nine patients undergoing LESS-P were matched 2:1 with regard to age and side of surgery to a previous cohort of 18 patients who underwent CL-P. In both groups, the operating procedures were performed equally except for the number of access points. In the LESS-P group, we made a single 2 cm incision at the umbilicus and used a homemade port. We also used additional 2 mm needlescopic instruments at the subcostal area to facilitate suturing and the ureteral stenting.
The preoperative characteristics were comparable in both groups. Postoperatively, no significant differences were noted between the LESS-P and CL-P cases in regard to length of stay, estimated blood loss, analgesics required, and complications. But, LESS-P was associated with a shorter operative time (252.2 vs. 309.7 minutes, p=0.044) and less pain on postoperative day one (numeric rating scale 3.7 vs. 5.6, p=0.024). The success rate was 94% with CL-P (median, 23 months) and 100% with LESS-P (median, 14 months).
Our initial experiences suggest that LESS-P is a feasible and safe procedure. The use of additional 2 mm instruments can help to overcome the difficulties associated with LESS surgery.
Laparoscopy; Minimally invasive; Surgical procedure; Ureteral obstruction
To investigate the efficacy and safety of desmopressin in patients with mixed nocturia, Patients aged ≥18 yr with mixed nocturia (≥2 voids/night and a nocturnal polyuria index [NPi] >33% and a nocturnal bladder capacity index [NBCi] >1) were recruited. The optimum dose of oral desmopressin was determined during a 3-week dose-titration period and the determined dose was maintained for 4 weeks. The efficacy was assessed by the frequency-volume charts and the sleep questionnaire. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with a 50% or greater reduction in the number of nocturnal voids (NV) compared with baseline. Among 103 patients enrolled, 94 (79 men and 15 women) were included in the analysis. The proportion of patients with a 50% or greater reduction in NV was 68 (72%). The mean number of NV decreased significantly (3.20 to 1.34) and the mean nocturnal urine volume, nocturia index, NPi, and NBCi decreased significantly. The mean duration of sleep until the first NV was prolonged from 118.4±44.1 to 220.3±90.7 min (P<0.001). The overall impression of patients about their quality of sleep improved. Adverse events occurred in 6 patients, including one asymptomatic hyponatremia. Desmopressin is an effective and well-tolerated treatment for mixed nocturia.
Urinary Bladder; Deamino Arginine Vasopressin; Hyponatremia; Nocturia; Nocturnal Polyuria
The objective of this study was to achieve a linguistic adaptation of the original version of the Pelvic Pain and Urgency/Frequency (PUF) Patient Symptom Scale into Korean.
Materials and Methods
Between June 2008 and December 2008, a linguistic adaptation was carried out by 2 native Korean speakers who were also fluent in English. First, the original English version of the PUF was translated into Korean. A panel, which included the 2 translators, reviewed the translations to form a single reconciled forward translation of the Korean version. Then, another bilingual translator, having never seen the original version, back-translated the first draft of the Korean version of the PUF into English, and this back-translation was subsequently assessed for equivalence to the original. The panel discussed all discrepancies and produced a second version. After revising the 2nd version, 10 participants [5 interstitial cystitis (IC) patients and 5 persons from the general population], stratified variously by age, sex, and educational level, answered the PUF and were systematically debriefed afterwards. A summary of the changes from the patient interviews were incorporated into the third version. After the spelling, grammar, layout, and formatting were checked, the third version was verified as the final Korean version of the PUF, without modifications.
The multi-step process of forward translation, reconciliation, back-translation, cognitive debriefing, and proofreading of the Korean version of the PUF was completed.
The Korean version of the PUF scale may be helpful for screening IC patients in the Korean population and can now be used in Korea.
Interstitial Cystitis; Pelvic pain; Frequency; Scales; Translations
In order to gain insight into the physicians' awareness of and attitude towards management of overactive bladder (OAB) in males, we performed a nationwide survey of the current strategies that urologists use to diagnose and manage OAB in male patients.
Materials and Methods
A probability sample was taken from the Korean Urological Association Registry of Physicians, and a random sample of 289 Korean urologists were mailed a structured questionnaire that explored how they manage benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).
A total of 185 completed questionnaires were returned. The consent rate in the survey was 64.5%. Eighty-one (44%) urologists believed that of all males with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), 20% or more had OAB and 72 (39%) believed that 10-20% had OAB. Half of the urologists surveyed believed that the most bothersome symptom in male OAB patients was nocturia. Seventy-three percent of respondents reported that they prescribed alpha blockers with anticholinergics for first line management, while 19% of urologists prescribed alpha blocker monotherapy but not anticholinergics for OAB patients. Though acute urinary retention (AUR) was considered the anticholinergic adverse event of most concern, the most frequently observed adverse event was dry mouth (95%).
The present study provides insights into urologist views of male OAB. There is a discrepancy between the awareness of urologists and actual patterns of diagnosis and treatment of male OAB. This finding indicates the need to develop further practical guidelines based on solid clinical data.
Overactive bladder; physician's practice patterns; bladder outlet obstruction; benign prostatic hyperplasia; anticholinergics
To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the tension-free placement of a monofilament polypropylene mesh for the repair of an anterior vaginal wall prolapse (AVWP).
Materials and Methods
Women aged ≥ 30 years with an AVWP stage of II or greater were included. Forty-nine women underwent trans-vaginal repair using a Gynemesh™ PS. Forty-six women who had symptomatic stress urinary incontinence received a midurethral sling (MUS). At the 12-month follow-up, evaluations were made for changes in the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification (POP-Q) stage and Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory. Cure was defined as a POP-Q stage of 0 and improvement as a stage of I. Complications were also evaluated.
The cure rate was 71.4%, and the improvement rate was 18.4%. Obstructive/discomfort, irritative, and stress subscale scores of the Urinary Distress Inventory anterior and posterior subscale scores of the POP Distress Inventory and the obstructive subscale score of the Colo-Rectal-Anal Distress Inventory were significantly improved. Thirty-two of the 46 women (69.6%) who received MUS procedures reported no leakage after surgery. Complications were 2 cases of increased intraoperative bleeding and 1 case of vaginal erosion.
Trans-vaginal repair using a Gynemesh™ PS is a feasible and effective procedure for the treatment of AVWP with no significant complications.
Pelvic organ prolapse; Lower urinary tract symptoms; Surgery
We aimed to evaluate the anatomical and functional outcomes of posterior intravaginal slingplasty (P-IVS) for the treatment of a vaginal vault or uterine prolapse (VP/UP).
Materials and Methods
This was a 12-month prospective, multicenter, observational study. Women aged over 30 years who presented with stage II or greater VP/UP underwent P-IVS by four urologists at four university hospitals. Preoperatively, pelvic examination by use of the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification (POP-Q) system, the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory (PFDI) questionnaire, the 3-day frequency volume chart, and uroflowmetry were completed. At the 12-month follow-up, changes in the POP-Q, PFDI, frequency volume chart, and uroflowmetry parameters were assessed. Cure was defined as VP/UP stage 0 and improvement as stage I.
The cure and improvement rates among the 32 women were 65.6% and 34.4%, respectively. All subscale scores of the Urinary Distress Inventory, the general subscale score of the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Distress Inventory, and the rectal prolapse subscale score of the Colo-Rectal-Anal Distress Inventory were significantly improved. There were no significant changes in the frequency volume chart or uroflowmetry parameters. There was one case of surgery-related transfusion.
Trans-vaginal repair by P-IVS is an effective and safe procedure for restoring the anatomical defect and improving the associated pelvic floor symptoms in women with VP/UP.
Prospective studies; Treatment outcome; Pelvic organ prolapse
To evaluate the effect of acrylic refractive prism and Fresnel membrane prism on stereoacuity in intermittent exotropia.
Materials and Methods
Stereoacuities of fifty-two patients (mean age, 12.4 years; range 6 to 45 years) with intermittent exotropia were measured using the Titmus and TNO stereotests, while they wore prisms of varying power on nonfixating eye or evenly on each eye.
Stereoacuities were significantly reduced with increasing prism power for both prisms, ranging from 8 to 25 prism dipotres. The effects on stereoacuity in single acrylic prism and single Fresnel prism were similar, whereas spilt Fresnel prisms reduced stereoacuity more than spilt acrylic prisms. Spilt prisms were found to have much less effect on stereoacuity than single prisms for both acrylic and Fresnel prisms.
The use of acrylic refractive prism shared evenly on each eye would be optimal method to minimize the reduction of stereoacuity during the prismatic therapy for intermittent exotropia.
Strabismus; stereoacuity; Fresnel prism; acrylic prism
We evaluated the therapeutic effects of tamsulosin for women with non-neurogenic voiding dysfunction. Women who had voiding dysfunctions for at least 3 months were included. Inclusion criteria were age ≥18 yr, International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) of ≥15, and maximum flow rate (Qmax) of ≥12 mL/sec and/or postvoid residuals (PVR) of ≥150 mL. Patients with neurogenic voiding dysfunction or anatomical bladder outlet obstruction were excluded. All patients were classified according to the Blaivas-Groutz nomogram as having no or mild obstruction (group A) or moderate or severe obstruction (group B). After 8 weeks of treatment, treatment outcomes and adverse effects were evaluated. One hundred and six patients were evaluable (70 in group A, 36 in group B). After treatments, mean IPSS, bother scores, Qmax, PVR, diurnal and nocturnal micturition frequencies and scored form of the Bristol Female Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms questionnaire (BFLUTS-SF) were changed significantly. Eighty-nine patients (84%) reported that the treatment was beneficial. The proportion of patients reported that their bladder symptoms caused "moderate to many severe problems" were significantly decreased. No significant difference were observed between the groups in terms of IPSS, bother score, Qmax, PVR, micturition frequency, and BFLUTS-SF changes. Adverse effects related to medication were dizziness (n=3), de novo stress urinary incontinence (SUI) (n=3), aggravation of underlying SUI (n=1), fatigue (n=1). Tamsulosin was found to be effective in female patients with voiding dysfunction regardless of obstruction grade.
Urination Disorders; Female; Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists; Outcomes Assessment
We assessed the long-term effects of the tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) procedure for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) on voiding, storage, and patient satisfaction.
Materials and Methods
This retrospective study examined the records of 134 patients who had undergone the TVT procedure for SUI and were followed up for more than 5 years. Voiding function was evaluated by measuring maximum urinary flow rate (MFR), post-void residual urine volume (PVR), and storage function by using a voiding diary. Patients were asked to describe their satisfaction with the operation.
MFR was lower at 1 month compared with the preoperative level, but had recovered to preoperative levels by 5 years postoperatively. However, some patients with >50%, 25-50%, and <25% decreases in the MFR at 1 month postoperatively showed a decrease in the MFR of >50% at 5 years. PVR increased over the 5 postoperative years. Of the patients with urgency and urgency incontinence, 43.8% and 48.1% showed improvement, respectively, whereas new patients developed postoperatively. Thus, the total number of patients with urgency or urgency incontinence remained similar over the 5 years. In those with a changed voiding pattern, patient satisfaction was negatively affected by de novo urgency and urgency incontinence and decreased MFR.
Any obstructive effect of the TVT procedure diminished over time in most patients, although a decrease in the MFR was sustained in some patients. With regard to overactive bladder symptoms, some patients were cured and some patients complained of de novo symptoms. The most major factor affecting patient satisfaction was de novo urgency.
Patient satisfaction; Suburethral slings; Stress urinary incontinence
Peroxiredoxin (Prx) belongs to a ubiquitous family of antioxidant enzymes that regulates many cellular processes through intracellular oxidative signal transduction pathways. Silica-induced lung damage involves reactive oxygen species (ROS) that trigger subsequent toxic effects and inflammatory responses in alveolar epithelial cells resulting in fibrosis. Therefore, we investigated the role of Prx in the development of lung oxidant injury caused by silicosis, and determined the implication of ROS in that process.
Lung epithelial cell lines A549 and WI26 were treated with 1% silica for 0, 24, or 48 hours, following pretreatment of the A549 cells with N-acetyl-L-cysteine and diphenylene iodonium and no pretreatment of the WI26 cells. We transfected an HA-ubiquitin construct into the A549 cell line and then analyzed the cells via Western blotting and co-immunoprecipitation.
Silica treatment induced cell death in the A549 lung epithelial cell line and selectively degraded Prx I without impairing protein synthesis in the A549 cells, even when the ROS effect was blocked chemically by N-acetyl-L-cysteine. A co-immunoprecipitation study revealed that Prx I did not undergo ubiquitination.
Silica treatment induces a decrease of Prx I expression in lung epithelial cell lines regardless of the presence of ROS. The silica-induced degradation of Prx does not involve the ubiquitin-proteasomal pathway.
Epithelial cell, lung; Lung injury; Peroxiredoxins; Reactive oxygen species; Silicosis
A solitary skull metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) prior to diagnosis of the primary tumor without liver dysfunction is a very rare event.
A 71-year-old male, without known liver disease, presented to our institution with a palpable occipital scalp mass. On brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a highly enhanced and osteolytic skull tumor was observed. The histological diagnosis obtained from the percutaneous needle biopsy was a cranial metastasis from HCC. The metastatic tumor was removed via occipital craniectomy, and the two primary liver mass lesions were subsequently treated by transarterial chemoembolization.
An isolated skull metastasis may be the sole initial presentation of HCC. Early diagnosis is essential in order to treat the primary disease. A skull metastasis from HCC should be considered in the differential diagnosis in patients with subcutaneous scalp mass and osteolytic defects on X-ray.
Although intracranial dural metastasis of Ewing's sarcoma is a very rare finding, its imaging characteristics are similar to those of its primary form in the central nervous system. Thus, this tumor must be considered in the differential diagnosis of extra-axial dural masses.
Sarcoma, Ewing's; Neoplasm metastasis; Meninges
Pleomorphic adenoma of the lacrimal gland is known to undergo malignant transformation when incompletely excised. Even if such a malignant change occurs, intracranial direct invasion and leptomeningeal seeding are seldom encountered.
A 50-year-old woman presented with malignant transformation associated with both intracranial invasion and multiple intracranial and spinal disseminations in the third recurrence of pleomorphic adenoma of the lacrimal gland, 6 years after initial treatment. MRI demonstrated increased extent of orbital mass, extending to the cavernous sinus. The patient underwent intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and Gamma Knife radiosurgery. Follow-up MRI showed multiple leptomeningeal disseminations to the intracranium and spine.
It is important to recognize that leptomeningeal intracranial and spinal disseminations of pleomorphic adenocarcinoma can occur, although it is extremely rare. To our knowledge, we report the first case of pleomorphic adenocarcinoma of the lacrimal gland presumably metastasizing to the intracranium and spine.
We compared the effects of bladder training and/or tolterodine as first line treatment in female patients with overactive bladder (OAB). One hundred and thirty-nine female patients with OAB were randomized to treatment with bladder training (BT), tolterodine (To, 2 mg twice daily) or both (Co) for 12 weeks. Treatment efficacy was measured by micturition diary, urgency scores and patients' subjective assessment of their bladder condition. Mean frequency and nocturia significantly decreased in all treatment groups, declining 25.9% and 56.1%, respectively, in the BT group; 30.2% and 65.4%, respectively, in the To group; and 33.5% and 66.3%, respectively in the Co group (p<0.05 for each). The decrease in frequency was significantly greater in the Co group than in the BT group (p<0.05). Mean urgency score decreased by 44.8%, 62.2% and 60.2% in the BT, To, and Co groups, respectively, and the improvement was significantly greater in the To and Co groups than in the BT group (p<0.05 for each). Although BT, To and their combination were all effective in controlling OAB symptoms, combination therapy was more effective than either method alone. Tolterodine alone may be instituted as a first-line therapy, but may be more effective when combined with bladder training.
Urinary Incontinence; Overactive Bladder; Bladder Training; tolterodine
This study was undertaken to identify risk factors for postoperative voiding dysfunction and factors having impact on patient global satisfaction after a tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) procedure. Two hundred and eighty-five women who underwent the TVT procedure for stress urinary incontinence were analyzed to identify risk factors predictive of voiding dysfunction. Postoperative voiding dysfunction was defined as a peak urinary flow rate (PFR) <10 mL/sec (straining voiding, n=17) or residual urine volume >30% of bladder capacity (incomplete emptying, n=13). The global satisfaction rate was 91.6%. Voiding dysfunction developed in 29 (10.2%) patients. Among the factors, PFR was only factor of significance for voiding dysfunction. There was no significant difference between patients with and without voiding dysfunction in terms of their satisfaction. But postoperative PFR <10 mL/sec significantly compromised global satisfaction after the surgery. In those patients with a preoperative PFR <20 mL/sec, there were more patients with postoperative PFR <10 mL/sec. Peak urinary flow rate is an important factor for the postoperative voiding dysfunction. The inevitable decline in PFR can compromise patients' satisfaction with the procedure, when their postoperative PFR was <10 mL/sec.
Tension-free Vaginal Tape; Urinary Incontinence; Patient Satisfaction; Physiopathology; Dysfunction; Urination Disorders