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1.  Pulmonary Tuberculosis Confirmed by Percutaneous Transthoracic Needle Biopsy: Analysis of CT Findings and Review of Correlations with Underlying Lung Disease 
Balkan Medical Journal  2014;31(3):208-213.
Background:
Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) can produce unusual radiographic findings. Further, negative sputum and bronchoscopic results are common. Early diagnosis is equally as significant as treatment in the reduction of morbidity and mortality associated with pulmonary TB.
Aims:
The aim of this study was to assess computed tomography (CT) findings of pulmonary TB, confirmed via percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy (PTNB), and to correlate these findings with coexisting, underlying, lung diseases if present.
Study Design:
Cross sectional study.
Methods:
We selected eighty-four patients who were diagnosed with pulmonary TB by way of PTNB. Initially, acid-fast bacilli smear test results from these patients were negative. CT findings were reviewed to detect the presence of parenchymal abnormalities as follows: nodule(s) (<3 cm in diameter), mass (any masses ≥3 cm), daughter nodules, air-space consolidation, cavitation, calcification, lymphadenopathy, mediastinal lymphadenopathy, and associated lung parenchymal disease.
Results:
The CT findings of pulmonary TB confirmed by PTNB included nodules in 44 of 84 (52.4%) cases; 15 of these 44 cases (34.1%) had daughter nodules. The second most common finding was masses in 24 cases (28.6%), nine of which also had daughter nodules. 16 cases (19.0%) displayed nonsegmental consolidation. Of these 16 cases, four had coexisting usual interstitial pneumonia; four others had emphysema. Two patients with a mass had underlying pneumoconiosis.
Conclusion:
Nodules or a mass mimicking lung cancer were the most common findings on CT scans in patients with pulmonary TB, confirmed via PTNB. The second most common finding was airspace consolidation. Therefore, PNTB is useful for the accurate diagnosis of pulmonary TB in the following cases: airspace consolidation or mass associated with underlying usual interstitial pneumonia, emphysema mimicking lung malignancy or cases of bacterial pneumonia.
doi:10.5152/balkanmedj.2014.13187
PMCID: PMC4299964  PMID: 25625018
Percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy; pulmonary; tuberculosis
2.  Azygos Vein Aneurysm Mimicking Paratracheal Mass: Dynamic Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings 
Balkan medical journal  2013;30(1):111-115.
Aneurysms of the azygos vein are rare and can sometimes mimic a paratracheal or posterior mediastinal mass. It is important to confirm the diagnosis with radiologic tools before performing invasive procedures, which carry the risk of hemorrhage. Here, we present a case in a 79-year-old asymptomatic patient of an increasing azygos vein aneurysm that mimicked a growing paratracheal mass. Review of images obtained using various modalities, including dynamic magnetic resonance image (MRI), revealed that the image findings were suggestive of azygos vein aneurysm. Using this method, an exact diagnosis can be reached without resorting to invasive procedures.
doi:10.5152/balkanmedj.2012.095
PMCID: PMC4116017  PMID: 25207080
Azygos vein aneurysm; dynamic MRI; growing paratracheal mass
3.  Tracheal Metastasis from Rectal Cancer: A Case Report and Review of the Literature 
Balkan medical journal  2013;30(1):120-122.
The trachea is an uncommon site of metastasis from colorectal carcinoma. A few cases have been reported in the literature, but these focused mostly on the clinical aspects without detailing radiologic and histologic findings. The authors describe a 70-year-old woman who was diagnosed with tracheal metastasis from a primary rectal cancer. We present the contrast-enhanced chest computed temography (CT), including volume-rendered image, as well as bronchoscopic findings.
doi:10.5152/balkanmedj.2012.114
PMCID: PMC4116034  PMID: 25207082
Tracheal tumor; metastasis; rectal cancer
4.  Development of New Cardiac Deformity Indexes for Pectus Excavatum on Computed Tomography: Feasibility for Pre- and Post-Operative Evaluation 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2009;50(3):385-390.
Purpose
The aim of this study was to evaluate new cardiac deformity indexes (CDIs) for diagnosis of pectus excavatum as well as morphological assessment of heart on computed tomography (CT).
Materials and Methods
We retrospectively evaluated the CT images of the control group (n=200), and the pectus excavatum before and after correction groups (n=178), and calculated the CDIs; cardiac compression index (CCI), and cardiac asymmetry index (CAI). We also calculated chest wall compression index (CWCI) and asymmetry index (CWAI) on the axial images. We performed logistic regression analysis using each index and age as predictor variables.
Results
The CDIs (CCI and CAI) were significant (p < 0.05) in the diagnosis of pectus excavatum, regardless of age (p = 0.4033, p = 0.8113). The CWCI and CWAI were significant (p < 0.05) and significantly affected by age (p < 0.05). If we selected 1.82 as the cutoff of the CCI, the sensitivity and specificity were 99.4% and 98%, respectively. The following cutoffs and the sensitivity and specificity were obtained: 1.15 for the CAI gave 94.4% and 94.5%, 3.05 for the CWCI gave 92.1% and 92%, and 1 for the CWAI gave 62.4% and 65%, respectively. The CCI after repair improved from 2.83 ± 0.84 to 1.84 ± 0.33, while the CWCI improved from 4.49 ± 1.61 to 2.57 ± 0.44.
Conclusion
CDIs such as the CCI and CAI may be potentially useful to detect and estimate repair for pectus excavatum.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2009.50.3.385
PMCID: PMC2703762  PMID: 19568601
Pectus excavatum; minimally invasive repair of pectus excavatum (MIRPE); CT scan; cardiac deformity index
5.  Diagnostic value of maximal-outer-diameter and maximal-mural-thickness in use of ultrasound for acute appendicitis in children 
AIM: To evaluate the maximal-outer-diameter (MOD) and the maximal-mural-thickness (MMT) of the appendix in children with acute appendicitis and to determine their optimal cut-off values to diagnose acute appendicitis.
METHODS: In total, 164 appendixes from 160 children between 1 and 17 years old (84 males, 76 females; mean age, 7.38 years) were examined by high-resolution abdominal ultrasound for acute abdominal pain and the suspicion of acute appendicitis. We measured the MOD and the MMT at the thickest point of the appendix. Patients were categorized into two groups according to their medical records: patients who had surgery (surgical appendix group) and patients who did not have surgery (non-surgical appendix group). Data were analyzed by MedCalc v.9.3. The rank sum test (Mann-Whitney test) was used to evaluate the difference in the MOD and the MMT between the two groups. ROC curve analysis was used to determine the optimal cut-off value of the MOD and the MMT on diagnosis of acute appendicitis.
RESULTS: There were 121 appendixes (73.8%) in the non-surgical appendix group and 43 appendixes (26.2%) in the surgical appendix group. The median MOD differed significantly between the two groups (0.37 cm vs 0.76 cm, P < 0.0001), and the median MMT also differed (0.15 cm vs 0.33 cm, P < 0.0001). The optimal cut-off value of the MOD and the MMT for diagnosis of acute appendicitis in children was > 0.57 cm (sensitivity 95.4%, specificity 93.4%) and > 0.22 cm (sensitivity 90.7%, specificity 79.3%), respectively.
CONCLUSION: The MOD and the MMT are reliable criteria to diagnose acute appendicitis in children. An MOD > 0.57 cm and an MMT > 0.22 cm are the optimal criteria.
doi:10.3748/wjg.15.2900
PMCID: PMC2699009  PMID: 19533813
Appendicitis; Ultrasonography; Pediatrics; Diagnosis; ROC curve
6.  Localized Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis: Two Case Reports 
Balkan Medical Journal  2014;31(3):257-260.
Background:
Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a relatively rare disease characterized by abnormal accumulation of surfactant-like material in the alveolar spaces. The classic radiologic findings of PAP include bilateral, symmetric, diffuse ground-glass opacity (GGO) or consolidation. The most common computed tomography (CT) feature of PAP is widespread GGO with thickened interlobular septa, the so-called crazy-paving pattern, which strongly suggests the diagnosis.
Case Report:
Here, we report the cases of two young male patients with unusual presentations of PAP. One patient showed localized PAP in the left lower lobe on CT images and the other patient presented with unilateral PAP involving the right lower lung field and recurrence in the same area with the same pattern as the initial manifestation.
Conclusion:
In conclusion, it is important for radiologists to be aware of potential atypical imaging findings of PAP in order to provide a correct diagnosis. Along these lines, PAP can present as a solitary nodular lesion or unilateral focal lesion, and can recur in the same pattern and location.
doi:10.5152/balkanmedj.2014.13188
PMCID: PMC4204757  PMID: 25337424
CT; localized; pulmonary alveolar proteinosis
7.  Endometrial Stromal Sarcoma Presented as an Incidental Lung Mass with Multiple Pulmonary Nodules 
Low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS) is an uncommon gynecologic malignancy of mesodermal origin. Pulmonary metastasis of low-grade ESS can occur years and decades after the treatment of the primary disease. Low-grade ESS is frequently mistaken as benign uterine neoplasm like uterine leiomyoma, which can potentially lead to a misdiagnosis. We present a case of a 42-year-old woman with low-grade ESS, that initially presented as an incidental lung mass with multiple pulmonary nodules, seven years after an uterine myomectomy. A 6.9×5.8 cm-sized intrapelvic mass suspected of uterine origin was discovered while searching for potential extrathoracic primary origin. A pelviscopy and simultaneous thoracoscopic lung biopsy were conducted for pathologic diagnosis. Finally, the diagnosis was confirmed as low-grade ESS with lung metastasis based on the histopathologic examination with immunohistochemical stain, which was showed positive for CD10 and hormone receptor markers (estrogen and progesterone receptors) in both pelvic and lung specimens.
doi:10.4046/trd.2014.76.3.131
PMCID: PMC3982240  PMID: 24734101
Sarcoma, Endometrial Stromal; Multiple Pulmonary Nodules; Neoplasm Metastasis
8.  Classification of Metastatic versus Non-Metastatic Axillary Nodes in Breast Cancer Patients: Value of Cortex-Hilum Area Ratio with Ultrasound 
Journal of Breast Cancer  2012;15(1):65-70.
Purpose
To investigate the significance of the cortex-hilum (CH) area ratio and longitudinal-transverse (LT) axis ratio and the blood flow pattern for diagnosis of metastatic axillary lymph nodes by ultrasound in breast cancer patients.
Methods
From October 2005 to July 2006, we prospectively evaluated axillary nodes with ultrasound in 205 consecutive patients who had category 4B, 4C or 5 breast lesions according to the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System-Ultrasound (BI-RADS-Ultrasound®). Among the 205, there were 24 patients who had pathologic verification of breast cancer and axillary lymph node status. For a total of 80 axillary nodes we measured the areas of the cortex and hilum of lymph nodes and calculated the area ratio. We also measured the length of the longitudinal and transverse axis of the lymph nodes and calculated the length ratio. We evaluated the blood flow pattern on power Doppler imaging and classified each lymph node into a central or peripheral pattern. Diagnostic performance was analyzed according to positive criteria for lymph node metastasis (CH area ratio >2, LT axis ratio <2, peripheral type on power Doppler imaging).
Results
The sensitivity of the CH area ratio was superior to that of the LT axis ratio (94.1% vs. 82.3%, p=0.031) and to that of the blood flow pattern (94.1% vs. 29.4%, p=0.009). For specificity, all three evaluating parameters had high values (89.1-95.6%) and no significant differences were found (p=0.121). The CH area ratio had a better positive predictive value than the LT axis ratio (94.1% vs. 80.0%, p=0.030) and power Doppler imaging (94.1% vs. 66.6%, p=0.028). For the negative predictive value, the CH area ratio was superior to the LT axis ratio (95.6% vs. 86.6%, p=0.035) and the blood flow pattern (95.6% vs. 63.0%, p=0.027).
Conclusion
We recommend the CH area ratio of an axillary lymph node on ultrasound as a quantitative indicator for the classification of lymph nodes. The CH area ratio can improve diagnostic performance when compared with the LT axis ratio or blood flow pattern.
doi:10.4048/jbc.2012.15.1.65
PMCID: PMC3318176  PMID: 22493630
Breast; Lymph nodes; Lymphatic metastasis; Ultrasonography
9.  CD20 Positive T Cell Lymphoma Involvement of Skin 
Annals of Dermatology  2011;23(4):529-535.
CD20 positive T cell lymphoma is a rare condition that is associated with the coexpressions of CD20 and T cell markers, such as, CD3, CD5, or UCHL-1. Positivity for CD20 in this tumor represents an aberrant immunophenotype, but the presence of monoclonal T cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangements and negativity for immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangement indicate that this tumor is a T cell lymphoma. The majority of cases of CD20 positive T cell lymphoma have been reported as immature peripheral T cell lymphoma not otherwise specified. However, we believe that this disease is likely to be re-listed as a new disease entity after its pathogenesis has been elucidated and more cases have been evaluated. Here, we present a case of peripheral T cell lymphoma coexpressing CD20 and T cell markers with a demonstrable TCR gene rearrangement, in a patient who had been misdiagnosed as having B cell type lymphoma 4 years previously. We hypothesize that in this case initially circulating normal CD20+ T cell subsets underwent neoplastic transformation and CD20 positive T cell lymphoma subsequently developed in the lymph node, and then recurred in the skin due to systemic disease or metastasized from the nodal disease.
doi:10.5021/ad.2011.23.4.529
PMCID: PMC3229954  PMID: 22148028
CD20; T cell lymphoma; T cell receptor gene arrangement
10.  A Case of Fabry's Disease with Congenital Agammaglobulinemia 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2011;26(7):966-970.
Fabry's disease is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by abnormalities in the α-galactosidase A (GLA) gene, which leads to a GLA deficiency and to the intracellular deposition of globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) within vascular endothelium and other tissues. It manifests as progressive multiple organ dysfunctions caused by the deposition of Gb3. On the other hand, congenital agammaglobulinemia is usually caused by mutations in Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) gene with X-linked dominence, suppresses B cell maturation, and causes recurrent pyogenic infections. In former reports, the distance between the loci in the Xq22 region of the human X chromosome was found to be about 69 kilobases. A 23-yr-old man diagnosed with congenital agammaglobulinemia at age 5, showed typical clinical and laboratory and histopathological findings of Fabry's disease. The genetic basis of this combination of the two syndromes was studied in this patient. Here, we report a case of Fabry's disease with congenital agammaglobulinemia.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2011.26.7.966
PMCID: PMC3124732  PMID: 21738355
Fabry Disease; Agammaglobulinemia; α-galactosidase A Gene; Btk Gene
11.  Thoracic Intramedullary Schwannoma Accompanying by Extramedullary Beads-Like Daughter Schwanommas 
Thoracic intramedullary schwannomas are rare spinal cord tumors. Most of these tumors have been reported as a single lesion in the spinal cord. The authors report the first case of intramedullary schwannoma accompanying by extramedullary beads-like daughter masses of the thoracic spine. A 68-year-old male presented with walking disturbance and decreased sensation below T10 dermatome. Imaging workup revealed an intramedullary mass at T6 and T7. T6 and T7 laminectomy and mass removal were performed. Intraoperatively, extramedullary beads-like daughter masses along the nerve roots adjacent to intramedullary mass were identified. Total removal of intramedullary lesion and partial resection of extramedullary masses were done. Histological analysis confirmed the diagnosis of schwannoma. The patient could ambulate independently at postoperative 1 month without any neurological sequelae. The authors experienced a surgical case of intramedullary schwannoma accompanying by extramedullary beads-like same pathologies in the thoracic spine.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.49.5.302
PMCID: PMC3115155  PMID: 21716630
Neurilemmoma; Intramedullary lesion; Spinal cord neoplasm
12.  CD4-/CD56+/CD123+ Hematodermic Neoplasm Showing Early Liver Metastasis 
Annals of Dermatology  2010;22(2):186-190.
Hematodermic neoplasm (HN) is a clinically aggressive neoplasm with a high incidence of cutaneous involvement and a risk of leukemic dissemination. In the recent WHO-EORTC classification, the term blastic natural killer cell lymphoma has been replaced with CD4+/CD56+ HN because of its derivation from a plasmacytoid dendritic cell precursor. Cases of HN that completely lack CD4 or CD56 expression, therefore represents a diagnostic problem. A 68-year-old Korean male was diagnosed with CD4-/CD56+ HN and treated with hyper-CVAD (cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, dexamethasone) at initial treatment, and then switched to high dose methotrexate/cytarabine. His disease relapsed and resulted in death from bone and brain disease 6 months after complete clinical remission, despite diagnostic workups, including a radioisotope liver scan and ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy. Further cytogenetic studies such as comparative genomic hybridization could elucidate the genetic mechanisms in the development and progression of lymphomas. We report an unusual case of 'CD4-/CD56+/CD123+ HN' showing early liver metastasis.
doi:10.5021/ad.2010.22.2.186
PMCID: PMC2883422  PMID: 20548910
CD4-/CD56+/CD123+ hematodermic neoplasm; Early liver metastasis
13.  Immersion Ultrasonography of Excised Nonpalpable Breast Lesion Specimens after Ultrasound-Guided Needle Localization 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2008;9(4):312-319.
Objective
Ultrasound-guided needle localization has been used prior to the surgical excision of nonpalpable breast lesions. The aim of the study was to assess the feasibility of the use of a saline immersion specimen ultrasound technique (immersion-US) to confirm the successful removal of breast lesions.
Materials and Methods
The devised immersion-US technique was used to examine the excised tissues of 72 ultrasound-guided needle localized breast lesions of 58 patients (34 benign lesions, 30 high-risk lesions and 8 malignant lesions). Freshly excised specimens were placed in a container filled with saline and one radiologist scanned the surgically excised specimens using a high-frequency linear transducer. We evaluated successful lesion removal and the qualities of the immersion-US images. Miss rates were determined by the use of postoperative ultrasound during follow-up.
Results
All 72 lesions were identified by the use of immersion-US and satisfactory or excellent quality images were obtained for most lesions (70/72, 97%). Five (7%) lesions were initially identified as incompletely excised, based on the immersion-US findings, and prompt re-excision was undertaken. Follow-up ultrasound examinations showed no residual mass in the surgical field in any patient.
Conclusion
The immersion-US technique was found straightforward and efficient to perform. Immersion-US was able to determine whether nonpalpable breast lesions had been successfully excised after ultrasound-guided needle localization.
doi:10.3348/kjr.2008.9.4.312
PMCID: PMC2627267  PMID: 18682668
Breast; Breast neoplasms; Specimen handling; Ultrasound (US)
14.  Age-Related Changes in Conventional and Magnetization Transfer MR Imaging in Elderly People: Comparison with Neurocognitive Performance 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2004;5(2):96-101.
Objective
This study was designed to compare three different measures of the elderly human brain; the magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) histogram, the percentage of brain parenchymal volume, and the volume of T2 hyperintense areas in terms of correlations with the study subjects' neurocognitive performance.
Materials and Methods
Thirty-five healthy community-dwelling elderly volunteers aged 60-82 years underwent dual fast spin-echo (FSE) imaging and magnetization transfer imaging. A semi-automated technique was used to generate the MTR histogram, the brain parenchymal volume, and the T2 lesion volume. The subjects' neurocognitive performance was assessed by using the Korean-Mini Mental State Examination (K-MMSE) and additional tests. The peak height of the MTR (PHMTR), the percentage of brain parenchymal volume (PBV), and the normalized T2 lesion volume (T2LV) were compared between the normal group (Z score on the K-MMSE ≥ -2, n=23) and the mild cognitive impairment group (Z score on the K-MMSE < -2, n=12), and these parameters were correlated with age and various neurocognitive performance scores.
Results
The PHMTR was significantly lower in the cognitively impaired subjects than the PHMTR in the normal subjects (p = 0.005). The PBV scores were lower in the cognitively impaired subjects than in the normal subjects (p = 0.02). The T2LV scores were significantly higher in the cognitively impaired subjects (p = 0.01). An inverse correlation was found between the PHMTR and T2LV (r = -0.747, p < 0.001), and also between the PBV and T2LV (r = -0.823, p < 0.001). A positive correlation was observed between the PHMTR and the PBV (r = 0.846, p < 0.001). Scores on the various neurocognitive tests were positively correlated with the PHMTR (6 of 7 items) and the PBV (5 of 7 items), and they were negatively correlated with the T2LV (5 of 7 items).
Conclusion
Our findings of a correlation among the PBV, the T2LV, and the PHMTR suggest that MTR histograms and the PBV and T2LV can be used as a reliable method and valid statistical tool, respectively, for quantifying the total lesion burden in an aging brain.
doi:10.3348/kjr.2004.5.2.96
PMCID: PMC2698146  PMID: 15235233
Brain, MRI; Magnetic resonance (MR), magnetization transfer; Neuropsychology
15.  Mycotic Pulmonary Artery Aneurysm as an Unusual Complication of Thoracic Actinomycosis 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2004;5(1):68-71.
Although pulmonary artery aneurysms are a rare vascular anomaly, they are seen in a wide variety of conditions, such as congenital heart disease, infection, trauma, pulmonary hypertension, cystic medial necrosis and generalized vasculitis. To our knowledge, mycotic aneurysms caused by pulmonary actinomycosis have not been reported in the radiologic literature. Herein, a case of pulmonary actinomycosis complicated by mycotic aneurysm is presented. On CT scans, this case showed focal aneurysmal dilatation of a peripheral pulmonary artery within necrotizing pneumonia of the right lower lobe, which was successfully treated with transcatheter embolization using wire coils.
doi:10.3348/kjr.2004.5.1.68
PMCID: PMC2698115  PMID: 15064561
Lung, Infection; Aneurysm, Mycotic; Aneurysm, Pulmonary; Pulmonary arteries, Abnormalities
16.  Comparison between Conventional MR Arthrograhphy and Abduction and External Rotation MR Arthrography in Revealing Tears of the Antero-Inferior Glenoid Labrum 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2001;2(4):216-221.
Objective
To compare, in terms of their demonstration of tears of the anterior glenoid labrum, oblique axial MR arthrography obtained with the patient's shoulder in the abduction and external rotation (ABER) position, with conventional axial MR arthrography obtained with the patient's arm in the neutral position.
Materials and Methods
MR arthrography of the shoulder, including additional oblique axial sequences with the patient in the ABER position, was performed in 30 patients with a clinical history of recurrent anterior shoulder dislocation. The degree of anterior glenoid labral tear or defect was evaluated in both the conventional axial and the ABER position by two radiologists. Decisions were reached by consensus, and a three-point scale was used: grade 1=normal; grade 2=probable tear, diagnosed when subtle increased signal intensity in the labrum was apparent; grade 3=definite tear/defect, when a contrast material-filled gap between the labrum and the glenoid rim or deficient labrum was present. The scores for each imaging sequence were averaged and to compare conventional axial and ABER position scans, Student's t test was performed.
Results
In 21 (70%) of 30 patients, the same degree of anterior instability was revealed by both imaging sequences. Eight (27%) had a lower grade in the axial position than in the ABER position, while one (3%) had a higher grade in the axial position. Three whose axial scan was grade 1 showed only equivocal evidence of tearing, but their ABER-position scan, in which a contrast material-filled gap between the labrum and the glenoid rim was present, was grade 3. The average grade was 2.5 (SD=0.73) for axial scans and 2.8 (SD=0.46) for the ABER position. The difference between axial and ABER-position scans was statistically significant (p<0.05).
Conclusion
MR arthrography with the patient's shoulder in the ABER position is more efficient than conventional axial scanning in revealing the degree of tear or defect of the anterior glenoid labrum. When equivocal features are seen at conventional axial MR arthrography, oblique axial imaging in the ABER position is helpful.
doi:10.3348/kjr.2001.2.4.216
PMCID: PMC2718124  PMID: 11754329
Shoulder, arthrography; Shoulder, injuries; Shoulder, MR

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