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1.  Intraoperative Neurophysiologic Monitoring: Basic Principles and Recent Update 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2013;28(9):1261-1269.
The recent developments of new devices and advances in anesthesiology have greatly improved the utility and accuracy of intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IOM). Herein, we review the basic principles of the electrophysiological methods employed under IOM in the operating room. These include motor evoked potentials, somatosensory evoked potentials, electroencephalography, electromyography, brainstem auditory evoked potentials, and visual evoked potentials. Most of these techniques have certain limitations and their utility is still being debated. In this review, we also discuss the optimal stimulation/recording method for each of these modalities during individual surgeries as well as the diverse criteria for alarm signs.
PMCID: PMC3763097  PMID: 24015028
Intraoperative Neurophysiologic Monitoring; Evoked Potential; Guideline
2.  Oral Solubilized Ursodeoxycholic Acid Therapy in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Randomized Cross-Over Trial 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2012;27(2):200-206.
To evaluate the efficacy and safety of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) with oral solubilized formula in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients, patients with probable or definite ALS were randomized to receive oral solubilized UDCA (3.5 g/140 mL/day) or placebo for 3 months after a run-in period of 1 month and switched to receive the other treatment for 3 months after a wash-out period of 1 month. The primary outcome was the rate of progression, assessed by the Appel ALS rating scale (AALSRS), and the secondary outcomes were the revised ALS functional rating scale (ALSFRS-R) and forced vital capacity (FVC). Fifty-three patients completed either the first or second period of study with only 16 of 63 enrolled patients given both treatments sequentially. The slope of AALSRS was 1.17 points/month lower while the patients were treated with UDCA than with placebo (95% CI for difference 0.08-2.26, P = 0.037), whereas the slopes of ALSFRS-R and FVC did not show significant differences between treatments. Gastrointestinal adverse events were more common with UDCA (P < 0.05). Oral solubilized UDCA seems to be tolerable in ALS patients, but we could not make firm conclusion regarding its efficacy, particularly due to the high attrition rate in this cross-over trial.
PMCID: PMC3271295  PMID: 22323869
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis; Ursodeoxycholic Acid; Cross-Over Trial
3.  Concurrence of Multifocal Motor Neuropathy and Hashimoto's Thyroiditis 
Multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) is an immune-mediated disorder that is characterized by slowly progressive and asymmetrical weakness, but its pathophysiological mechanism is uncertain. The hypothesis that MMN is an immunological disease has been supported by the proven therapeutic effects of intravenous immunoglobulin and the detection of antiganglioside antibodies in MMN patients. The coexistence of MMN with other immune diseases has been rarely reported.
Case Report
A 37-year-old woman visited our hospital complaining of weakness in both hands. The clinical manifestations coincided well with MMN: predominantly distal upper-limb weakness, asymmetric involvement, a progressive course, absence of sensory symptoms, absence of pyramidal signs, and sparing of the cranial muscles. The electrophysiological findings also supported a diagnosis of MMN, with motor nerve conduction block in the median, ulnar, and radial nerves, without sensory nerve involvement. The patient was simultaneously diagnosed as having Hashimoto's thyroiditis, which is a well-known immune-mediated disease.
The concurrence of MMN and Hashimoto's thyroiditis in our patient is significant for understanding the immunological characteristics of the two diseases.
PMCID: PMC3212605  PMID: 22087213
multifocal motor neuropathy; hashimoto's thyroiditis; MMN
4.  Motor Unit Number Estimation in Evaluating Disease Progression in Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2010;25(9):1359-1363.
We investigated the availability of motor unit number estimation (MUNE) as a quantitative method to assess the severity and clinical progression of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The 143 ALS patients were evaluated by statistical MUNE and the revised amyotrophic lateral sclerosis functional rating scale (ALSFRS-R). By using mean values of MUNE according to disease duration, regression equation between mean MUNE and disease duration was presented as a formula. The individual MUNE ratio was calculated by dividing individual MUNE value by mean MUNE value. All patients were classified into 2 groups (MUNE ratio <1 vs. MUNE ratio ≥1) according to the MUNE ratio. Comparison between the 2 groups revealed that the patients in MUNE ratio <1 group or MUNE ratio ≥1 group were respectively assigned to rapid progression or slow progression. We recommended informative mean values of MUNE and best regression equation in ALS patients according to disease duration. These values allow us to evaluate the severity and rapidity of progression in ALS.
PMCID: PMC2923797  PMID: 20808681
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis; Motor Unit Number Estimation
5.  Comparison between Flail Arm Syndrome and Upper Limb Onset Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Clinical Features and Electromyographic Findings 
Experimental Neurobiology  2014;23(3):253-257.
Flail arm syndrome (FAS), an atypical presentation of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), is characterized by progressive, predominantly proximal, weakness of upper limbs, without involvement of the lower limb, bulbar, or respiratory muscles. When encountering a patient who presents with this symptomatic profile, possible diagnoses include upper limb onset ALS (UL-ALS), and FAS. The lack of information regarding FAS may make differential diagnosis between FAS and UL-ALS difficult in clinical settings. The aim of this study was to compare clinical and electromyographic findings from patients diagnosed with FAS with those from patients diagnosed with UL-ALS. To accomplish this, 18 patients with FAS and 56 patients with UL-ALS were examined. Significant differences were observed between the 2 groups pertaining to the rate of fasciculation, patterns of predominantly affected muscles, and the Medical Research Council scale of the weakest muscle. The presence of upper motor neuron signs and lower motor neuron involvement evidenced through electromyography showed no significant between-group differences.
PMCID: PMC4174617  PMID: 25258573
flail arm syndrome; amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; brachial amyotrophic diplegia; electromyography; motor neuron disease
6.  Diffusion Tensor Tractography Analysis of the Corpus Callosum Fibers in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis 
Background and Purpose
Involvement of the corpus callosum (CC) is reported to be a consistent feature of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We examined the CC pathology using diffusion tensor tractography analysis to identify precisely which fiber bundles are involved in ALS.
Diffusion tensor imaging was performed in 14 sporadic ALS patients and 16 age-matched healthy controls. Whole brain tractography was performed using the multiple-region of interest (ROI) approach, and CC fiber bundles were extracted in two ways based on functional and structural relevance: (i) cortical ROI selection based on Brodmann areas (BAs), and (ii) the sulcal-gyral pattern of cortical gray matter using FreeSurfer software, respectively.
The mean fractional anisotropy (FA) values of the CC fibers interconnecting the primary motor (BA4), supplementary motor (BA6), and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA9/46) were significantly lower in ALS patients than in controls, whereas those of the primary sensory cortex (BA1, BA2, BA3), Broca's area (BA44/45), and the orbitofrontal cortex (BA11/47) did not differ significantly between the two groups. The FreeSurfer ROI approach revealed a very similar pattern of abnormalities. In addition, a significant correlation was found between the mean FA value of the CC fibers interconnecting the primary motor area and disease severity, as assessed using the revised Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale, and the clinical extent of upper motor neuron signs.
Our findings suggest that there is some degree of selectivity or a gradient in the CC pathology in ALS. The CC fibers interconnecting the primary motor and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices may be preferentially involved in ALS.
PMCID: PMC4101103  PMID: 25045379
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; motor neuron disease; corpus callosum; diffusion tensor imaging; tractography; cortical parcellation
7.  Relationship Between Uncommon Computed Tomography Findings and Clinical Aspects in Patients With Acute Pyelonephritis 
Korean Journal of Urology  2014;55(7):482-486.
Computed tomography (CT) has become popular in the diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis (APN) and its related complications in adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between uncommon CT findings and clinical and laboratory data in patients with APN.
Materials and Methods
From July 2009 to July 2012, CT findings and clinical data were collected from 125 female patients with APN. The six uncommon CT findings (excluding a wedge-shaped area of hypoperfusion in the renal parenchyma) studied were perirenal fat infiltration, ureteral wall edema, renal abscess formation, pelvic ascites, periportal edema, and renal scarring. The clinical parameters analyzed were the age and body mass index of the patients as well as the degree and duration of fever. Laboratory parameters related to inflammation and infection included white blood cell count, C-reactive protein (CRP) level, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, pyuria, and bacteriuria.
The most common CT finding was perirenal fat infiltration (69 cases, 55%). A longer duration of fever, higher CRP level, and grade of pyuria were related with perirenal fat infiltration (p=0.010, p=0.003, and p=0.049, respectively). The CRP level was significantly higher in patients with renal abscess and ureteral wall edema (p=0.005 and p=0.015, respectively).
The uncommon CT findings that were related to aggravated clinical and laboratory parameters of APN patients were perirenal fat infiltration, ureteral wall edema, and renal abscess formation. The inflammatory reaction and tissue destruction may be more aggressive in patients with these CT findings.
PMCID: PMC4101119  PMID: 25045448
Pyelonephritis; X-ray computed tomography
8.  Characterization of the spectrum of Korean inflammatory demyelinating diseases according to the diagnostic criteria and AQP4-Ab status 
BMC Neurology  2014;14:93.
The relative frequencies of demyelinating diseases among Korean patients with idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (IIDD) have not been sufficiently studied. We therefore describe a cohort of 203 patients with IIDD from three centers in Korea whose syndromes were identified precisely according to international clinical criteria and autoantibody to aquaporin 4 (AQP4-Ab) status.
In total, 260 consecutive patients were screened and 203 were included from three hospitals in Korea. All were tested for AQP4-Ab by using a cell-based assay. Patients who met the criteria for definite neuromyelitis optica (NMO) or had a positive AQP4-Ab test result were defined as the NMO group. Among the others, patients were assessed if they had acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, multiple sclerosis (MS), acute transverse myelitis, optic neuritis, or other demyelinating disease as a clinically isolated syndrome of the brain.
Eighteen percent of patients were classified as the NMO group, 2% as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, 18% as MS, 41% as acute transverse myelitis, 11% as optic neuritis, and 8% as other clinically isolated syndrome of the brain. AQP4-Ab was positive in 18% of patients and the relative frequency of NMO to MS (NMO/MS ratio) was 1.06. The mean duration of follow up in our patients was 64 months.
Among Korean patients with idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating diseases, the incidence of NMO may be similar to that of MS, and the overall positivity of AQP4-Ab could be lower than previously reported. In addition, acute transverse myelitis that is not associated with MS or NMO can be relatively common in these patients. Further population-based studies with AQP4-Ab are needed to determine the exact incidence of NMO and other idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating diseases in Korea.
PMCID: PMC4030035  PMID: 24779645
Neuromyelitis optica; Multiple sclerosis; Anti-aquaporin-4 antibody; Idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system; Korean
9.  Factors Associated With the Time to Next Attack in Neuromyelitis Optica: Accelerated Failure Time Models With Random Effects 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(12):e82325.
Background and Objective
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an inflammatory demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system with a relapsing and remitting course. We aimed to identify factors associated with the time to next attack, including the effect of the natural disease course and the diverse treatment regimens, by applying a longitudinal statistical analysis to the individual attacks of each patient.
In total, 184 acute attacks among 58 patients with either NMO or NMO spectrum disorder with anti-aquaporin-4 antibody were assessed retrospectively. Patient demographics, clinical characteristics at each attack, and type of treatment during inter-attack periods were assessed. The dependent variable was defined as the time from each attack to the next attack (inter-attack interval). An exponential accelerated failure time model with shared gamma frailty was adapted for statistical analysis.
A multivariable analysis revealed that the time from each attack to the next attack in NMO increased independently by 1.31 times (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.02–1.67; p = 0.035) with each additional cumulative attack experienced, by 5.34 times (95% CI, 1.57–18.13; p = 0.007) with combined azathioprine treatment and continued oral prednisolone, and by 4.26 times (95% CI, 1.09–16.61; p = 0.037) with rituximab treatment.
The time to next attack in NMO can increase naturally in the later stages of the disease as the number of cumulative attacks increases. Nevertheless, both combined azathioprine treatment with continued oral prednisolone and rituximab treatment were also associated with a longer time to next attack, independently of the natural disease course of NMO.
PMCID: PMC3864949  PMID: 24358171
10.  Intermittent Hypoxia Can Aggravate Motor Neuronal Loss and Cognitive Dysfunction in ALS Mice 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(11):e81808.
Patients with ALS may be exposed to variable degrees of chronic intermittent hypoxia. However, all previous experimental studies on the effects of hypoxia in ALS have only used a sustained hypoxia model and it is possible that chronic intermittent hypoxia exerts effects via a different molecular mechanism from that of sustained hypoxia. No study has yet shown that hypoxia (either chronic intermittent or sustained) can affect the loss of motor neurons or cognitive function in an in vivo model of ALS.
To evaluate the effects of chronic intermittent hypoxia on motor and cognitive function in ALS mice.
Sixteen ALS mice and 16 wild-type mice were divided into 2 groups and subjected to either chronic intermittent hypoxia or normoxia for 2 weeks. The effects of chronic intermittent hypoxia on ALS mice were evaluated using the rotarod, Y-maze, and wire-hanging tests. In addition, numbers of motor neurons in the ventral horn of the spinal cord were counted and western blot analyses were performed for markers of oxidative stress and inflammatory pathway activation.
Compared to ALS mice kept in normoxic conditions, ALS mice that experienced chronic intermittent hypoxia had poorer motor learning on the rotarod test, poorer spatial memory on the Y-maze test, shorter wire hanging time, and fewer motor neurons in the ventral spinal cord. Compared to ALS-normoxic and wild-type mice, ALS mice that experienced chronic intermittent hypoxia had higher levels of oxidative stress and inflammation.
Chronic intermittent hypoxia can aggravate motor neuronal death, neuromuscular weakness, and probably cognitive dysfunction in ALS mice. The generation of oxidative stress with activation of inflammatory pathways may be associated with this mechanism. Our study will provide insight into the association of hypoxia with disease progression, and in turn, the rationale for an early non-invasive ventilation treatment in patients with ALS.
PMCID: PMC3841127  PMID: 24303073
11.  Effect of Transurethral Resection With Hydrodistention for the Treatment of Ulcerative Interstitial Cystitis 
Korean Journal of Urology  2013;54(10):682-688.
Many treatment options to help relieve the symptoms of interstitial cystitis (IC) are available, but none are effective. Because no reports of transurethral ulcer resection with hydrodistention are available, we assessed the effects of such combined surgery for ulcerative IC.
Materials and Methods
Between June 2006 and June 2011, 87 female patients with IC who underwent transurethral resection with hydrodistention and were followed up for at least 12 months were included. Improvements in patients' voiding symptoms and pain were analyzed retrospectively by using a 3-day micturition chart and a 10-point visual analogue scale (VAS) before and after the operation. The global response assessment (GRA) was used to assess treatment satisfaction.
The mean age of the 87 female patients was 59.1±10.1 years, and the mean follow-up period was 26.7±14.4 months. Mean maximum functional bladder capacity increased from 168.4±92.4 mL to 276.3±105.4 mL (1 month) and to 227.3±91.7 mL (12 months). The mean frequency of voiding decreased from 17.2±8.5 before to 10.6±5.3 after (1 month) surgery; however, it increased again to 13.3±4.8 at 12 months. The 10-point VAS score decreased from 9.1±0.8 to 1.2±0.3 (1 month); however, it increased again to 2.5±0.4 (3 months), 3.2±0.4 (6 months), and 5.3±0.5 (12 months) (p<0.001). Symptom improvement based on the GRA was observed in 83 of the 87 patients (95.4%) at 1 month and in 55 of 87 patients (63.2%) at 12 months.
Transurethral resection with hydrodistention is an effective treatment option for ulcerative IC because it provides improvements in voiding symptoms and pain.
PMCID: PMC3806992  PMID: 24175042
Interstitial cystitis; Treatment outcome
12.  Nocturnal Hypoxia in ALS Is Related to Cognitive Dysfunction and Can Occur as Clusters of Desaturations 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(9):e75324.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease that leads to progressive weakness of the respiratory and limb muscles. Consequently, most patients with ALS exhibit progressive hypoventilation, which worsens during sleep. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between nocturnal hypoxia and cognitive dysfunction and to assess the pattern of nocturnal hypoxia in patients with ALS.
Twenty-five patients with definite or probable ALS underwent neuropsychologic testing, nocturnal pulse oximetry, and capnography. Patients were grouped according to the presence of nocturnal hypoxia (SpO2<95% for ≥10% of the night) and their clinical characteristics and cognitive function were compared.
Compared to patients without nocturnal hypoxia, those with nocturnal hypoxia (n = 10, 40%) had poor memory retention (p = 0.039) and retrieval efficiency (p = 0.045). A cluster-of-desaturation pattern was identified in 7 patients (70%) in the Hypoxia Group.
These results suggest that nocturnal hypoxia can be related to cognitive dysfunction in ALS. In addition, a considerable number of patients with ALS may be exposed to repeated episodes of deoxygenation–reoxygenation (a cluster-of-desaturation pattern) during sleep, which could be associated with the generation of reactive oxygen species. Further studies are required to define the exact causal relationships between these phenomena, the exact manifestations of nocturnal cluster-of-desaturation patterns, and the effect of clusters of desaturation on ALS progression.
PMCID: PMC3776791  PMID: 24058674
13.  A Case of Thyrotoxic Myopathy with Extreme Type 2 Fiber Predominance 
Experimental Neurobiology  2013;22(3):232-234.
In hyperthyroidism, many patients had neuromuscular symptoms and clinical weakness correlated with free thyroxine (T4) concentrations. The common clinical symptoms of chronic thyrotoxic myopathy were characterized by progressive weakness in proximal muscles and atrophy. A 55-year old woman was visited our hospital with two years of progressive weakness of both legs. Physical examination showed diffuse enlargement of the thyroid gland, muscle atrophy and tachycardia. Motor examination showed proximal weakness in both legs. Serum creatine phosphokinase was normal and electromyography showed a myopathic pattern. Serum thyroxine (T4) was greatly increased and serum thyroid stimulating hormone was very low. Muscle biopsy showed mild atrophic change and type 2 fiber predominance. The patient's symptoms were improved during treatment with methimazole. Herein we report a case of thyrotoxic myopathy with extreme type 2 fiber predominance histologically.
PMCID: PMC3807010  PMID: 24167418
thyrotoxic myopathy; hyperthyroidism; type 2 fiber
14.  Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia with a Novel SPAST Mutation Misdiagnosed with Subacute Combined Degeneration 
Experimental Neurobiology  2013;22(2):128-131.
Autosomal dominant hereditary spastic paraplegia (AD-HSP) is due to mutations in the "spastin" gene (SPAST gene) encoding the AAA protein. The main clinical features of "pure" HSP are progressive lower-limb spasticity with corticospinal tracts and dorsal column degeneration without peripheral neuropathy. Here we report the case of HSP with novel SPAST gene mutation that misdiagnosed with subacute combined degeneration initially. A 58-year-old man with gait disturbance came to our hospital. He was unable to regulate his steps by himself. The impaired gait began 3 years after he had undergone subtotal gastrectomy and chemotherapy for 6 months. Thereafter, he started feeling tingling sensations in the hands and feet and acquired gait difficulties. He denied having a family history of abnormal gait or developmental problem. We diagnosed him with subacute combined degeneration on the evidence of history of gastrectomy, lower normal limit of vitamin B12 (363 pg/ml), apparent absence of vibration sensations and paresthesia in the feet. He was intramuscularly administered cyanocobalamin regularly. However, there was no improvement in his condition. We reconsidered his symptoms and signs, decided to examine the SPAST gene, which is the most common mutation in HSP. The SPAST gene, c.870+1delG, heterozygote, splicing mutation is detected from the gene sample. There was no previous information of this polymorphism or mutation at this locus. We examined his two children, and the same mutation was founded in his son. We report a patient of novel SPAST gene mutation with AD-HSP which is misdiagnosed with SCD.
PMCID: PMC3699674  PMID: 23833562
hereditary spastic paraplegia; SPAST protein; subacute combined degeneration
15.  Hypolipidemia in Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Possible Gender Difference? 
Background and Purpose
We compared the levels of serum lipid, protein, and glucose between patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and healthy controls.
The serum levels of lipids [including triglycerides, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)], protein, and glucose of 95 patients with ALS (60 men) were compared with those of 99 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (64 men). Both groups had normal dietary intakes.
Total cholesterol (p=0.004), LDL (p=0.040), triglyceride (p=0.025), and protein (p=0.010) levels, and LDL/HDL ratios (p<0.001) in men with ALS were significantly lower than those in their control counterparts. There were no such significant differences in these parameters between female patients with ALS and female controls.
The serum levels of lipid and protein were significantly lower in male patients with ALS than in the male controls. Since we controlled for the confounding effects of dietary intake, hypolipidemia in ALS might be associated with the pathophysiology of the disease rather than being the result of the decreased dietary intake in ALS patients. Metabolic demand might increase in ALS, and it may be affected by gender.
PMCID: PMC3633190  PMID: 23626651
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; dyslipidemia; gender differences
17.  Influence of Visceral Adiposity on Cardiovascular Autonomic Neuropathy in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus 
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal  2012;36(4):285-292.
The aim of this study was to investigate the influences of visceral adiposity on cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Two hundred eleven patients with type 2 diabetes participated in this study. Anthropometric and metabolic parameters were measured, and the visceral fat area was assessed using computed tomography. CAN was diagnosed using a cardiovascular reflex test. We analyzed the correlation between the visceral fat area and each parameter in this test.
The mean age, body mass index (BMI), and duration of diabetes of the study population were 60±14 years (mean±standard deviation), 25.1±4.2 kg/m2, and 12.3±8.9 years, respectively. The visceral fat area showed positive correlations with age, BMI, waist circumference, and subcutaneous fat area. There was no statistically significant difference in the cardiovascular reflex test outcome between genders. Univariate linear regression analysis showed that an increased visceral fat area diminished good heart rate response to a Valsalva maneuver (R2=4.9%, P=0.013 in an unadjusted model), but only in women. This statistical association was preserved after adjusting for age and BMI (R2=9.8%, P=0.0072).
The results of this study suggest that visceral adiposity contributes to an autonomic imbalance to some degree, as demonstrated by the impaired cardiovascular reflex test among women with type 2 diabetes.
PMCID: PMC3428417  PMID: 22950060
Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy; Diabetes mellitus, type 2; Intra-abdominal fat; Obesity
18.  Relationship between Vitamin D, Parathyroid Hormone, and Bone Mineral Density in Elderly Koreans 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2012;27(6):636-643.
There is controversy regarding definition of vitamin D inadequacy. We analyzed threshold 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) below which intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) increases, and examined age- and sex-specific changes of 25(OH)D and iPTH, and association of 25(OH)D and iPTH with bone mineral density (BMD) in elderly Koreans. Anthropometric parameters, serum 25(OH)D and iPTH, lumbar spine and femur BMD by dual-energy radiography absorptiometry (DXA) were measured in 441 men and 598 postmenopausal women. iPTH increased below serum 25(OH) of 36.7 ng/mL in men, but failed to reach plateau in women. Femur neck BMD above and below threshold differed when threshold 25(OH)D concentrations were set at 15-27.5 ng/mL in men, and 12.5-20 ng/mL in postmenopausal women. Vitamin D-inadequate individuals older than 75 yr had higher iPTH than those aged ≤ 65 yr. In winter, age-associated iPTH increase in women was steeper than in summer. In conclusion, vitamin D inadequacy threshold cannot be estimated based on iPTH alone, and but other factors concerning bone health should also be considered. Older people seemingly need higher 25(OH)D levels to offset age-associated hyperparathyroidism. Elderly vitamin D-inadequate women in the winter are most vulnerable to age-associated hyperparathyroidism.
PMCID: PMC3369450  PMID: 22690095
Vitamin D; Intact Parathyroid Hormone; Bone Density; Age; Sex
19.  Comparison between Clinical Disabilities and Electrophysiological Values in Charcot-Marie-Tooth 1A Patients with PMP22 Duplication 
Background and Purpose
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) type 1A (CMT1A) is the demyelinating form of CMT that is significantly associated with PMP22 duplication. Some studies have found that the disease-related disabilities of these patients are correlated with their compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs), while others have suggested that they are related to the nerve conduction velocities. In the present study, we investigated the correlations between the disease-related disabilities and the electrophysiological values in a large cohort of Korean CMT1A patients.
We analyzed 167 CMT1A patients of Korean origin with PMP22 duplication using clinical and electrophysiological assessments, including the CMT neuropathy score and the functional disability scale.
Clinical motor disabilities were significantly correlated with the CMAPs but not the motor nerve conduction velocities (MNCVs). Moreover, the observed sensory impairments matched the corresponding reductions in the sensory nerve action potentials (SNAPs) but not with slowing of the sensory nerve conduction velocities (SNCVs). In addition, CMAPs were strongly correlated with the disease duration but not with the age at onset. The terminal latency index did not differ between CMT1A patients and healthy controls.
In CMT1A patients, disease-related disabilities such as muscle wasting and sensory impairment were strongly correlated with CMAPs and SNAPs but not with the MNCVs or SNCVs. Therefore, we suggest that the clinical disabilities of CMT patients are determined by the extent of axonal dysfunction.
PMCID: PMC3391619  PMID: 22787498
charcot-marie-tooth disease; CMT1A; compound muscle action potential; duplication; nerve conduction velocity; sensory nerve action potential
20.  Ischemic Neuropathy Associated with Livedoid Vasculitis 
Livedoid vasculitis is a chronic dermatological problem with an unclear etiology. Clinical findings are petechiae with painful ulcers in both lower extremities, which heal to become hyperpigmented and porcelain-white satellite lesions. There are only a few reported cases of livedoid vasculitis presenting in combination with peripheral neuropathy.
Case Report
We report the first case of a Korean patient presenting with mononeuritis multiplex combined with livedoid vasculitis, which was confirmed by electrophysiological and pathological studies.
Our report supports the possible vaso-occlusive etiology of livedoid vasculitis in multifocal ischemic neuropathy.
PMCID: PMC3259500  PMID: 22259622
livedoid vasculitis; livedoid vasculopathy; mononeuritis multiplex; multifocal ischemic neuropathy
21.  Effects of Thyroid Hormone on A1C and Glycated Albumin Levels in Nondiabetic Subjects With Overt Hypothyroidism 
Diabetes Care  2010;33(12):2546-2548.
We aimed to determine the effects of thyroid hormone on A1C and glycated albumin (GA) in nondiabetic patients with overt hypothyroidism.
A1C levels were measured in 45 nondiabetic patients with overt hypothyroidism and 180 euthyroid control subjects. A1C, GA, fasting blood glucose (FBG), 1,5-anhydroglucitol, and erythrocyte indexes were determined in 30 nondiabetic patients with overt hypothyroidism before and after thyroid hormone replacement.
A1C levels were higher in patients with hypothyroidism compared with control subjects. A1C levels were decreased by thyroid hormone replacement. Thyroid hormone replacement increased serum erythropoietin, reticulocyte count, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH). The change in A1C level was significantly correlated with the change in reticulocyte count or MCH. Thyroid hormone replacement decreased serum levels of albumin and GA. However, FBG and 1,5-anhydroglucitol levels were not altered.
Levels of A1C and GA are spuriously high in nondiabetic patients with overt hypothyroidism.
PMCID: PMC2992186  PMID: 20823345
22.  Differences in Urinary Stone Composition according to Body Habitus 
Korean Journal of Urology  2011;52(9):622-625.
We analyzed differences in urinary stone composition according to body mass index (BMI).
Materials and Methods
Between January 2007 and December 2010, 505 ureteral or renal stones were collected from 505 patients who underwent surgical intervention. Data on patient age, gender, BMI, urinary pH, and stone composition were collected.
The patients' mean age was 49.2 years (range, 20 to 83 years). Of the 505 patients, 196 (38.7%) had calcium oxalate (CO) stones, 172 (33.9%) had mixed calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate (COP) stones, 72 (14.2%) had calcium phosphate (CP) stones, 50 (9.8%) had uric acid (UA) stones, and 15 (2.9%) had struvite stones. We excluded struvite stones in the statistical analysis because of the small number of patients; a total of 490 patients were included in this study. In the multinomial logistic regression analysis, obesity was found to be associated with UA stones compared with COP stones (odds ratio [OR] 3.488; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.732-7.025; p<0.001) and CP stones (OR 2.765; 95% CI 1.222-6.259; p=0.015). Similar results were observed for CO stones compared with COP stones (OR 2.682; 95% CI 1.727-4.164; p<0.001) and CP stones (OR 2.126; 95% CI 1.176-3.843; p<0.013).
Obesity was associated with UA and CO stones compared with the occurrence of COP and CP stones.
PMCID: PMC3198236  PMID: 22025958
Body mass index; Obesity; Urinary calculi
23.  Capnography for Assessing Nocturnal Hypoventilation and Predicting Compliance with Subsequent Noninvasive Ventilation in Patients with ALS 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(3):e17893.
Patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) suffer from hypoventilation, which can easily worsen during sleep. This study evaluated the efficacy of capnography monitoring in patients with ALS for assessing nocturnal hypoventilation and predicting good compliance with subsequent noninvasive ventilation (NIV) treatment.
Nocturnal monitoring and brief wake screening by capnography/pulse oximetry, functional scores, and other respiratory signs were assessed in 26 patients with ALS. Twenty-one of these patients were treated with NIV and had their treatment compliance evaluated.
Nocturnal capnography values were reliable and strongly correlated with the patients' respiratory symptoms (R2 = 0.211–0.305, p = 0.004–0.021). The duration of nocturnal hypercapnea obtained by capnography exhibited a significant predictive power for good compliance with subsequent NIV treatment, with an area-under-the-curve value of 0.846 (p = 0.018). In contrast, no significant predictive values for nocturnal pulse oximetry or functional scores for nocturnal hypoventilation were found. Brief waking supine capnography was also useful as a screening tool before routine nocturnal capnography monitoring.
Capnography is an efficient tool for assessing nocturnal hypoventilation and predicting good compliance with subsequent NIV treatment of ALS patients, and may prove useful as an adjunctive tool for assessing the need for NIV treatment in these patients.
PMCID: PMC3068132  PMID: 21479202
24.  Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Is Associated with Hypolipidemia at the Presymptomatic Stage in Mice 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(3):e17985.
To demonstrate that hypolipidemia is a typical feature of the mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and to assess the association between hypolipidemia and disease stage, dietary intake, and sex.
We compared daily dietary intake, body weight, and serumlipid and glucose levels in ALS mice and wild-type controls at different stages of the disease.
Total cholesterol low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and LDL/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio were significantly lower in ALS mice compared with controls. Subgroup analysis revealed that the incidence of hypolipidemia was significantly greater in male, but not female, ALS mice compared with control mice and that hypolipidemia was present at the presymptomatic stage of the disease. This hypolipidemia can be found without a decrease in the serum levels of other energy sources, such as glucose, in the presymptomatic stage.
Hypolipidemia is present at the presymptomatic stage of the ALS mouse model in the absence of malnutrition, significant neuromuscular degeneration or regeneration, and respiratory difficulty. Our findings suggest that hypolipidemia might be associated with the pathomechanism of ALS and/or lipid-specific metabolism rather than simply an epiphenomenon of neuromuscular degeneration or energy imbalance.
PMCID: PMC3064597  PMID: 21464953
25.  Exercise Treadmill Test in Detecting Asymptomatic Coronary Artery Disease in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus 
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal  2011;35(1):34-40.
The present study was designed to develop criteria for screening patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) for asymptomatic coronary artery disease (CAD).
A total of 213 patients with T2DM without typical angina or chest pain were studied between 2002 and 2007. We also evaluated 53 patients with T2DM who had reported chest discomfort using an exercise treadmill test (ETT).
Thirty-one of the 213 asymptomatic patients had positive ETT results. We performed coronary angiography on 23 of the 31 patients with a positive ETT and found that 11 of them had significant coronary stenosis. The main differences between the patients with significant stenosis and those with a negative ETT were age (63.1±9.4 vs. 53.7±10.1 years, P=0.008) and duration of diabetes (16.0±7.5 vs. 5.5±5.7 years, P<0.001). The positive predictive value (PPV) of the ETT was calculated to be 47.8%. The PPV of the ETT increased to 87.5% in elderly patients (≥60 years) with a long duration of diabetes (≥10 years). The latter value is similar to that of patients with T2DM who presented with chest discomfort or exertional dyspnea. The PPV of the ETT in symptomatic patients was 76.9%.
In the interest of cost-effectiveness, screening for asymptomatic CAD could be limited to elderly patients with a duration of diabetes ≥10 years.
PMCID: PMC3080575  PMID: 21537411
Diabetes mellitus; Duration of diabetes; Exercise treadmill test; Silent myocardial ischemia

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