Lymph node metastasis is one of the most important adverse prognostic factors for pancreatic cancer. The aim of this study was to identify novel lymphatic metastasis-associated markers and therapeutic targets for pancreatic cancer.
DNA microarray study was carried out to identify genes differentially expressed between 17 pancreatic cancer tissues with lymph node metastasis and 17 pancreatic cancer tissues without lymph node metastasis. The microarray results were validated by real-time PCR. Immunohistochemistry and western blotting were used to examine the expression of farnesoid X receptor (FXR). The function of FXR was studied by small interfering RNA and treatment with FXR antagonist guggulsterone and FXR agonist GW4064.
Farnesoid X receptor overexpression in pancreatic cancer tissues with lymph node metastasis is associated with poor patient survival. Small interfering RNA-mediated downregulation of FXR and guggulsterone-mediated FXR inhibition resulted in a marked reduction in cell migration and invasion. In addition, downregulation of FXR reduced NF-κB activation and conditioned medium from FXR siRNA-transfected cells showed reduced VEGF levels. Moreover, GW4064-mediated FXR activation increased cell migration and invasion.
These findings indicated that FXR overexpression plays an important role in lymphatic metastasis of pancreatic cancer and that downregulation of FXR is an effective approach for inhibition of pancreatic tumour progression.
pancreatic cancer; lymph node metastasis; FXR; DNA microarray; siRNA
The proven candidate genes for amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) are AMELX, ENAM, MMP20, KLK4, FAM83H, and WDR72. We performed mutation analyses on seven families with hypomaturation AI. A novel WDR72 dinucleotide deletion mutation (g.57,426_57,427delAT; c.1467_ 1468delAT; p.V491fsX497) was identified in both alleles of probands from Mexico and Turkey. Haplotype analyses showed that the mutations arose independently in the two families. The disease perfectly segregated with the genotype. Only persons with both copies of the mutant allele were affected. Their hypomineralized enamel suffered attrition and orange-brown staining following eruption. Expression of WDR72 fused to green fluorescent protein showed a cytoplasmic localization exclusively and was absent from the nucleus. We conclude that WDR72 is a cytoplasmic protein that is critical for dental enamel formation.
protein localization; enamel maturation; enamel; tooth; Amelogenesis imperfect
Proteolytic enzymes serve important functions during dental enamel formation, and mutations in the kallikrein 4 (KLK4) and enamelysin (MMP20) genes cause autosomal-recessive amelogenesis imperfecta (ARAI). So far, only 1 KLK4 and 3 MMP20 mutations have been reported in ARAI kindreds. To determine whether ARAI in a family with a hypomaturation-type enamel defect is caused by mutations in the genes encoding enamel proteolytic enzymes, we performed mutational analysis on candidate genes. Mutational and haplotype analyses revealed an ARAI-causing point mutation (c.910G>A, p.A304T) in exon 6 of MMP20 that results in a single amino acid substitution in the hemopexin domain. Western blot analysis showed decreased expression of the mutant protein, but zymogram analysis demonstrated that this mutant was a functional protein. The proband and an affected brother were homozygous for the mutation, and both unaffected parents were carriers. The enamel of newly erupted teeth had normal thickness, but was chalky white and became darker with age.
MMP20; hemopexin; enamel; tooth; amelogenesis imperfecta
Many patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) with cognitive impairment have fronto‐temporal dysfunction. Whereas in some patients with ALS the fronto‐temporal dysfunction is undoubtedly due to the degenerative process associated with the disease, in others dysfunction cannot be accounted for by an irreversible degenerative process alone, as it also appears to involve a reversible process. We hypothesised that reduced vital capacity can be a key contributor to the fronto‐temporal dysfunction observed in patients with ALS.
To investigate the association between fronto‐temporal dysfunction and reduced vital capacity in ALS.
16 consecutive patients who conformed to a diagnosis of definite or probable ALS (El escorial criteria) were grouped by vital capacity, and their clinical characteristics and cognitive functions, including disease duration, attention, executive function and memory, were measured.
Patients with a reduced vital capacity performed significantly poorer in memory retention (p = 0.028), retrieval efficacy (p = 0.003), spoken verbal fluency (p = 0.03) and spoken verbal fluency indexes (p = 0.016) than those with a normal vital capacity.
The fronto‐temporal dysfunction in ALS might be attributable to potentially reversible secondary effects associated with reduced vital capacity, as well as to the primary degenerative process.
This prospective study was conducted with the Korean Cancer Study Group to evaluate the efficacy and safety of cetuximab combined with modified FOLFOX6 (mFOLFOX6) as first-line treatment in recurrent or metastatic gastric cancer and to identify potential predictive biomarkers. Patients received cetuximab 400 mg m−2 at week 1 and 250 mg m−2 weekly thereafter until disease progression. Oxaliplatin (100 mg m−2) and leucovorin (100 mg m−2) were administered as a 2-h infusion followed by a 46-h continuous infusion of 5-fluorouracil (2400 mg m−2) every 2 weeks for a maximum of 12 cycles. Biomarkers potentially associated with efficacy were analysed. Among 38 evaluable patients, confirmed response rate (RR) was 50.0% (95% CI 34.1–65.9). Median time-to-progression (TTP) was 5.5 months (95% CI 4.5–6.5) and overall survival (OS) 9.9 months. Eleven patients having tumour EGFR expression by immunohistochemistry with low serum EGF and TGF-α levels showed a 100% RR compared to 37.0% in the remaining 27 patients (P<0.001). Moreover, ligand level increased when disease progressed in seven out of eight patients with EGFR expression and low baseline ligand level. No patient exhibited EGFR amplification or K-ras mutations. Gastric cancer patients with EGFR expression and low ligand levels had better outcomes with cetuximab/mFOLFOX6 treatment.
Cetuximab; chemotherapy; epidermal growth factor; epidermal growth factor receptor; gastric cancer; transforming growth factor-α
Objectives: Hemichorea sometimes occurs after lesions that selectively involve the caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus. Some reports have hypothesised that the loss of subthalamic nucleus control on the internal segment of the globus pallidus, followed by the disinhibition of the thalamus may contribute to chorea. However, the pathophysiology is poorly understood. Therefore, clinicoradiological localisation was evaluated and a comparison of the haemodynamic status of the basal ganglia and thalamus was made.
Methods: Six patients presenting with acute onset of hemichorea were assessed. Neuroimaging studies, including MRI and SPECT examinations in addition to detailed biochemical tests, were performed. A semiquantitative analysis was performed by comparing the ratio of blood flow between patients and normal controls. In addition, the ratio of perfusion asymmetry was calculated as the ratio between each area contralateral to the chorea and that homolateral to the chorea. The comparison was made with a two sample t test.
Results: The causes of hemichorea found consisted of four cases of acute stroke, one non-ketotic hyperglycaemia, and one systemic lupus erythematosus. Brain MRI indicated lesion sites in the contralateral putamen, globus pallidus, caudate nucleus, and subthalamic nucleus. A significant decrease in the ratio of blood flow in the basal ganglia contralateral to the chorea and a significant increase in the thalamus was found when comparing the perfusion asymmetries, which were calculated as the ratio of cerebral blood flow (CBF) for each region to that in the homolateral occipital area (p<0.05).
Conclusion: An alteration in CBF in both the contralateral thalamus and basal ganglia reflect the loss of pallidal inhibitory input from the pallidum to the thalamus. This change in CBF may be one of epiphenomena, which implicates an occurrence of hemichorea in humans.
The S protein of hepatitis B virus is the principal component of virus envelope and the primary target of anti-HBs response. Mutants or variants that escape neutralization by anti-HBs have been selected during immunoprophylaxis of HBV after birth and liver transplantation. We investigated a case of a Korean child who was vaccinated at birth against hepatitis B and also given hepatitis B immunoglobulin, but nevertheless later became infected with the virus. Hepatitis B virus-specific deoxyribonucleic acid covering the region of genome encoding the predominant "a" determinant of hepatitis surface antigen was amplified using polymerase chain reaction, and the nucleotide sequence was determined. We present for the first time in Korea the independent emergence of an escape mutant with substitution of arginine for glycine at amino acid 145 and proline for glutamate at amino acid 120 in "a" determinant after immunization.
This study was aimed to evaluate the anorectal dysfunction in systemic sclerosis (SSc) and propose the clinical significance of anorectal manometry in patients with SSc. Seven patients with SSc were evaluated with manometry for anorectal function and an additional 11 normal subjects were collected as a control group. The study group underwent esophageal manometry as well and the correlation between the degree of anorectal and esophageal dysfunction was evaluated. Patients showed a lower tolerance for balloon distention of the rectum than controls (minimal sensory volume and urgency volume, P < 0.05). The resting and squeezing pressure of the anal sphincter and the functional length of the anal canal showed no significant difference in these two groups. Rectoanal inhibitory reflex was absent in one (14%) and diminished in two (29%) of seven patients with SSc. SSc patients also showed abnormal esophageal manometry findings, notably decreased LES pressure and body amplitude of distal 2/3 esophagus. The comparison between manometric profiles of anorectum and esophagus showed no significant correlation by statistical analysis. In conclusion, our data could suggest that anorectal function may be impaired in patients with SSc which could reflect the involvement of the anorectum by the disease, and that anorectal manometric studies can be useful to detect such dysfunction in patients with SSc, even before clinical symptoms.
Cranial capacity was measured in Korean adult skulls. The cavity was filled with rice seeds and the volume of the seeds were measured in a graduated cylinder. The results were 1470 +/- 107 (mean +/- standard deviation) in male and 1317 +/- 117 cc in female skulls. These values were in good accordance with those previously reported. In addition, regression formulae were obtained with the product of the length, breadth, and height of the skull as an independent parameter and the measured capacity as a dependent one. With known external measurements, the expected cranial capacity was as follows: when using baso-bregmatic height, male: capacity = 307.5 + 333 x 10(-6) x (length.breadth.baso-bregmatic height) female: capacity = -12.0 + 435 x 10(-6) x (length.breadth.baso-bregmatic height) and, when using auriculo-bregmatic height, male: capacity = 214.6 + 429 x 10(-6) x (length.breadth.auriculo-bregmatic height) female: capacity = 131.6 + 461 x 10(-6) x (length.breadth.auriculo-bregmatic height).
Hypervariable tandem repetitive regions in human DNA are proving to be increasingly useful for genetic analysis in humans. We chose four single locus probes (SLP; MS1, MS43, MS8 and g3) for a validation test among Koreans. The specimens were from 216 unrelated individuals and 33 paternity inclusion families. Extracted DNA from EDTA blood was restricted by Hinfl and electrophoresed in 0.7% agarose gel, transferred and hybridized with chemiluminescent probes. Heterozygosity was over 90% by all of the probes. Total numbers of unassignable mutant bands from 33 paternity inclusion cases were 5, and the highest mutation rate was determined in probe MS1(0.045). The probability of having the same DNA band between two unrelated individuals was 5.7 x 10(-10) when four SLPs were used at the same time. The data presented here on allele frequencies and mutation rates provide preliminary data supporting the validity of these probes in paternity analysis and forensic investigators in the Korean population.
Lymphomatoid granulomatosis usually presents as a primary lung affliction with secondary metastatic spread to the central nervous system(CNS), and its initial manifestation purely as a CNS disease is rare. A 57-year-old man with histologically proven lymphomatoid granulomatosis of the brain as the sole manifestation of the disease is presented.
We illustrate the important trade-off between far-field scattering effects, which have the potential to provide increased optical path length over broad bands, and parasitic absorption due to the excitation of localized surface plasmon resonances in metal nanoparticle arrays. Via detailed comparison of photocurrent enhancements given by Au, Ag and Al nanostructures on thin-film GaAs devices we reveal that parasitic losses can be mitigated through a careful choice of scattering medium. Absorption at the plasmon resonance in Au and Ag structures occurs in the visible spectrum, impairing device performance. In contrast, exploiting Al nanoparticle arrays results in a blue shift of the resonance, enabling the first demonstration of truly broadband plasmon enhanced photocurrent and a 22% integrated efficiency enhancement.
Small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequences associated with the phylum Armatimonadetes were analyzed using multiple phylogenetic methods, clarifying both the phylum boundary and the affiliation of previously ambiguous groupings. Here we define the Armatimonadetes as 10 class-level groups and reclassify two previously associated groups as candidate divisions WS1 and FBP.
Cryptosporidiosis, a diarrheal disease usually caused by Cryptosporidium parvum or Cryptosporidium hominis in humans, can result in fulminant diarrhea and death in AIDS patients and chronic infection and stunting in children. Nitazoxanide, the current standard of care, has limited efficacy in children and is no more effective than placebo in patients with advanced AIDS. Unfortunately, the lack of financial incentives and the technical difficulties associated with working with Cryptosporidium parasites have crippled efforts to develop effective treatments. In order to address these obstacles, we developed and validated (Z′ score = 0.21 to 0.47) a cell-based high-throughput assay and screened a library of drug repurposing candidates (the NIH Clinical Collections), with the hopes of identifying safe, FDA-approved drugs to treat cryptosporidiosis. Our screen yielded 21 compounds with confirmed activity against C. parvum growth at concentrations of <10 μM, many of which had well-defined mechanisms of action, making them useful tools to study basic biology in addition to being potential therapeutics. Additional work, including structure-activity relationship studies, identified the human 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor itavastatin as a potent inhibitor of C. parvum growth (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50] = 0.62 μM). Bioinformatic analysis of the Cryptosporidium genomes indicated that the parasites lack all known enzymes required for the synthesis of isoprenoid precursors. Additionally, itavastatin-induced growth inhibition of C. parvum was partially reversed by the addition of exogenous isopentenyl pyrophosphate, suggesting that itavastatin reduces Cryptosporidium growth via on-target inhibition of host HMG-CoA reductase and that the parasite is dependent on the host cell for synthesis of isoprenoid precursors.
To investigate the relative performance of T2
weighted short tau inversion–recovery (STIR) and fat-suppressed T1
weighted gadolinium contrast-enhanced sequences in depicting active inflammatory
lesions in ankylosing spondylitis (AS).
Whole-spine MRI was performed on 32 patients with AS, who participated
in a clinical trial of infliximab treatment, by STIR and contrast-enhanced
sequences at baseline and after 30 weeks. The AS spine MRI-activity (ASspiMRI-a)
scoring method was used. The images from these two imaging techniques were
evaluated separately by two independent readers.
For the pre-treatment lesion status, the intraclass correlation coefficients
comparing STIR readings and contrast-enhanced readings were 0.69±0.23
for Reader 1 and 0.65±0.21 for Reader 2. At baseline, the mean ASspiMRI-a
score was 15.4% and 17.7% higher for contrast-enhanced images
than for STIR images for Reader 1 and Reader 2, respectively. After infliximab
treatment, Reader 1 rated an ASspiMRI-a score reduction of 50.8±33.6%
and 25.3±35.3% for STIR images and contrast-enhanced images,
respectively, whereas Reader 2 rated an ASspiMRI-a score reduction of 42.4±50.4%
and 32.9±35.6% for STIR images and contrast-enhanced images,
While both contrast-enhanced and STIR sequences showed sensitivity to change
over a short period of time after infliximab treatment, these two sequences
may reflect different disease mechanisms.
A variety of exposure regimens of cigarette smoke have been used in animal models of lung diseases. In this study, we compared biological responses of smoke exposure in rats, using different smoke concentrations (wet total particulate matter [WTPM]), daily exposure durations, and total days of exposure. As a range-finding acute study, we first compared pulmonary responses between SD and F344 strains after a single nose-only exposure to mainstream cigarette smoke or LPS. Secondly, F344 rats were exposed to cigarette smoke for 2 or 13 weeks under the comparable daily exposure dose (WTPM concentration x daily exposure duration; according to Haber’s rule) but at a different WTPM concentration or daily exposure duration. Blood carboxylhemoglobin was increased linearly to the WTPM concentration, while urinary nicotine plus cotinine value was higher for the longer daily exposure than the corresponding shorter exposure groups. Gamma glutamyl transferase activity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was increased dose dependently after 2 and 13 weeks of cigarette smoke exposure, while the neutrophil content in BALF was not increased notably. Smoke-exposed groups showed reduced body weight gain and increased relative lung and heart weights. While BALF parameters and the relative lung weights suggest pulmonary responses, histopathological examination showed epithelial lesions mainly in the upper respiratory organs (nose and larynx). Collectively, the results indicate that, under the employed study design, the equivalent daily exposure dose (exposure concentration x duration) induces equivalent pulmonary responses in rats.
cigarette smoke; inhalation; exposure marker; bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF); pulmonary inflammation
This study evaluated the usefulness of measurements of X-ray attenuation (in Hounsfield units) obtained from unenhanced CT images for attenuation correction of the positron emission tomography (PET) data from PET/CT in the assessment of regional lymph node metastasis in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
17 patients with oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma underwent surgery after evaluation with PET/CT. After the excised lymph nodes were reviewed, we compared the histopathology and PET/CT findings, and analysed the lymph node metastasis. When 18-F fludeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in the lymph nodes was focally prominent in comparison with background mediastinal activity (regardless of lymph node size), the lymph nodes were considered to be positive for malignancy by PET/CT. The mean Hounsfield units of mediastinal lymph nodes showing abnormally increased FDG uptake in PET/CT was retrospectively evaluated using images from the unenhanced CT component of PET/CT. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was applied to determine the optimal cut-off value of mean Hounsfield units for detecting individual lymph node metastases.
For depiction of malignant nodal groups in each lymph node group, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of PET/CT based on increased FDG uptake were 58.8%, 74.5% and 70.8%, respectively. For patients with nodal groups that were positive for uptake by PET/CT, the mean attenuation in lymph nodes as measured by CT was 48±13 HU for malignant nodes and 75±18 HU for benign nodes. This difference was statistically significant (p<0.001). Using ROC curve analysis, we determined the cut-off as 71 HU. When we excluded lymph nodes with attenuation higher than 71 HU from the nodes determined as malignant by PET/CT, the specificity and accuracy for detecting metastatic lymph nodes improved to 90.9% and 83.3%, respectively.
When interpreting lymph node metastasis in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma using PET/CT, the assumption that any lymph node with mean HU>71 is benign can improve diagnostic accuracy.
Complex signaling networks regulate diverse cellular processes as well as disease states such as oncogenesis or neurodegeneration. Proteomic methods for surveying these networks are therefore desirable to better understand cellular signaling and disease biology. PTMScan Direct is an antibody-based method that combines immunoaffinity enrichment with LC-MS analytics for the identification and quantification of post-translationally modified peptides from critical signaling pathways. Relative quantitation of peptides identified using PTMScan Direct can be performed using either label-free quantitation or labeling methods such as SILAC. Six PTMScan Direct reagents have been developed to date including one that targets core signaling molecules in multiple different signaling areas (the Multipathway Reagent (1)), reagents targeting sites of activation on Ser/Thr Kinases (2) and Tyr Kinases (3), the PI3K-Akt pathway (4), DNA Damage and Cell Cycle Regulation (5), and Apoptosis and Autophagy Pathways (6). These reagents have been validated for use in human and mouse samples and can be further validated for use in other species as well. Each reagent allows identification and quantification of hundreds of peptides from a single LC-MS/MS run. PTMScan Direct has been used to profile responses to such diverse treatments as receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors, growth factor stimulation, and DNA damaging agents on an Orbitrap Velos and Elite mass spectrometers and has also been utilized to determine limits of detection and quantitation for a sub-panel of target peptides on a Q-Exactive MS platform. The method has also been used to assess changes in peptide abundance between mouse liver, brain, and embryo to reveal unique signatures of tissue specific signaling. PTMScan Direct is broadly applicable to any experimental system in which quantitative profiling of specific, critical signaling proteins is desired.
Tissue conductivity and permittivity are critical to understanding local radio frequency (RF) power deposition during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These electrical properties are also important in treatment planning of RF thermotherapy methods (e.g. RF hyperthermia). The electrical properties may also have diagnostic value as malignant tissues have been reported to have higher conductivity and higher relative permittivity than surrounding healthy tissue.
In this study, we consider imaging conductivity and permittivity using MRI transmit field maps (B1+ maps) at 3.0 Tesla. We formulate efficient methods to calculate conductivity and relative permittivity from 2-dimensional B1+ data and validate the methods with simulated B1+ maps, generated at 128 MHz. Next we use the recently introduced Bloch-Siegert shift B1+ mapping method to acquire B1+ maps at 3.0 Tesla and demonstrate conductivity and relative permittivity images that successfully identify contrast in electrical properties.
Magnetic resonance imaging; Tissue conductivity; Tissue permittivity; Hyperthermia; Oncology
Background and purpose
CNS complications are often seen after heart surgery, and post-surgical disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) may play an etiologic role. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of MRI-detected BBB disruption (Hyperintense Acute Reperfusion Marker: HARM) and DWI lesions after cardiac surgery.
Materials & methods
All patients had an MRI after cardiac surgery. In half the patients (group 1), we administered gadolinium 24 hours after surgery and obtained high-resolution DWI and FLAIR images 24-48 hours later. In the other half (group 2), we administered gadolinium at the time of the post-operative scan (2-4 days after surgery). Two stroke neurologists evaluated the images.
We studied 19 patients. None of the patients had clinical evidence of a stroke or delirium at the time of the gadolinium administration or the scan, but 9 patients (47%) had HARM (67% in group 1 and 30% in group 2, p=0.18) and 14 patients (74%) had DWI lesions (70% in group 1 and 78% in group 2, p=1.0). Not all patients with DWI lesions had HARM, and not all patients with HARM had DWI lesions (p=0.56).
Almost half the patients undergoing cardiac surgery have evidence of HARM and three quarters have acute lesions on DWI after surgery. BBB disruption is more prevalent in the first 24 hours after surgery. These findings suggest that MRI can be used as an imaging biomarker to assess therapies that may protect the BBB in patients undergoing heart surgery.
Central obesity is a rising epidemic, and often occurs in parallel with dyslipidemia. Furthermore, enhancement of ectopic fat deposition has been observed in both human studies and animal models of altered lipidemic control. Though APOA1/C3/A4/A5 genetic polymorphisms are associated with dyslipidemia, their effect on central obesity is less known.
The anthropometric and metabolic parameters were taken from obese (body mass index (BMI) ⩾25 kg m−2) and non-obese healthy (BMI <25) Taiwanese patients at the initiation weight-loss intervention and 6 months later. The effects of APOA1/C3/A4/A5 genetic polymorphisms were analyzed cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Gender contributions were specifically examined.
Three hundred and ninety-eight participants (obese n=262; non-obese healthy n=136) were recruited in total, and 130 obese patients underwent weight-loss treatments.
APOA5 rs662799 minor allele carriage was associated with unfavorable metabolic profiles in obese but not non-obese individuals at baseline. Further analysis identified gender–genotype interactions in waist-hip ratio (WHR), and that one rs662799 minor allele increased 0.032 WHR unit in obese males as analyzed by linear regression adjusted for age, BMI and plasma triglyceride (TG) (95% confidence interval (CI)=0.014–0.050, P=0.001). The rs662799-associated WHR elevation resulted in increased frequency of central obesity (WHR ⩾1.0) in rs662799 carrying obese males as analyzed by binary logistic regression adjusted for age, BMI and plasma TG (odds ratio=6.52, 95% CI=1.87–22.73, P=0.003). In contrast, APOA5 rs662799 and central obesity were no longer correlated 6 months into weight-loss treatments, owing to significant WHR reductions in male rs662799 minor allele carriers (P=0.001). Meanwhile, hypertriglyceridemia was more prevalent in both male and female obese rs662799 minor allele carriers at baseline (males, P=0.034, females, P=0.007).
This study highlights the gender-specific and weight-sensitive effects of APOA5 rs662799 on central obesity in Taiwanese individuals, and that these effects are dyslipidemia-independent and weight-loss responsive.
APOA1/C3/A4/A5; SNP; dyslipidemia; central obesity; gender; weight-loss
Statins, the inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, are widely used cholesterol-lowering drugs. Convincing evidence indicates that statins stimulate apoptotic cell death in several types of proliferating tumor cells in a cholesterol-lowering-independent manner. The objective here was to elucidate the molecular mechanism by which statins induce lymphoma cells death. Statins (atorvastatin, fluvastatin and simvastatin) treatment enhanced the DNA fragmentation and the activation of proapoptotic members such as caspase-3, PARP and Bax, but suppressed the activation of anti-apoptotic molecule Bcl-2 in lymphoma cells including A20 and EL4 cells, which was accompanied by inhibition of cell survival. Both increase in levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and activation of p38 MAPK and decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential and activation of Akt and Erk pathways were observed in statin-treated lymphoma cells. Statin-induced cytotoxic effects, DNA fragmentation and changes of activation of caspase-3, Akt, Erk and p38 were blocked by antioxidant (N-acetylcysteine) and metabolic products of the HMG-CoA reductase reaction, such as mevalonate, farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP). These results suggests that HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors induce lymphoma cells apoptosis by increasing intracellular ROS generation and p38 activation and suppressing activation of Akt and Erk pathways, through inhibition of metabolic products of the HMG-CoA reductase reaction including mevalonate, FPP and GGPP.
statins; lymphoma cells; apoptosis; mevalonate pathway
This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of adenosine triphosphate-based chemotherapy response assay (ATP-CRA)-guided neoadjuvant chemotherapy for increasing resectability in patients with unresectable colorectal liver metastasis.
Patients and methods:
Patients were randomised into two groups: Group A was treated by conventional chemotherapy regimen and Group B was treated by chemotherapy regimen according to the ATP-CRA. Three chemotherapeutic agents (5-fluorouracil, oxaliplatin and irinotecan) were tested by ATP-CRA and more sensitive agents were selected. Either FOLFOX or FOLFIRI was administered. Between Group A and B, treatment response and resectability were compared.
Between November 2008 and October 2010, a total 63 patients were randomised to Group A (N=32) or Group B (N=31). FOLFOX was more preferred in Group A than in Group B (26 out of 32 (81.3%) vs 20 out of 31 (64.5%)). Group B showed better treatment response than Group A (48.4% vs 21.9%, P=0.027). The resectability of hepatic lesion was higher in Group B (35.5% vs 12.5%, P=0.032). Mean duration from chemotherapy onset to the time of liver resection was 11 cycles (range 4–12) in Group A and 8 cycles (range 8–16) in Group B.
This study showed that tailored-chemotherapy based on ATP-CRA could improve the treatment response and resectability in initially unresectable colorectal liver metastasis.
unresectable colorectal liver metastasis; neoadjuvant chemotherapy; adenosine triphosphate-based chemotherapy response assay; treatment response; liver resection
Rebleeding of an aneurysm is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Whereas numerous studies have demonstrated the risk factors associated with rebleeding, few data on complications of rebleeding, including its effect on the development of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI), are available.
A nested case-control study was performed on patients with rebleeding and control subjects matched for modified Fisher scale, Hunt-Hess grade, age, and sex previously entered into a prospective database. Rebleeding was defined as new hemorrhage apparent on repeat CT with or without new symptoms. Incidence and time course of DCI and hospital complications were compared. A secondary analysis of DCI and hospital complications was also performed on subjects surviving to postbleed day 7.
We identified 120 patients with rebleeding and 359 control subjects from 1996 to 2011. The rebleeding rate was 8.6%. In both the primary and secondary analyses, there was no difference in the incidence of DCI or its time course (29% vs 27%, p = 0.6; 7 ± 5 vs 7 ± 6 days, p = 0.9 for primary analysis; 39% vs 31%, p = 0.1, 7 ± 5 vs 7 ± 6 days, p = 0.6 for the secondary analysis). In a multivariate logistic regression model, rebleeding was associated with the complications of hyponatremia, respiratory failure, and hydrocephalus. Patients with rebleeding had higher rates of mortality, brain death, and poor outcomes.
Rebleeding after SAH is associated with multiple medical and neurologic complications, resulting in higher morbidity and mortality, but is not associated with change of incidence or timing of DCI.