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2.  Dexmedetomidine sedation for transesophageal echocardiography during percutaneous atrial septal defect closure in adult 
Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences  2013;29(6):1456-1458.
Atrial septal defect (ASD) is second common congenital heart disease that often leads to adult period. Intracardiac or transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is essential for percutaneous closure of ASD using Amplatzer septal occluder. Dexmedetomidine (DEX), which is a highly selective α2-agonist, has sedative and analgesic properties without respiratory depression in the clinical dose range. We report percutaneous closure of ASD with TEE under DEX sedation.
PMCID: PMC3905376  PMID: 24550975
Atrial septal defect; Transesophageal echocardiography; Dexmedetomidine sedation
3.  Use of the i-gel™ supraglottic airway device in a patient with subglottic stenosis -a case report- 
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology  2013;65(3):254-256.
The airway management of patients with subglottic stenosis poses many challenges for the anesthesiologists. Many anesthesiologists use a narrow endotracheal tube for airway control. This, however, can lead to complications such as tracheal mucosal trauma, tracheal perforation or bleeding. The ASA difficult airway algorithm recommends the use of supraglottic airway devices in a failed intubation/ventilation scenario. In this report, we present a case of failed intubation in a patient with subglottic stenosis successfully managed during an i-gel™ supraglottic airway device. The device provided a good seal, and allowed for controlled mechanical ventilation with acceptable peak pressures while the patient was in the beach-chair position.
PMCID: PMC3790038  PMID: 24101961
Airway management; Subglottic stenosis
4.  Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Field from Convective Air Warming System on Temperature Selection and Distance 
Iranian Journal of Public Health  2014;43(12):1635-1639.
Hypothermia generates potentially severe complications in operating or recovery room. Forced air warmer is effective to maintain body temperature. Extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) is harmful to human body and mainly produced by electronic equipment including convective air warming system. We investigated ELF-EMF from convective air warming device on various temperature selection and distance for guideline to protect medical personnel and patients.
The intensity of ELF-EMF was measured as two-second interval for five minutes on various distance (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5 and 1meter) and temperature selection (high, medium, low and ambient). All of electrical devices were off including lamp, computer and air conditioner. Groups were compared using one-way ANOVA. P<0.05 was considered significant.
Mean values of ELF-EMF on the distance of 30 cm were 18.63, 18.44, 18.23 and 17.92 milligauss (mG) respectively (high, medium, low and ambient temperature set). ELF-EMF of high temperature set was higher than data of medium, low and ambient set in all the distances.
ELF-EMF from convective air warming system is higher in condition of more close location and higher temperature. ELF-EMF within thirty centimeters exceeds 2mG recommended by Swedish TCO guideline.
PMCID: PMC4499084  PMID: 26171355
ELF-EMF; Operating room; Air warmer
5.  Processed Aloe vera Gel Ameliorates Cyclophosphamide-Induced Immunotoxicity 
The effects of processed Aloe vera gel (PAG) on cyclophosphamide (CP)-induced immunotoxicity were examined in mice. Intraperitoneal injection of CP significantly reduced the total number of lymphocytes and erythrocytes in the blood. Oral administration of PAG quickly restored CP-induced lymphopenia and erythropenia in a dose-dependent manner. The reversal of CP-induced hematotoxicity by PAG was mediated by the functional preservation of Peyer’s patch cells. Peyer’s patch cells isolated from CP-treated mice, which were administered PAG, produced higher levels of T helper 1 cytokines and colony-stimulating factors (CSF) in response to concanavalin A stimulation as compared with those isolated from CP-treated control mice. PAG-derived polysaccharides directly activated Peyer’s patch cells isolated from normal mice to produce cytokines including interleukin (IL)-6, IL-12, interferon-γ, granulocyte-CSF, and granulocyte-macrophage-CSF. The cytokines produced by polysaccharide-stimulated Peyer’s patch cells had potent proliferation-inducing activity on mouse bone marrow cells. In addition, oral administration of PAG restored IgA secretion in the intestine after CP treatment. These results indicated that PAG could be an effective immunomodulator and that it could prevent CP-induced immunotoxic side effects.
PMCID: PMC4264114  PMID: 25347273
processed Aloe vera gel; polysaccharide; cyclophosphamide; lymphopenia; erythropenia; Peyer’s patch; immunomodulation; IgA
7.  Lumbar Plexopathy Caused by Metastatic Tumor, Which Was Mistaken for Postoperative Femoral Neuropathy 
The Korean Journal of Pain  2011;24(4):226-230.
Surgical excision was performed on a 30-years old woman with a painful mass on her left thigh. The pathologic findings on the mass indicated fibromatosis. After the operation, she complained of allodynia and spontaneous pain at the operation site and ipsilateral lower leg. We treated her based on postoperative femoral neuropathy, but symptom was aggravated. We found a large liposarcoma in her left iliopsoas muscle which compressed the lumbar plexus. In conclusion, the cause of pain was lumbar plexopathy related to a mass in the left iliopsoas muscle. Prompt diagnosis of acute neuropathic pain after an operation is important and management must be based on exact causes.
PMCID: PMC3248587  PMID: 22220245
fibromatosis; liposarcoma; neuropathic pain
8.  Anesthetic management of the emergency laparotomy for a patient with multiple sclerosis -A case report- 
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology  2010;59(5):359-362.
A 33-year-old male patient with multiple sclerosis (MS) received an emergency laparotomy because of perforated appendicitis. He had been suffering from MS for 2 years and the symptoms of MS were paraplegia and urinary incontinence. Anesthesia was induced with propofol and remifentanil and maintained with nitrous oxide, sevoflurane and remifentanil. Rocuronium was used for tracheal intubation. Train of four ratio and bispectral index scale were also monitored for adequate muscle relaxation and anesthetic depth. The patient emerged from general anesthesia smoothly and was extubated without any complication. Postoperative exacerbation of MS symptoms did not appear. However, he was rehospitalized because deep vein thrombosis (DVT) occurred after discharge and he received heparinization immediately. Eventually, he was discharged after a full recovery from DVT. We report a safe anesthetic management of the patient with MS, with the use of sevoflurane and with no the aggravation of MS during postoperative period.
PMCID: PMC2998659  PMID: 21179301
Emergency laparotomy; Multiple sclerosis; Sevoflurane

Results 1-8 (8)