As part of our continuing investigation of azo-flavonoid derivatives as potential anticancer drug candidates, a series of 2-aryl-6,7-methylenedioxyquinolin-4-one analogs was designed and synthesized. The design combined structural features of 2-(2-fluorophenyl)-6,7-methylenedioxyquinolin-4-one (CHM-1), a previously discovered compound with potent in vivo antitumor activity, and 2-arylquinolin-4-ones identified by CoMFA models. The newly synthesized analogs were evaluated for cytotoxicity against seven human cancer cell lines, and structure-activity relationship (SAR) correlations were established. Analogs 1, 37, and 39 showed potent cytotoxicity against different cancer cell lines. Compound 1 demonstrated selective cytotoxicity against Hep 3B (hepatoma) cells. Compound 37 was cytotoxic against HL-60 (leukemia), HCT-116 (colon cancer), Hep 3B (hepatoma), and SK-MEL-5 (melanoma) cells. Compound 39 exhibited broad cytotoxicity against all seven cancer cell lines, with IC50 values between 0.07–0.19 µM. Results from mechanism of action studies revealed that these new quinolone derivatives function as antitubulin agents.
2-Arylquinolin-4-ones; CHM-1; Cytotoxicity; Tubulin inhibitor
The ethnomedical uses of Piper (胡椒 Hú Jiāo) plants as anticancer agents, in vitro cytotoxic activity of both extracts and compounds from Piper plants, and in vivo antitumor activity and mechanism of action of selected compounds are reviewed in the present paper. The genus Piper (Piperaceae) contains approximately 2000 species, of which 10 species have been used in traditional medicines to treat cancer or cancer-like symptoms. Studies have shown that 35 extracts from 24 Piper species and 32 compounds from Piper plants possess cytotoxic activity. Amide alkaloids account for 53% of the major active principles. Among them, piplartine (piperlongumine) shows the most promise, being toxic to dozens of cancer cell lines and having excellent in vivo activity. It is worthwhile to conduct further anticancer studies both in vitro and in vivo on Piper plants and their active principles.
Amide alkaloids; Anticancer; Cytotoxicity; Piper; Piperaceae
This review discusses recent progress in the development of anti-HIV agents targeting the viral entry process. The three main classes (attachment inhibitors, co-receptor binding inhibitors, and fusion inhibitors) are further broken down by specific mechanism of action and structure. Many of these inhibitors are in advanced clinical trials, including the HIV maturation inhibitor bevirimat, from the authors’ laboratories. In addition, the CCR5 inhibitor maraviroc has recently been FDA-approved. Possible roles for these agents in anti-HIV therapy, including treatment of virus resistant to current drugs, are also discussed.
HIV entry inhibitors; attachment inhibitors; co-receptor binding inhibitors; fusion inhibitors; maraviroc (MVC; UK-427, 857); enfuvirtide (T20;fuzeon); bevirimat (DSB;PA-457)
In our continuing study of curcumin analogs as potential anti-prostate cancer drug candidates, 15 new curcumin analogs were designed, synthesized and evaluated for cytotoxicity against two human prostate cancer cell lines, androgen-dependent LNCaP and androgen-independent PC-3. Twelve analogs (5-12, 15, 16, 19, and 20) are conjugates of curcumin (1) or methyl curcumin (2) with a flutamide- or bicalutamide-like moiety. Two compounds (22 and 23) are C4-mono- and difluoro-substituted analogs of dimethyl curcumin (DMC, 21). Among the newly synthesized conjugates compound 15, a conjugate of 2 with a partial bicalutamide moiety, was more potent than bicalutamide alone and essentially equipotent with 1 and 2 against both prostate tumor cell lines with IC50 values of 41.8 μM (for LNCaP) and 39.1 μM (for PC-3). A cell morphology study revealed that the cytotoxicity of curcumin analogs or curcumin-antiandrogen conjugates detected from both prostate cancer cell lines might be due to the suppression of pseudopodia formation. A molecular intrinsic fluorescence experiment showed that 1 accumulated mainly in the nuclei, while conjugate 6 was distributed in the cytosol. At the tested conditions, antiandrogens suppressed pseudopodia formation in PC-3 cells, but not in LNCaP cells. The evidence suggests that distinguishable target proteins are involved, resulting in the different outcomes toward pseudopodia suppression.
Synthesis; Curcumin analogs; Conjugates; Cytotoxicity; Anti-prostate cancer; Morphology
This article will review selected herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine, including medicinal mushrooms (巴西蘑菇 bā xī mó gū; Agaricus blazei, 雲芝 yún zhī; Coriolus versicolor, 靈芝 líng zhī; Ganoderma lucidum, 香蕈 xiāng xùn; shiitake, Lentinus edodes, 牛樟芝 niú zhāng zhī; Taiwanofungus camphoratus), Cordyceps (冬蟲夏草 dōng chóng xià cǎo), pomegranate (石榴 shí liú; Granati Fructus), green tea (綠茶 lǜ chá; Theae Folium Non Fermentatum), garlic (大蒜 dà suàn; Allii Sativi Bulbus), turmeric (薑黃 jiāng huáng; Curcumae Longae Rhizoma), and Artemisiae Annuae Herba (青蒿 qīng hāo; sweet wormwood). Many of the discussed herbal products have gained popularity in their uses as dietary supplements for health benefits. The review will focus on the active constituents of the herbs and their bioactivities, with emphasis on the most recent progress in research for the period of 2003 to 2011.
Herbal Products; Medicinal Mushrooms; Dietary Supplements; Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM)
This article will review selected herbal products from Chinese Materia Medica that are used in Traditional Chinese Medicine. The herbs come from the upper, middle, and lower class medicines as listed in The Divine Husbandman's Herbal Foundation Canon (神農本草經 Shén Nóng Běn Cǎo Jīng). The review will focus on the active constituents of the herbs and their bioactivities, with emphasis on the most recent progress in research for the period of 2003 to 2011.
Herbal products; Chinese Materia Medica (CMM) (中藥 zhōng yào); Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM); Shén Nóng Běn Cǎo Jīng (神農本草經 The Divine Husbandman's Herbal Foundation Canon by Shen Nong)
6-methoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline moiety in prior leads
2-chloro- and 2-methyl-4-(6-methoxy-3,4-dihydroquinolin-1(2H)-yl)quinazoline (1a and 1b)
was modified to produce 4-(N-cycloamino)quinazolines
(4a–c and 5a–m). The new compounds were evaluated in cytotoxicity and tubulin
inhibition assays, resulting in the discovery of new tubulin-polymerization
2(1H)-one (5f), the most potent compound,
exhibited high in vitro cytotoxic activity (GI50 1.9–3.2
nM), significant potency against tubulin assembly (IC50 0.77 μM), and substantial inhibition of colchicine binding
(99% at 5 μM). In mechanism studies, 5f caused
cell arrest in G2/M phase, disrupted microtubule formation, and competed
mostly at the colchicine site on tubulin. Compound 5f and N-methylated analogue 5g were evaluated in nude
mouse MCF7 xenograft models to validate their antitumor activity.
Compound 5g displayed significant in vivo activity (tumor
inhibitory rate 51%) at a dose of 4 mg/kg without obvious toxicity,
whereas 5f unexpectedly resulted in toxicity and death
at the same dose.
products are the major sources of currently available anticancer
drugs. We recently reported that phenanthrene-based tylophorine derivative-1
(PBT-1) may be a potential antitumor agent for lung adenocarcinoma.
We therefore examined the direct targets of PBT-1 and their effects
in inhibiting lung adenocarcinoma. We found that PBT-1 reduced the
level of Slug and inhibits the migration, invasion, and filopodia
formation of lung adenocarcinoma CL1-5 cells in vitro. In addition,
PBT-1 displayed in vivo antitumor and antimetastasis activities against
subcutaneous and orthotopic xenografts of CL1-5 cells in nude mice.
Chemical proteomics showed that heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) and
heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins A2/B1 (hnRNP A2/B1) bound
PBT-1 in CL1-5 cells. Inhibition of HSP90 and hnRNP A2/B1 reduced
the activation of AKT and Slug expression. Taken together, these findings
suggest that PBT-1 binds to HSP90 and/or hnRNP A2/B1 and initiates
antitumor activities by affecting Slug- and AKT-mediated metastasis
Several dibenzocyclooctatetraene derivatives (5-7) and related biphenyls (8-11) were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for inhibition of cancer cell growth and the NF-κB signaling pathway. Compound 5a, a dibenzocyclooctatetraene succinimide, was discovered as a potent inhibitor of the NF-κB signaling pathway with significant antitumor activity against several human tumor cell lines (GI50 1.38–1.45 μM) and was more potent than paclitaxel against the drug-resistant KBvin cell line. Compound 5a also inhibited LPS-induced NF-κB activation in RAW264.7 cells with an IC50 value of 0.52 μM, prevented IκB-α degradation and p65 nuclear translocation, and suppressed LPS-induced NO production in a dose-dependent manner. The antitumor data in cellular assays indicated that relative positions and types of substituents on the dibenzocyclooctatetraene or acyclic biphenyl as well as torsional angles between the two phenyls are of primary importance to antitumor activity.
dibenzocyclooctatetraene derivatives; unsymmetrical biphenyls; anticancer agents; NF-κB inhibitor
Three series of novel sulfonylurea podophyllotoxin derivatives were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for in vitro cytotoxicity against four tumor cell lines (A-549, DU-145, KB and KBvin). Compounds 14c (IC50: 1.41–1.76 μM) and 14e (IC50: 1.72–2.01 μM) showed superior cytotoxic activity compared with etoposide (IC50: 2.03– >20μM), a clinically available anticancer drug. Significantly, most of the compounds exhibited comparable cytotoxicity against the drug-resistant tumor cell line KBvin, while etoposide lost activity completely. Preliminary structure-activity relationship (SAR) correlations indicated that the 4′-O-methyl functionality in podophyllotoxin analogues may be essential to maintain cytotoxic activity, while an arylsulfonylurea side chain at podophyllotoxin’s 4β position can significantly improve cytotoxic activity.
podophyllotoxin; sulfonylurea; synthesis; cytotoxic activity
NPRL-Z-1 is a 4β-[(4″-benzamido)-amino]-4′-O-demethyl-epipodophyllotoxin derivative. Previous reports have shown that NPRL-Z-1 possesses anticancer activity. Here NPRL-Z-1 displayed cytotoxic effects against four human cancer cell lines (HCT 116, A549, ACHN, and A498) and exhibited potent activity in A498 human renal carcinoma cells, with an IC50 value of 2.38 µM via the MTT assay. We also found that NPRL-Z-1 induced cell cycle arrest in G1-phase and detected DNA double-strand breaks in A498 cells. NPRL-Z-1 induced ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) protein kinase phosphorylation at serine 1981, leading to the activation of DNA damage signaling pathways, including Chk2, histone H2AX, and p53/p21. By ICE assay, the data suggested that NPRL-Z-1 acted on and stabilized the topoisomerase II (TOP2)–DNA complex, leading to TOP2cc formation. NPRL-Z-1-induced DNA damage signaling and apoptotic death was also reversed by TOP2α or TOP2β knockdown. In addition, NPRL-Z-1 inhibited the Akt signaling pathway and induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. These results demonstrated that NPRL-Z-1 appeared to be a novel TOP2 poison and ROS generator. Thus, NPRL-Z-1 may present a significant potential anticancer candidate against renal carcinoma.
New 6- (or 6,7-) substituted 2-(hydroxyl substituted phenyl)quinolin-4-one derivatives were synthesized and screened for antiproliferative effects against cancer cell lines. Structure-activity relationship correlations were established and the most promising compound 2-(3-hydroxy-5-methoxyphenyl)-6-pyrrolidin-1-ylquinolin-4-one (6h) exhibited strong inhibitory activity against various human cancer cell lines, particularly non-small cell lung cancer NCI-H522. Additional studies suggested a mechanism of action resembling that of the antimitotic drug vincristine. The presence of a C-ring OH group in 6h will allow this compound to be converted readily to a water soluble and physiochemically stable hydrophilic prodrug. Compound 6h is proposed as a new anticancer lead compound.
2-(Hydroxyphenyl)quinolin-4-one derivatives; Antiproliferative activity; Anticancer lead development; Prodrug
Novel 6,7-methylenedioxy-4-substituted phenylquinolin-2-one derivatives 12a–n were designed and prepared through an intramolecular cyclization reaction and evaluated for in vitro anticancer activity. Among the synthesized compounds, 6,7-methylenedioxy-4-(2,4-dimethoxyphenyl)quinolin-2(1H)-one (12e) displayed potent cytotoxicity against several different tumor cell lines at a sub-micromolar level. Furthermore, results of fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis suggested that 12e induced cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase accompanied by apoptosis in HL-60 and H460 cells. This action was confirmed by Hoechst staining and caspase-3 activation. Due to their easy synthesis and remarkable biological activities, 4-phenylquinolin-2(1H)-one analogs (4-PQs) are promising new anticancer leads based on the quinoline scaffold. Accordingly, compound 12e was identified as a new lead compound that merits further optimization and development as an anticancer candidate.
4-Phenylquinolin-2(1H)-one (4-PQ); Anticancer agent; Podophyllotoxin; Apoptosis; Structure-activity relationships (SAR)
Structural optimizations of the prior lead 1a led to the discovery of a series of N-aryl-6-methoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline derivatives as a novel class of tubulin polymerization inhibitors targeted at the colchicine binding site. The most active compound 6d showed extremely high cytotoxicity against a human tumor cell line panel (A549, KB, KBvin, and DU145) with GI50 values ranging from 1.5 to 1.7 nM, significantly more potent than paclitaxel, especially against the drug-resistant KBvin cell line, in the same assays. Analogues 5f, 6b, 6c, and 6e were also quite potent, with a GI50 range of 0.011–0.19 μM. In further studies, active compounds 6b–6e and 5f significantly inhibited tubulin assembly, with IC50 values of 0.92 to 1.0 μM and strongly inhibited colchicine binding to tubulin, with inhibition rates of 75–99% (at 5 μM), comparable with or more potent than combretastatin A-4 (IC50 0.96 μM). Current studies included design, synthesis, and biological evaluations of 24 new compounds (series 3–6). Related SAR analysis, molecular modeling, and evaluation of essential drug-like properties, i.e. water solubility, log P, and in vitro metabolic stability, were also performed.
N-aryl-6-methoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinolines; cytotoxicity; tubulin polymerization inhibitors; colchicine binding site
Taxchinin A, with a 11(15→1)-abeo-taxane skeleton, is a major, but inactive taxoid contained in leaves of Taxus chinensis. In our design of dual-functional antitumor abeo-taxane derivatives, two fragments from antitumor agents with different molecular targets (the N-acyl-3′-phenylisoserine side chain from the antimitotic agent paclitaxel and an α,β-unsaturated carbonyl system from NF-κB inhibitors) were incorporated into the scaffold of taxchinin A. The resulting compounds displayed broad inhibitory effects against proliferation of tumor cell lines, with notable selectivity towards colon cancer, melanoma and renal cancer, when evaluated in the NCI-60 human tumor cell line screening panel. Based on the NCI-60 assay data, structure-activity relationship (SAR) correlations were elucidated. Mechanistic studies indicated that this new compound type can both destabilize microtubules and inhibit NF-κB activation, thereby inducing tumor cell apoptosis. This first report of the dual-functional taxoid-core compounds thus provides new opportunities for future drug development based on natural taxoid scaffolds.
Five novel tigliane-type diterpenes, stelleracins A–E (3–7), a novel flavanone dimer, chamaeflavone A (8), and six known compounds were isolated from roots of Stellera chamaejasme. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses. The isolated compounds were evaluated for anti-HIV activity in MT4 cells. New compounds 3–5 showed potent anti-HIV activity (EC90 0.00056–0.0068 μM) and relatively low or no cytotoxicity (IC50 4.4–17.2 μM). These new compounds represent promising new leads for development into anti-AIDS clinical trial candidates.
Five new highly oxygenated oplopane sesquiterpenes, songaricalarins A–E (1–5), and two known analogues (6 and 7) were isolated from the roots and rhizomes of Ligularia songarica. Their structures and configurations were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, including 2D-NMR techniques, and the structure of 1 was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. All compounds were evaluated for in vitro cytotoxic activity against cultured A-549, MCF-7, KB, and KBVIN cells, and 4 exhibited cytotoxicity with EC50 values of 4.9, 0.8, 3.4, and 3.2 µg/mL, respectively.
Bevirimat (1, BVM) is an anti-HIV agent that blocks HIV-1 replication by interfering with HIV-1 Gag-SP1 processing at a late stage of viral maturation. However, clinical trials of 1 have revealed a high baseline drug resistance that is attributed to naturally-occurring polymorphisms in HIV-1 Gag. To overcome the drug resistance, 28 new derivatives of 1 were synthesized and tested against compound 1-resistant (BVM-R) HIV-1 variants. Among them, compound 6 exhibited much improved activity against several HIV-1 strains carrying BVM-R polymorphisms. Compound 6 was at least 20-fold more potent than 1 against the replication of NL4-3/V370A, which carries the most prevalent clinical BVM-R polymorphism in HIV-1 Gag-SP1. Thus, compound 6 merits further development as a potential anti-AIDS clinical trial candidate.
Betulinic acid; Bevirimat; HIV-1; Maturation inhibitors; Bevirimat-resistance
Based on our prior antitumor hits, 32 novel N-alkyl-N-substituted phenylpyridin-2-amine derivatives were designed, synthesized and evaluated for cytotoxic activity against A549, KB, KBVIN, and DU145 human tumor cell lines (HTCL). Subsequently, three new leads (6a, 7g, and 8c) with submicromolar GI50 values of 0.19 to 0.41 μM in the cellular assays were discovered, and these compounds also significantly inhibited tubulin assembly (IC50 1.4–1.7 μM) and competitively inhibited colchicine binding to tubulin with effects similar to those of the clinical candidate CA-4 in the same assays. These promising results indicate that these tertiary diarylamine derivatives represent a novel class of tubulin polymerization inhibitors targeting the colchicine binding site and showing significant anti-proliferative activity.
N-alkyl-N-phenylpyridin-2-amines; cytotoxicity; tubulin polymerization inhibitors; colchicine binding site
1-(3,4,5-Trimethoxyphenyl)ethane-1,2-diyl esters, which share a fragment from (±)-3′-O-4′-O-bis(3,4-dimethoxycinnamoyl)-cis-khellactone (DMDCK) and 3′R,4′R-disubstituted-2′,2′-dimethyldihydropyrano[2,3-f]chromone (DSP), exhibited remarkable chemoreversal activity on multi-drug resistant human nasopharyngeal carcinoma (KB) when combined with three anti-cancer drugs, paclitaxel, vincristine and doxorubicin. Among 15 novel synthesized analogs, bis-trimethoxybenzoyl derivative 15 was the most active (340-fold more active than verapamil when used with vincristine) followed by two di-cinnamoyl derivatives, 10 and 11, and then di-cyclohexanecarbonyl derivative 9. All aliphatic chain derivatives, 3–5, showed no activity. Structure-activity relationship study indicated that a di-ester structure was critical to enhance the activity resulting from the maintenance of the spatial arrangement proposed by the pharmacophore based on the verapamil-binding site. Further mechanism of action study showed 15 inhibited mainly P-glycoprotein efflux pump function, while 13 exhibited an additional multidrug resistance-associated protein efflux pump function.
1-(3,4,5-Trimethoxyphenyl)ethane-1,2-diyl esters; Chemoreversal activity; KB cell line
Accumulation of aberrant protein aggregates, such as
peptide (Aβ), due to decreased proteasome activities, might
contribute to the neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease. In this
study, lithocholic acid derivatives 3α-O-pimeloyl-lithocholic
acid methyl ester (2) and its isosteric isomer (6) were found to activate the chymotrypsin-like activity of
the proteasome at an EC50 of 7.8 and 4.3 μM, respectively.
Replacing the C24 methyl ester in 2 with methylamide
resulted in a complete devoid of proteasome activating activity. Epimerizing
the C3 substituent from an α to β orientation transformed
the activator into a proteasome inhibitor. Unlike the cellular proteasome
activator PA28, proteasome activated by 2 was not inhibited
by Aβ. Furthermore, 2 potently antagonized the
inhibitory effect of Aβ on the proteasome. In summary, compound 2 represents a novel class of small molecules that not only
activates the proteasome but also antagonizes the inhibitory effect
of Aβ on the proteasome.
proteasome activator; lithocholic acid; Alzheimer's
disease; amyloid β
In a continuing study of bevirimat (2), the anti-HIV-maturation clinical trials agent, 28 new betulinic acid (BA, 1) derivatives were designed and synthesized. Among these compounds, 17, with a C-28 MEM ester moiety, and 22, with a C-28 ethyl hexanoate, increased the anti-HIV replication activity compared with 2 by two-fold, while compounds 40–41 and 48–49, with C-28 piperazine or piperidine amide substitutions, increased the activity by three- to fifteen-fold. The best new compound 41 exhibited an anti-HIV IC50 value of 0.0059 μM, compared with 0.087 μM for 2. All of the active compounds showed only anti-maturation effects, as confirmed by TZM-bl assay, in blocking the HIV replication. The results suggest that proper C-28 substitutions can further enhance the anti-maturation activity of 2, without any anti-entry effects. Thus, 41 may serve as a promising new lead for development of anti-AIDS clinical trial candidates.
This article reviews the antitumor and anti-HIV activities of naturally occurring triterpenoids, including the lupane, ursane, oleanane, lanostane, dammarane, and miscellaneous scaffolds. Structure–activity relationships of selected natural compounds and their synthetic derivatives are also discussed.
Twenty-one new 4-substituted diarylaniline compounds (DAANs) (Scheme 2, series 13, 14, and 15) were designed, synthesized, and evaluated against wild-type and drug resistant HIV-1 viral strains. As a result, approximately a dozen new DAANs showed high potency with low nano- to sub-nanomolar EC50 values ranging from 0.2 to 10 nM. The three most promising compounds 14e, 14h, and 15h exhibited high potency against wild-type and drug-resistant viral strains with EC50 values at the sub-nanomolar level (0.29–0.87 nM), and were comparable to or more potent than the new NNRTI drug riplivirine (2) in the same assays. Drug-like physicochemical property assessments revealed that the most active DAANs (EC50 <10 nM) have better aqueous solubility (>1–90 μg/mL at pH 7.4 and pH 2) and metabolic stability in vitro than 2, as well as desirable log P values (<5) and polar surface area (PSA) (<140 Å2). These promising results warrant further development of this novel compound class as potential potent anti-AIDS clinical trial candidates.
Betulinic acid derivatives modified at the C28 position are HIV-1entry inhibitors such as compound A43D; however, modified at the C3 position instead of C28 give HIV-1 maturation inhibitor such as bevirimat. Bevirimat exhibited promising pharmacokinetic profiles in clinical trials, but its effectiveness was compromised by the high baseline drug resistance of HIV-1 variants with polymorphism in the putative drug binding site. In an effort to determine whether the viruses with bevirimat resistant polymorphism also altered their sensitivities to the betulinic acid derivatives that inhibit HIV-1 entry, a series of new betulinic acid entry inhibitors were synthesized and tested for their activities against HIV-1 NL4-3 and NL4-3 variants resistant to bevirimat. The results show that the bevirimat resistant viruses were approximately 5- to10-fold more sensitive to three new glutamine ester derivatives (13, 15 and 38) and A43D in an HIV-1 multi-cycle replication assay. In contrast, the wild type NL4-3 and the bevirimat resistant variants were equally sensitive to the HIV-1 RT inhibitor AZT. In addition, these three new compounds markedly improved microsomal stability compared to A43D.
HIV-1; Entry inhibitor; Maturation inhibitor; Betulinic acid; Berivimat; Berivimat-resistance