Lying is a pervasive human behavior. Evidence to date suggests that from the age of 42 months onward, children become increasingly capable of telling lies in various social situations. However, there is limited experimental evidence regarding whether very young children will tell lies spontaneously. The present study investigated the emergence of lying in very young children. Sixty-five 2- to 3-year-olds were asked not to peek at a toy when the experimenter was not looking. The majority of children (80%) transgressed and peeked at the toy. When asked whether they had peeked at the toy, most 2-year-old peekers were honest and confessed to their peeking, but with increased age, more peekers denied peeking and thus lied. However, when asked follow-up questions that assessed their ability to maintain their initial lies, most children failed to conceal their lie by pretending to be ignorant of the toy’s identity. Additionally, after controlling for age, children’s executive functioning skills significantly predicted young children’s tendency to lie. These findings suggest that children begin to tell lies at a very young age.
deception; honesty; lie-telling; children; executive function
The other-race effect (ORE) in face recognition refers to better recognition memory for faces of one’s own race than faces of another race—a common phenomenon among individuals living in primarily mono-racial societies. In this article, we review findings suggesting that early visual and sociocultural experiences shape one’s processing of familiar and unfamiliar race classes and give rise to the ORE within the 1st year of life. However, despite its early development, the ORE can be prevented, attenuated, and even reversed given experience with a novel race class. Social implications of the ORE are discussed in relation to development of race-based preferences for social partners and racial prejudices.
other-race effect; perceptual narrowing; face perception; face recognition; face processing
The senescent immune system responds poorly to new stimuli; thymic involution, accumulation of memory cells against other specificities, and general refractoriness to antigen signaling all may contribute to poor resistance to infection. These same changes may pose a significant clinical barrier to organ transplantation, as transplantation tolerance requires thymic participation and integrated, tolerance-promoting responses to novel antigens. We found that after the age of 12 months, mice became resistant to the tolerance-inducing capacity of the monoclonal antibody therapy anti-CD45RB. This resistance to tolerance to cardiac allografts could be overcome by surgical castration of male mice, a procedure that led to thymic regeneration and long-term graft acceptance. The potential for clinical translation of this endocrine-immune interplay was confirmed by the ability of Lupron Depot injections, which temporarily disrupt gonadal function, to restore tolerance in aged mice. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the restoration of tolerance after surgical or chemical castration depended on thymic production of regulatory T cells (Tregs); thymectomy or Treg depletion abrogated tolerance restoration. The aging of the immune system (“immune senescence”) is a significant barrier to immune tolerance, but this barrier can be overcome by targeting sex steroid production with commonly used clinical therapeutics.
The present study examined developmental changes in the ability to recognize face parts. In Experiment 1, participants were familiarized with whole faces and given a recognition test with old and new eyes, noses, mouths, inner faces, outer faces, or whole faces. Adults were above chance in their recognition of the eye and mouth regions. However, children did not naturally encode and recognize face parts independently of the entire face. In addition, all age groups showed comparable inner and outer face recognition, except for 8- to 9-year-olds who showed a recognition advantage for outer faces. In Experiment 2, when participants were familiarized with eyes, noses, or mouths and tested with eyes, noses, or mouths, respectively, all ages showed above-chance recognition of eyes and mouths. Thirteen- to 14-year-olds were adult-like in their recognition of the eye region, but mouth recognition continued to develop beyond 14 years of age. Nose recognition was above chance among 13- to 14-year-olds, but recognition scores remained low even in adulthood. The present findings reveal unique developmental trajectories in the use of isolated facial regions in face recognition and suggest that featural cues (as a class) have a different ontogenetic course relative to holistic and configural cues.
featural face processing; face recognition
Endogenous retroviral elements (EREs), a family of transposable elements, constitute a substantial fraction of mammalian genomes. It is expected that profiles of the ERE sequences and their genomic locations are unique for each individual. Comprehensive characterization of the EREs’ genomic locations and their biological properties is essential for understanding their roles in the pathophysiology of the host. In this study, we identified and mapped putative EREs (a total of 111 endogenous retroviruses [ERVs] and 488 solo long terminal repeats [sLTRs]) within the C57BL/6J mouse genome. The biological properties of individual ERE isolates (both ERVs and sLTRs) were then characterized in the following aspects: transcription potential, tropism trait, coding potential, recombination event, integration age, and primer binding site for replication. In addition, a suite of database management system programs was developed to organize and update the data acquired from current and future studies and to make the data accessible via internet.
mouse genome; database; murine lukemia virus; endogenous retrovirus; retroelement; solo long terminal repeat
Genes occupy ~3 % of the human and mouse genomes whereas repetitive elements (REs), whose biologic functions are largely uncharacterized, constitute greater than 50 %. A heterogeneous population of RE arrays (arrangement structures) is formed by combinations of various REs in mammalian genomes. In this study, REMiner-II was refined from the original REMiner for a more efficient identification and configuration of RE arrays from large queries (e.g., human chromosomes) using an unbiased self-alignment protocol. Chromosome-wide RE array profiles for the entire sets of human and mouse chromosomes were obtained using REMiner-II on a personal computer. REMiner-II provides 10 adjustable parameters and three data output modes to accommodate different experimental settings and/or goals. Examination of the human and mouse chromosome data using the REMiner-II viewer revealed species-specific libraries of complexly organized RE arrays. In conclusion, REMiner-II is an efficient tool for chromosome-wide identification and characterization of RE arrays from mammalian genomes.
mammalian genome; chromosome-wide; repetitive element; RE array; mining; REMiner-II
Fixation duration for same-race (i.e., Asian) and other-race (i.e., Caucasian) female faces by Asian infant participants between 4 and 9 months of age was investigated with an eye-tracking procedure. The age range tested corresponded with prior reports of processing differences between same- and other-race faces observed in behavioral looking time studies, with preference for same-race faces apparent at 3 months of age and recognition memory differences in favor of same-race faces emerging between 3 and 9 months of age. The eye-tracking results revealed both similarity and difference in infants’ processing of own- and other-race faces. There was no overall fixation time difference between same race and other race for the whole face stimuli. In addition, although fixation time was greater for the upper half of the face than for the lower half of the face and trended higher on the right side of the face than on the left side of the face, face race did not impact these effects. However, over the age range tested, there was a gradual decrement in fixation time on the internal features of other-race faces and a maintenance of fixation time on the internal features of same-race faces. Moreover, the decrement in fixation time for the internal features of other-race faces was most prominent on the nose. The findings suggest that (a) same-race preferences may be more readily evidenced in paired comparison testing formats, (b) the behavioral decline in recognition memory for other-race faces corresponds in timing with a decline in fixation on the internal features of other-race faces, and (c) the center of the face (i.e., the nose) is a differential region for processing same-versus other-race faces by Asian infants.
Face perception; Infants; Other-race effect; Eye tracking; Face features; Visual perception
The other-race effect in face processing develops within the first year of life in Caucasian infants. It is currently unknown whether the developmental trajectory observed in Caucasian infants can be extended to other cultures. This is an important issue to investigate because recent findings from cross-cultural psychology have suggested that individuals from Eastern and Western backgrounds tend to perceive the world in fundamentally different ways. To this end, the current study investigated 3-, 6-, and 9-month-old Chinese infants’ ability to discriminate faces within their own racial group and within two other racial groups (African and Caucasian). The 3-month-olds demonstrated recognition in all conditions, whereas the 6-month-olds recognized Chinese faces and displayed marginal recognition for Caucasian faces but did not recognize African faces. The 9-month-olds’ recognition was limited to Chinese faces. This pattern of development is consistent with the perceptual narrowing hypothesis that our perceptual systems are shaped by experience to be optimally sensitive to stimuli most commonly encountered in one’s unique cultural environment.
Face processing; Other-race effect; Development; Infancy; Culture; Perceptual narrowing
Inhalable glycol chitosan-coated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles containing palmitic acid-modified exendin-4 (Pal-Ex4) (chitosan Pal-Ex4 PLGA NPs) were prepared and characterized. The surface morphology, particle size, and zeta potential of chitosan Pal-Ex4 PLGA NPs were investigated, and the adsorption and cytotoxicity of chitosan Pal-Ex4 PLGA NPs were evaluated in human lung epithelial cells (A549). Finally, the lung deposition characteristics and hypoglycemia caused by chitosan Pal-Ex4 PLGA NPs were evaluated after pulmonary administration in imprinting control region (ICR) and type 2 diabetic db/db mice. Results showed that chitosan Pal-Ex4 PLGA NPs were spherical, compact and had a diameter of ~700 nm and a positive surface charge of +28.5 mV Chitosan-coated PLGA NPs were adsorbed onto A549 cells much more so than non-coated PLGA NPs. Pal-Ex4 release from chitosan-coated PLGA NPs was delayed by as much as 1.5 days as compared with chitosan-coated Ex4 PLGA NPs. In addition, chitosan-coated PLGA NPs remained in the lungs for ~72 hours after pulmonary administration, whereas most non-coated PLGA NPs were lost at 8 hours after administration. Furthermore, the hypoglycemic efficacy of inhaled chitosan Pal-Ex4 PLGA NPs was 3.1-fold greater than that of chitosan Ex4 PLGA NPs in db/db mice. The authors believe chitosan Pal-Ex4 PLGA NPs have considerable potential as a long-acting inhalation delivery system for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
chitosan-coating; PLGA nanoparticles; inhalation; exendin-4; type 2 diabetes
There has been considerable controversy regarding whether children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and typically developing children (TD) show different eye movement patterns when processing faces. We investigated ASD and age- and IQ-matched TD children's scanning of faces using a novel multi-method approach. We found that ASD children spent less time looking at the whole face generally. After controlling for this difference, ASD children's fixations of the other face parts, except for the eye region, and their scanning paths between face parts were comparable either to the age-matched or IQ-matched TD groups. In contrast, in the eye region, ASD children's scanning differed significantly from that of both TD groups: (a) ASD children fixated significantly less on the right eye (from the observer's view); (b) ASD children's fixations were more biased towards the left eye region; and (c) ASD children fixated below the left eye, whereas TD children fixated on the pupil region of the eye. Thus, ASD children do not have a general abnormality in face scanning. Rather, their abnormality is limited to the eye region, likely due to their strong tendency to avoid eye contact.
autism spectrum disorder; face processing; face recognition; eye movements; eye tracking
Crystalline Mg-based alloys with a distinct reduction in hydrogen evolution were prepared through both electrochemical and microstructural engineering of the constituent phases. The addition of Zn to Mg-Ca alloy modified the corrosion potentials of two constituent phases (Mg + Mg2Ca), which prevented the formation of a galvanic circuit and achieved a comparable corrosion rate to high purity Mg. Furthermore, effective grain refinement induced by the extrusion allowed the achievement of much lower corrosion rate than high purity Mg. Animal studies confirmed the large reduction in hydrogen evolution and revealed good tissue compatibility with increased bone deposition around the newly developed Mg alloy implants. Thus, high strength Mg-Ca-Zn alloys with medically acceptable corrosion rate were developed and showed great potential for use in a new generation of biodegradable implants.
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been associated with the exacerbation of asthma; however, the immunological basis for the adjuvant effects of AgNPs is not well understood.
The aim of the study reported here was to investigate the allergic effects of AgNP inhalation using proteomic approaches.
Allergen provoked mice were exposed to 33 nm AgNPs at 3.3 mg/m3. Following this, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and plasma were collected to determine protein profiles.
In total, 106 and 79 AgNP-unique proteins were identified in the BALF of control and allergic mice, respectively. Additionally, 40 and 26 AgNP-unique proteins were found in the plasma of control and allergic mice, respectively. The BALF and plasma protein profiles suggested that metabolic, cellular, and immune system processes were associated with pulmonary exposure to AgNPs. In addition, we observed 18 proteins associated with systemic lupus erythematosus that were commonly expressed in both control and allergic mice after AgNP exposure. Significant allergy responses were observed after AgNP exposure in control and allergic mice, as determined by ovalbumin-specific immunoglobulin E.
Inhaled AgNPs may regulate immune responses in the lungs of both control and allergic mice. Our results suggest that immunology is a vital response to AgNPs.
bronchoalveolar lavage; immunotoxicology; proteome; systemic lupus erythematosus; serum
Perceptual narrowing in the visual, auditory, and multisensory domains has its developmental origins in infancy. The present study shows that experimentally induced experience can reverse the effects of perceptual narrowing on infants’ visual recognition memory of other-race faces. Caucasian 8- to 10-month-olds who could not discriminate between novel and familiarized Asian faces at the beginning of testing were given brief daily experience with Asian female faces in the experimental condition and Caucasian female faces in the control condition. At the end of three weeks, only infants who received daily experience with Asian females showed above-chance recognition of novel Asian female and male faces. Further, infants in the experimental condition showed greater efficiency in learning novel Asian females compared to infants in the control condition. Thus, visual experience with a novel stimulus category can reverse the effects of perceptual narrowing in infancy via improved stimulus recognition and encoding.
perceptual narrowing; other-race face recognition; infancy
The role of B cells in transplant tolerance remains unclear. Although B cell depletion often prolongs graft survival, sometimes it results in more rapid rejection, suggesting that B cells may have regulatory activity. We previously demonstrated that tolerance induction by anti-CD45RB antibody requires recipient B cells. Here we show that anti-CD45RB in combination with anti-TIM-1 antibody has a synergistic effect, inducing tolerance in all recipients in a mouse islet allograft model. This effect depends on the presence of recipient B cells, requires B cell IL-10 activity, and is antigen-specific. These data suggest the existence of a regulatory B cell population that promotes tolerance via an IL-10-dependent pathway.
regulatory B; TIM-1; anti-CD45RB; tolerance; allograft
The Mycobacterium avium-M. intracellulare complex (MAC) causes a pulmonary disease (PD) similar to tuberculosis (TB). Diagnosis of MAC-PD is complicated and time-consuming. In this study, the serodiagnostic potential of the newly identified MAV2054 and MAV5183 proteins was evaluated in subjects with MAC-PD, pulmonary TB, or latent TB and in noninfected healthy controls (HC), together with HspX and the 38-kDa antigen, well-known serodiagnostic M. tuberculosis antigens. All four antigens evoked significantly higher IgG responses in MAC-PD and active TB than in latent TB and HC subjects. Among the antigens, MAV2054 elicited the highest antibody responses in pulmonary TB and MAC-PD patients. IgG titers against MAV2054 and MAV5183 were significantly higher in MAC-PD than in pulmonary TB subjects. In addition, the levels of IgG against all antigens in the M. intracellulare and fibrocavitary forms were higher than those in the M. avium and nodular bronchiectatic forms, respectively. Based on sensitivity and receiver operator characteristic curve analysis, the best candidates for detection of MAC-PD and pulmonary TB were MAV2054 and the 38-kDa antigen, respectively. In total, 76.0% of MAC-PD and 65.0% of active TB patients were reactive to at least two antigens. In contrast, only 2.8% of HC subjects were reactive with two or more antigens. Our findings suggest that an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using the four antigens would be valuable for screening for mycobacterial lung disease, including MAC-PD and pulmonary TB, although it does not provide good discrimination of the disease-causing pathogens.
Because CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) are essential for the maintenance of self-tolerance, significant interest surrounds the developmental cues for thymic-derived natural Tregs (nTregs) and periphery-generated adaptive Tregs (aTregs). In the transplant setting, the allograft may play a role in the generation of alloantigen-specific Tregs, but this role remains undefined. We examined whether the immune response to a transplant allograft results in the peripheral generation of aTregs.
To identify generation of aTregs, purified graft-reactive CD4+CD25− T cells were adoptively transferred to mice-bearing skin allograft. To demonstrate that aTregs are necessary for tolerance, DBA/2 skin was transplanted onto C57BL/6-RAG-1-deficient recipients adoptively transferred with purified sorted CD4+CD25− T cells; half of the recipients undergo tolerance induction treatment.
By tracking adoptively transferred cells, we show that purified graft-reactive CD4+CD25− T lymphocytes up-regulate Foxp3 in mice receiving skin allografts in the absence of any treatment. Interestingly, cotransfer of antigen-specific nTregs suppresses the up-regulation of Foxp3 by inhibiting the proliferation of allograft-responsive T cells. In vitro data are consistent with our in vivo data—Foxp3+ cells are generated on antigen activation, and this generation is suppressed on coculture with antigen-specific nTregs. Finally, blocking aTreg generation in grafted, rapamycin-treated mice disrupts alloantigen-specific tolerance induction. In contrast, blocking aTreg generation in grafted mice treated with nondepleting anti-CD4 plus anti-CD40L antibodies does not disrupt graft tolerance.
We conclude that graft alloantigen stimulates the de novo generation of aTregs, and this generation may represent a necessary step in some but not all protocols of tolerance induction.
Treg; Adaptive Tregs; Tolerance
Infant responses to adult-defined unattractive male body shapes versus attractive male body shapes were assessed using visual preference and habituation procedures. Looking behavior indicated that 9-month-olds have a preference for unattractive male body shapes over attractive ones; however, this preference is demonstrated only when head information is obscured. In contrast, 6- and 3.5-month-olds did not show a preference for unattractive or attractive bodies. The 6-month-olds discriminated between the two categories, whereas the 3.5-month-olds did not. Because unattractive body shapes are more common than attractive/athletic body shapes in our everyday environment, a preference for unattractive body shapes at 9 months of age suggests that preferences for particular human body shapes reflect level of exposure and familiarity rather than culturally defined stereotypes of body attractiveness.
Infancy; Body perception; Attractive bodies; Unattractive bodies; Visual perception; Knowledge level
To study top-down face processing, the present study used an experimental paradigm in which participants detected non-existent faces in pure noise images. Conventional BOLD signal analysis identified three regions involved in this illusory face detection. These regions included the left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in addition to the right fusiform face area (FFA) and right occipital face area (OFA), both of which were previously known to be involved in both top-down and bottom-up processing of faces. We used Dynamic Causal Modeling (DCM) and Bayesian model selection to further analyze the data, revealing both intrinsic and modulatory effective connectivities among these three cortical regions. Specifically, our results support the claim that the orbitofrontal cortex plays a crucial role in the top-down processing of faces by regulating the activities of the occipital face area, and the occipital face area in turn detects the illusory face features in the visual stimuli and then provides this information to the fusiform face area for further analysis.
Face processing; Top-down processing; Bottom-up processing; Dynamic Causal Modeling (DCM); Orbitofrontal cortex (OFC)
The present study examined whether 6- and 9-month-old Caucasian infants could categorize faces according to race. In Experiment 1, infants were familiarized with different female faces from a common ethnic background (i.e. either Caucasian or Asian) and then tested with female faces from a novel race category. Nine-month-olds were able to form discrete categories of Caucasian and Asian faces. However, 6-month-olds did not form discrete categories of faces based on race. In Experiment 2, a second group of 6- and 9-month-olds was tested to determine whether they could discriminate between different faces from the same race category. Results showed that both age groups could only discriminate between different faces from the own-race category of Caucasian faces. The findings of the two experiments taken together suggest that 9-month-olds formed a category of Caucasian faces that are further differentiated at the individual level. In contrast, although they could form a category of Asian faces, they could not discriminate between such other-race faces. This asymmetry in category formation at 9 months (i.e. categorization of own-race faces vs. categorical perception of other-race faces) suggests that differential experience with own- and other-race faces plays an important role in infants' acquisition of face processing abilities.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease that results from a progressive loss of motor neurons. Familial ALS (fALS) is caused by missense mutations in Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) that frequently result in the accumulation of mutant protein aggregates that are associated with impairments in the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). UPS impairment has been implicated in many neurological disorders. Bee venom (BV) extracted from honey bees has been used as a traditional medicine for treating inflammatory diseases and has been shown to attenuate the neuroinflammatory events that occur in a symptomatic ALS animal model.
NSC34 cells were transiently transfected with a WT or G85R hSOD1-GFP construct for 24 hrs and then stimulated with 2.5 μg/ml BV for 24 hrs. To determine whether a SOD1 mutation affects UPS function in NSC34 cells, we examined proteasome activity and performed western blotting and immunofluorescence using specific antibodies, such as anti-misfolded SOD1, anti-ubiquitin, anti-GRP78, anti-LC3, and anti-ISG15 antibodies.
We found that GFP-hSOD1G85R overexpression induced SOD1 inclusions and reduced proteasome activity compared with the overexpression of GFP alone in NSC34 motor neuronal cells. In addition, we also observed that BV treatment restored proteasome activity and reduced the accumulation of ubiquitinated and misfolded SOD1 in GFP-hSOD1G85R-overexpressing NSC34 motor neuronal cells. However, BV treatment did not activate the autophagic pathway in these cells.
Our findings suggest that BV may rescue the impairment of the UPS in ALS models.
hSOD1G85R; Ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS); Bee venom (BV); Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS); NSC34 motor neuronal cells
DJ-1, which is linked to recessively inherited Parkinson's disease when mutated, is a multi-functional protein with anti-oxidant and transcription regulatory activities. However, the mechanism(s) through which DJ-1 and the genes it regulates provide neuroprotection is not fully understood. Here, we show that wild-type DJ-1 induces the expression of thioredoxin 1 (Trx1), a protein disulfide oxidoreductase, whereas pathogenic mutant isoforms L166P and M26I cannot. Conversely, DJ-1 knockdown in SH-SY5Y cells and DJ-1 knockout in mice result in significant decrease in Trx1 protein and mRNA expression levels. The importance of Trx1 in the cytoprotective function of DJ-1 is confirmed using a pharmacological inhibitor of Trx reductase, 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, and Trx1 siRNA. Both approaches result in partial loss of DJ-1-mediated protection. Additionally, knockdown of Trx1 significantly abrogates DJ-1-dependent, hydrogen peroxide-induced activation of the pro-survival factor AKT. Promoter analysis of the human Trx1 gene identified an antioxidant response element (ARE) that is required for DJ-1-dependent induction of Trx1 expression. The transcription factor Nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2 (Nrf2), which is a critical inducer of ARE-mediated expression, is regulated by DJ-1. Overexpression of DJ-1 results in increased Nrf2 protein levels, promotes its translocation into the nucleus and enhances its recruitment onto the ARE site in the Trx1 promoter. Further, Nrf2 knockdown abolishes DJ-1-mediated Trx1 induction and cytoprotection against hydrogen peroxide, indicating the critical role of Nrf2 in carrying out the protective functions of DJ-1 against oxidative stress. These findings provide a new mechanism to support the antioxidant function of DJ-1 by increasing Trx1 expression via Nrf2-mediated transcriptional induction.
This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of a fat clearing technique for accurate nodal staging of rectal cancer patients after preoperative chemoradiotherapy
A total of 19 patients with rectal cancer within 10 cm from anal verge were divided into two groups: non-CRT group (n = 10) and CRT group (n = 9). For pathologic assessment, lymph node (LN) harvest was performed using conventional manual dissection followed by a fat clearing technique.
A median of 3.0 additional LNs in non-CRT group and 3.8 LNs in CRT group were identified by the fat clearing technique. When subanalysis was performed in patients with fewer than 12 retrieved LNs, a median of 4.0 extra LNs in non-CRT group and 3.5 extra LNs in CRT group were identified after the fat clearing technique. None of additionally identified nodes were metastatic. In both groups, the median size of retrieved LNs following the fat clearing technique was smaller than that obtained by manual dissection (2.0 mm vs. 3.0 mm, P < 0.001).
The fat clearing technique allowed detection of additional LNs that were missed by the manual method, but these detected LNs were not proven to be metastatic.
Fat clearing technique; Preoperative chemoradiotherapy; Rectal neoplasms
A 73-year-old woman presented with intermittent abdominal pain and weight loss of 15 kg for 2 years. Colonoscopy revealed an erythematous polypoid tumor with a long and wide stalk in the cecum, but with air inflation, it abruptly went away through the ileocecal valve (ICV). An abdominal computed tomography showed a well-demarcated pedunculated subepithelial mass of 2.6×2.7 cm size with fat attenuation in the terminal ileum. It was an intussusceptum of the ileal lipoma through the ICV. This ileal lipoma was causing her symptoms because repeated ileocolic intussusceptions resulted in intermittent intestinal obstructions. In order to avoid surgical sequelae of ileal resection, snare polypectomy using cap-assisted colonoscopy technique was performed within the ileum without complications. The histopathology report confirmed it as a subepithelial lipoma. After endoscopic resection of the ileal lipoma, the patient has been free of symptoms and was restored to the original weight.
Lipoma; Intussusception; Ileum; Endoscopic treatment; Cap-assisted colonoscopy
Exercise limitation is an important issue in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and it often co-exists with obstructive sleep apnoea (overlap syndrome). This study examined the effects of nocturnal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment on walking capacity in COPD patients with or without obstructive sleep apnoea.
Forty-four stable moderate-to-severe COPD patients were recruited and completed this study. They all underwent polysomnography, CPAP titration, accommodation, and treatment with adequate pressure. The incremental shuttle walking test was used to measure walking capacity at baseline and after two nights of CPAP treatment. Urinary catecholamine and heart rate variability were measured before and after CPAP treatment.
After two nights of CPAP treatment, the apnoea-hypopnoea index and oxygen desaturation index significantly improved in both overlap syndrome and COPD patients, however these changes were significantly greater in the overlap syndrome than in the COPD group. Sleep architecture and autonomic dysfunction significantly improved in the overlap syndrome group but not in the COPD group. CPAP treatment was associated with an increased walking capacity from baseline from 226.4 ± 95.3 m to 288.6 ± 94.6 m (P < 0.05), and decreased urinary catecholamine levels, pre-exercise heart rate, oxygenation, and Borg scale in the overlap syndrome group. An improvement in the apnoea-hypopnoea index was an independent factor associated with the increase in walking distance (r = 0.564).
Nocturnal CPAP may improve walking capacity in COPD patients with overlap syndrome.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; Obstructive sleep apnoea; Walking capacity; Autonomic dysfunction; Continuous positive airway pressure
Although auditory processing has been widely studied with conventional parametric methods, there have been a limited number of independent component analysis (ICA) applications in this area. The purpose of this study was to examine spatiotemporal behavior of brain networks in response to passive auditory stimulation using ICA. Continuous broadband noise was presented binaurally to 19 subjects with normal hearing. ICA was performed to segregate spatial networks, which were subsequently classified according to their temporal relation to the stimulus using power spectrum analysis. Classification of separated networks resulted in 3 stimulus-activated, 9 stimulus-deactivated, 2 stimulus-neutral (stimulus-dependent but not correlated with the stimulation timing), and 2 stimulus-unrelated (fluctuations that did not follow the stimulus cycles) components. As a result of such classification, spatiotemporal subdivisions were observed in a number of cortical structures, namely auditory, cingulate, and sensorimotor cortices, where parts of the same cortical network responded to the stimulus with different temporal patterns. The majority of the classified networks seemed to comprise subparts of the known resting-state networks (RSNs); however, they displayed different temporal behavior in response to the auditory stimulus, indicating stimulus-dependent temporal segregation of RSNs. Only one of nine deactivated networks coincided with the “classic” default-mode network, suggesting the existence of a stimulus-dependent default-mode network, different from that commonly accepted.