Lymph node metastasis is one of the most important adverse prognostic factors for pancreatic cancer. The aim of this study was to identify novel lymphatic metastasis-associated markers and therapeutic targets for pancreatic cancer.
DNA microarray study was carried out to identify genes differentially expressed between 17 pancreatic cancer tissues with lymph node metastasis and 17 pancreatic cancer tissues without lymph node metastasis. The microarray results were validated by real-time PCR. Immunohistochemistry and western blotting were used to examine the expression of farnesoid X receptor (FXR). The function of FXR was studied by small interfering RNA and treatment with FXR antagonist guggulsterone and FXR agonist GW4064.
Farnesoid X receptor overexpression in pancreatic cancer tissues with lymph node metastasis is associated with poor patient survival. Small interfering RNA-mediated downregulation of FXR and guggulsterone-mediated FXR inhibition resulted in a marked reduction in cell migration and invasion. In addition, downregulation of FXR reduced NF-κB activation and conditioned medium from FXR siRNA-transfected cells showed reduced VEGF levels. Moreover, GW4064-mediated FXR activation increased cell migration and invasion.
These findings indicated that FXR overexpression plays an important role in lymphatic metastasis of pancreatic cancer and that downregulation of FXR is an effective approach for inhibition of pancreatic tumour progression.
pancreatic cancer; lymph node metastasis; FXR; DNA microarray; siRNA
The proven candidate genes for amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) are AMELX, ENAM, MMP20, KLK4, FAM83H, and WDR72. We performed mutation analyses on seven families with hypomaturation AI. A novel WDR72 dinucleotide deletion mutation (g.57,426_57,427delAT; c.1467_ 1468delAT; p.V491fsX497) was identified in both alleles of probands from Mexico and Turkey. Haplotype analyses showed that the mutations arose independently in the two families. The disease perfectly segregated with the genotype. Only persons with both copies of the mutant allele were affected. Their hypomineralized enamel suffered attrition and orange-brown staining following eruption. Expression of WDR72 fused to green fluorescent protein showed a cytoplasmic localization exclusively and was absent from the nucleus. We conclude that WDR72 is a cytoplasmic protein that is critical for dental enamel formation.
protein localization; enamel maturation; enamel; tooth; Amelogenesis imperfect
Proteolytic enzymes serve important functions during dental enamel formation, and mutations in the kallikrein 4 (KLK4) and enamelysin (MMP20) genes cause autosomal-recessive amelogenesis imperfecta (ARAI). So far, only 1 KLK4 and 3 MMP20 mutations have been reported in ARAI kindreds. To determine whether ARAI in a family with a hypomaturation-type enamel defect is caused by mutations in the genes encoding enamel proteolytic enzymes, we performed mutational analysis on candidate genes. Mutational and haplotype analyses revealed an ARAI-causing point mutation (c.910G>A, p.A304T) in exon 6 of MMP20 that results in a single amino acid substitution in the hemopexin domain. Western blot analysis showed decreased expression of the mutant protein, but zymogram analysis demonstrated that this mutant was a functional protein. The proband and an affected brother were homozygous for the mutation, and both unaffected parents were carriers. The enamel of newly erupted teeth had normal thickness, but was chalky white and became darker with age.
MMP20; hemopexin; enamel; tooth; amelogenesis imperfecta
Many patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) with cognitive impairment have fronto‐temporal dysfunction. Whereas in some patients with ALS the fronto‐temporal dysfunction is undoubtedly due to the degenerative process associated with the disease, in others dysfunction cannot be accounted for by an irreversible degenerative process alone, as it also appears to involve a reversible process. We hypothesised that reduced vital capacity can be a key contributor to the fronto‐temporal dysfunction observed in patients with ALS.
To investigate the association between fronto‐temporal dysfunction and reduced vital capacity in ALS.
16 consecutive patients who conformed to a diagnosis of definite or probable ALS (El escorial criteria) were grouped by vital capacity, and their clinical characteristics and cognitive functions, including disease duration, attention, executive function and memory, were measured.
Patients with a reduced vital capacity performed significantly poorer in memory retention (p = 0.028), retrieval efficacy (p = 0.003), spoken verbal fluency (p = 0.03) and spoken verbal fluency indexes (p = 0.016) than those with a normal vital capacity.
The fronto‐temporal dysfunction in ALS might be attributable to potentially reversible secondary effects associated with reduced vital capacity, as well as to the primary degenerative process.
This prospective study was conducted with the Korean Cancer Study Group to evaluate the efficacy and safety of cetuximab combined with modified FOLFOX6 (mFOLFOX6) as first-line treatment in recurrent or metastatic gastric cancer and to identify potential predictive biomarkers. Patients received cetuximab 400 mg m−2 at week 1 and 250 mg m−2 weekly thereafter until disease progression. Oxaliplatin (100 mg m−2) and leucovorin (100 mg m−2) were administered as a 2-h infusion followed by a 46-h continuous infusion of 5-fluorouracil (2400 mg m−2) every 2 weeks for a maximum of 12 cycles. Biomarkers potentially associated with efficacy were analysed. Among 38 evaluable patients, confirmed response rate (RR) was 50.0% (95% CI 34.1–65.9). Median time-to-progression (TTP) was 5.5 months (95% CI 4.5–6.5) and overall survival (OS) 9.9 months. Eleven patients having tumour EGFR expression by immunohistochemistry with low serum EGF and TGF-α levels showed a 100% RR compared to 37.0% in the remaining 27 patients (P<0.001). Moreover, ligand level increased when disease progressed in seven out of eight patients with EGFR expression and low baseline ligand level. No patient exhibited EGFR amplification or K-ras mutations. Gastric cancer patients with EGFR expression and low ligand levels had better outcomes with cetuximab/mFOLFOX6 treatment.
Cetuximab; chemotherapy; epidermal growth factor; epidermal growth factor receptor; gastric cancer; transforming growth factor-α
Objectives: Hemichorea sometimes occurs after lesions that selectively involve the caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus. Some reports have hypothesised that the loss of subthalamic nucleus control on the internal segment of the globus pallidus, followed by the disinhibition of the thalamus may contribute to chorea. However, the pathophysiology is poorly understood. Therefore, clinicoradiological localisation was evaluated and a comparison of the haemodynamic status of the basal ganglia and thalamus was made.
Methods: Six patients presenting with acute onset of hemichorea were assessed. Neuroimaging studies, including MRI and SPECT examinations in addition to detailed biochemical tests, were performed. A semiquantitative analysis was performed by comparing the ratio of blood flow between patients and normal controls. In addition, the ratio of perfusion asymmetry was calculated as the ratio between each area contralateral to the chorea and that homolateral to the chorea. The comparison was made with a two sample t test.
Results: The causes of hemichorea found consisted of four cases of acute stroke, one non-ketotic hyperglycaemia, and one systemic lupus erythematosus. Brain MRI indicated lesion sites in the contralateral putamen, globus pallidus, caudate nucleus, and subthalamic nucleus. A significant decrease in the ratio of blood flow in the basal ganglia contralateral to the chorea and a significant increase in the thalamus was found when comparing the perfusion asymmetries, which were calculated as the ratio of cerebral blood flow (CBF) for each region to that in the homolateral occipital area (p<0.05).
Conclusion: An alteration in CBF in both the contralateral thalamus and basal ganglia reflect the loss of pallidal inhibitory input from the pallidum to the thalamus. This change in CBF may be one of epiphenomena, which implicates an occurrence of hemichorea in humans.
The S protein of hepatitis B virus is the principal component of virus envelope and the primary target of anti-HBs response. Mutants or variants that escape neutralization by anti-HBs have been selected during immunoprophylaxis of HBV after birth and liver transplantation. We investigated a case of a Korean child who was vaccinated at birth against hepatitis B and also given hepatitis B immunoglobulin, but nevertheless later became infected with the virus. Hepatitis B virus-specific deoxyribonucleic acid covering the region of genome encoding the predominant "a" determinant of hepatitis surface antigen was amplified using polymerase chain reaction, and the nucleotide sequence was determined. We present for the first time in Korea the independent emergence of an escape mutant with substitution of arginine for glycine at amino acid 145 and proline for glutamate at amino acid 120 in "a" determinant after immunization.
This study was aimed to evaluate the anorectal dysfunction in systemic sclerosis (SSc) and propose the clinical significance of anorectal manometry in patients with SSc. Seven patients with SSc were evaluated with manometry for anorectal function and an additional 11 normal subjects were collected as a control group. The study group underwent esophageal manometry as well and the correlation between the degree of anorectal and esophageal dysfunction was evaluated. Patients showed a lower tolerance for balloon distention of the rectum than controls (minimal sensory volume and urgency volume, P < 0.05). The resting and squeezing pressure of the anal sphincter and the functional length of the anal canal showed no significant difference in these two groups. Rectoanal inhibitory reflex was absent in one (14%) and diminished in two (29%) of seven patients with SSc. SSc patients also showed abnormal esophageal manometry findings, notably decreased LES pressure and body amplitude of distal 2/3 esophagus. The comparison between manometric profiles of anorectum and esophagus showed no significant correlation by statistical analysis. In conclusion, our data could suggest that anorectal function may be impaired in patients with SSc which could reflect the involvement of the anorectum by the disease, and that anorectal manometric studies can be useful to detect such dysfunction in patients with SSc, even before clinical symptoms.
Cranial capacity was measured in Korean adult skulls. The cavity was filled with rice seeds and the volume of the seeds were measured in a graduated cylinder. The results were 1470 +/- 107 (mean +/- standard deviation) in male and 1317 +/- 117 cc in female skulls. These values were in good accordance with those previously reported. In addition, regression formulae were obtained with the product of the length, breadth, and height of the skull as an independent parameter and the measured capacity as a dependent one. With known external measurements, the expected cranial capacity was as follows: when using baso-bregmatic height, male: capacity = 307.5 + 333 x 10(-6) x (length.breadth.baso-bregmatic height) female: capacity = -12.0 + 435 x 10(-6) x (length.breadth.baso-bregmatic height) and, when using auriculo-bregmatic height, male: capacity = 214.6 + 429 x 10(-6) x (length.breadth.auriculo-bregmatic height) female: capacity = 131.6 + 461 x 10(-6) x (length.breadth.auriculo-bregmatic height).
Hypervariable tandem repetitive regions in human DNA are proving to be increasingly useful for genetic analysis in humans. We chose four single locus probes (SLP; MS1, MS43, MS8 and g3) for a validation test among Koreans. The specimens were from 216 unrelated individuals and 33 paternity inclusion families. Extracted DNA from EDTA blood was restricted by Hinfl and electrophoresed in 0.7% agarose gel, transferred and hybridized with chemiluminescent probes. Heterozygosity was over 90% by all of the probes. Total numbers of unassignable mutant bands from 33 paternity inclusion cases were 5, and the highest mutation rate was determined in probe MS1(0.045). The probability of having the same DNA band between two unrelated individuals was 5.7 x 10(-10) when four SLPs were used at the same time. The data presented here on allele frequencies and mutation rates provide preliminary data supporting the validity of these probes in paternity analysis and forensic investigators in the Korean population.
Lymphomatoid granulomatosis usually presents as a primary lung affliction with secondary metastatic spread to the central nervous system(CNS), and its initial manifestation purely as a CNS disease is rare. A 57-year-old man with histologically proven lymphomatoid granulomatosis of the brain as the sole manifestation of the disease is presented.
Background and purpose
CNS complications are often seen after heart surgery, and post-surgical disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) may play an etiologic role. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of MRI-detected BBB disruption (Hyperintense Acute Reperfusion Marker: HARM) and DWI lesions after cardiac surgery.
Materials & methods
All patients had an MRI after cardiac surgery. In half the patients (group 1), we administered gadolinium 24 hours after surgery and obtained high-resolution DWI and FLAIR images 24-48 hours later. In the other half (group 2), we administered gadolinium at the time of the post-operative scan (2-4 days after surgery). Two stroke neurologists evaluated the images.
We studied 19 patients. None of the patients had clinical evidence of a stroke or delirium at the time of the gadolinium administration or the scan, but 9 patients (47%) had HARM (67% in group 1 and 30% in group 2, p=0.18) and 14 patients (74%) had DWI lesions (70% in group 1 and 78% in group 2, p=1.0). Not all patients with DWI lesions had HARM, and not all patients with HARM had DWI lesions (p=0.56).
Almost half the patients undergoing cardiac surgery have evidence of HARM and three quarters have acute lesions on DWI after surgery. BBB disruption is more prevalent in the first 24 hours after surgery. These findings suggest that MRI can be used as an imaging biomarker to assess therapies that may protect the BBB in patients undergoing heart surgery.
This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of adenosine triphosphate-based chemotherapy response assay (ATP-CRA)-guided neoadjuvant chemotherapy for increasing resectability in patients with unresectable colorectal liver metastasis.
Patients and methods:
Patients were randomised into two groups: Group A was treated by conventional chemotherapy regimen and Group B was treated by chemotherapy regimen according to the ATP-CRA. Three chemotherapeutic agents (5-fluorouracil, oxaliplatin and irinotecan) were tested by ATP-CRA and more sensitive agents were selected. Either FOLFOX or FOLFIRI was administered. Between Group A and B, treatment response and resectability were compared.
Between November 2008 and October 2010, a total 63 patients were randomised to Group A (N=32) or Group B (N=31). FOLFOX was more preferred in Group A than in Group B (26 out of 32 (81.3%) vs 20 out of 31 (64.5%)). Group B showed better treatment response than Group A (48.4% vs 21.9%, P=0.027). The resectability of hepatic lesion was higher in Group B (35.5% vs 12.5%, P=0.032). Mean duration from chemotherapy onset to the time of liver resection was 11 cycles (range 4–12) in Group A and 8 cycles (range 8–16) in Group B.
This study showed that tailored-chemotherapy based on ATP-CRA could improve the treatment response and resectability in initially unresectable colorectal liver metastasis.
unresectable colorectal liver metastasis; neoadjuvant chemotherapy; adenosine triphosphate-based chemotherapy response assay; treatment response; liver resection
Rebleeding of an aneurysm is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Whereas numerous studies have demonstrated the risk factors associated with rebleeding, few data on complications of rebleeding, including its effect on the development of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI), are available.
A nested case-control study was performed on patients with rebleeding and control subjects matched for modified Fisher scale, Hunt-Hess grade, age, and sex previously entered into a prospective database. Rebleeding was defined as new hemorrhage apparent on repeat CT with or without new symptoms. Incidence and time course of DCI and hospital complications were compared. A secondary analysis of DCI and hospital complications was also performed on subjects surviving to postbleed day 7.
We identified 120 patients with rebleeding and 359 control subjects from 1996 to 2011. The rebleeding rate was 8.6%. In both the primary and secondary analyses, there was no difference in the incidence of DCI or its time course (29% vs 27%, p = 0.6; 7 ± 5 vs 7 ± 6 days, p = 0.9 for primary analysis; 39% vs 31%, p = 0.1, 7 ± 5 vs 7 ± 6 days, p = 0.6 for the secondary analysis). In a multivariate logistic regression model, rebleeding was associated with the complications of hyponatremia, respiratory failure, and hydrocephalus. Patients with rebleeding had higher rates of mortality, brain death, and poor outcomes.
Rebleeding after SAH is associated with multiple medical and neurologic complications, resulting in higher morbidity and mortality, but is not associated with change of incidence or timing of DCI.
Resident macrophages play an important role in atheromatous plaque rupture. The macrophage gene expression signature associated with plaque rupture is incompletely defined due to the complex cellular heterogeneity in the plaque. We aimed to characterise differential gene expression in resident plaque macrophages from ruptured and stable human atheromatous lesions.
Methods and results
We performed genome-wide expression analyses of isolated macrophage-rich regions of stable and ruptured human atherosclerotic plaques. Plaques present in carotid endarterectomy specimens were designated as stable or ruptured using clinical, radiological and histopathological criteria. Macrophage-rich regions were excised from 5 ruptured and 6 stable plaques by laser micro-dissection. Transcriptional profiling was performed using Affymetrix microarrays. The profiles were characteristic of activated macrophages. At a false discovery rate of 10%, 914 genes were differentially expressed between stable and ruptured plaques. The findings were confirmed in fourteen further stable and ruptured samples for a subset of eleven genes with the highest expression differences (p < 0.05). Pathway analysis revealed that components of the PPAR/Adipocytokine signaling pathway were the most significantly upregulated in ruptured compared to stable plaques (p = 5.4 × 10−7). Two key components of the pathway, fatty-acid binding-protein 4 (FABP4) and leptin, showed nine-fold (p = 0.0086) and five-fold (p = 0.0012) greater expression respectively in macrophages from ruptured plaques.
We found differences in gene expression signatures between macrophages isolated from stable and ruptured human atheromatous plaques. Our findings indicate the involvement of FABP4 and leptin in the progression of atherosclerosis and plaque rupture, and suggest that down-regulation of PPAR/adipocytokine signaling within plaques may have therapeutic potential.
► We examined gene expression in macrophages from stable and ruptured plaques. ► The PPAR/adipocytokine signaling pathway was upregulated in ruptured plaques. ► FABP4 and Leptin were highly expressed in ruptured atheromatous plaque macrophages. ► Down-regulation of PPAR/adipocytokine signaling may have therapeutic potential.
Plaque rupture; Gene expression; Macrophages; Microarray; Laser micro-dissection
Following DNA damage, p53 translocates to the cytoplasm and mitochondria, where it triggers transcription-independent apoptosis by binding to Bcl-2 family proteins. However, little is known about how this exonuclear function of p53 is regulated. Here, we identify and characterize a p53-interacting protein called Hades, an E3 ligase that interacts with p53 in the mitochondria. Hades reduces p53 stability via a mechanism that requires its RING-finger domain with ubiquitin ligase activity. Hades polyubiquitinates p53 in vitro independent of Mdm2 and targets a critical lysine residue in p53 (lysine 24) distinct from those targeted by Mdm2. Hades inhibits a p53-dependent mitochondrial cell death pathway by inhibiting p53 and Bcl-2 interactions. These findings show that Hades-mediated p53 ubiquitination is a novel mechanism for negatively regulating the exonuclear function of p53.
p53; ubiquitination; E3 ligase
There are several reports of adenocarcinoma developing within adenomyosis of the uterus, but imaging features of MRI, including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and positron emission tomography (PET)-CT, have not been published. Herein we report a rare case of endometrioid adenocarcinoma arising from subserosal cystic adenomyosis to emphasise the unusual growth features, as well as the imaging findings of the tumour on MRI and PET-CT.
Peroxiredoxin 6 (Prdx6) is a bifunctional enzyme with peroxidase and phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activities. Although the cellular function of the peroxidase of Prdx6 has been well elucidated, the function of the PLA2 of Prdx6 is largely unknown. Here, we report a novel function for the PLA2 in regulating TNF-induced apoptosis through arachidonic acid (AA) release and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) production. Prdx6 knockdown (Prdx6KD) in human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS2B) shows severe decreases of peroxidase and PLA2 activities. Surprisingly, Prdx6KD cells are markedly resistant to apoptosis induced by TNF-α in the presence of cycloheximide, but are highly sensitive to hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, the release of AA and the production of IL-1β induced by proinflammatory stimuli, such as TNF-α, LPS, and poly I/C, are severely decreased in Prdx6KD cells. More interestingly, the restoration of Prdx6 expression with wild-type Prdx6, but not PLA2-mutant Prdx6 (S32A), in Prdx6KD cells dramatically induces the recovery of TNF-induced apoptosis, AA release, and IL-1β production, indicating specific roles for the PLA2 activity of Prdx6. Our results provide new insights into the distinct roles of bifunctional Prdx6 with peroxidase and PLA2 activities in oxidative stress-induced and TNF-induced apoptosis, respectively.
phospholipase A2; peroxiredoxin 6; TNF-induced apoptosis; arachidonic acid; interleukin-1β
Hydrogen deuterium exchange coupled to mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) has emerged as a technique for studying glycoproteins, which are often refractory to classical methods. Glycan chains are generally assumed to exchange protons very rapidly making them invisible to this technique. Here we show that under conditions commonly used for HDX-MS, acetamido groups within glycan chains retain a significant amount of deuterium. Using mono and polysaccharide standards along with glycopeptides from a panel of glycoproteins, we demonstrate that N-acetyl hexosamines, along with modified Asn sidechains are responsible for this effect. Model compounds for sialic acid also displayed similar exchange kinetics, but terminal sialic acids in the context of an entire glycan chain did not contribute to deuterium retention. Furthermore, the presence of sialic acid appears to enhance the exchange rate of the nearby N-acetyl glucosamines. The ability to detect deuterium exchange at the glycan level opens the possibility of applying HDX-MS to monitor glycan interactions and dynamics.
Hydrogen/deuterium exchange; carbohydrate; glycan; glycopeptide; glycoprotein; mass spectrometry; Fetuin; alpha-1-acid glycoprotein; orosomucoid; HIV Envelope gp120; sialic acid; N-acetyl glucosamine
With the increasing use of probabilistically linked administrative data in health research, it is important to understand whether systematic differences occur between the populations with linked and unlinked records. While probabilistic linkage involves combining records for individuals, population perinatal health research requires a combination of information from both the mother and her infant(s). The aims of this study were to (i) describe probabilistic linkage for perinatal records in New South Wales (NSW) Australia, (ii) determine linkage proportions for these perinatal records, and (iii) assess records with linked mother and infant hospital-birth record, and unlinked records for systematic differences.
This is a population-based study of probabilistically linked statutory birth and hospital records from New South Wales, Australia, 2001-2008. Linkage groups were created where the birth record had complete linkage with hospital admission records for both the mother and infant(s), partial linkage (the mother only or the infant(s) only) or neither. Unlinked hospital records for mothers and infants were also examined. Rates of linkage as a percentage of birth records and descriptive statistics for maternal and infant characteristics by linkage groups were determined.
Complete linkage (mother hospital record – birth record – infant hospital record) was available for 95.9% of birth records, partial linkage for 3.6%, and 0.5% with no linked hospital records (unlinked). Among live born singletons (complete linkage = 96.5%) the mothers without linked infant records (1.6%) had slightly higher proportions of young, non-Australian born, socially disadvantaged women with adverse pregnancy outcomes. The unlinked birth records (0.4%) had slightly higher proportions of nulliparous, older, Australian born women giving birth in private hospitals by caesarean section. Stillbirths had the highest rate of unlinked records (3-4%).
This study shows that probabilistic linkage of perinatal records can achieve high, representative levels of complete linkage. Records for mother’s that did not link to infant records and unlinked records had slightly different characteristics to fully linked records. However, these groups were small and unlikely to bias results and conclusions in a substantive way. Stillbirths present additional challenges to the linkage process due to lower rates of linkage for lower gestational ages, where most stillbirths occur.
Probabilistic record linkage; Pregnancy; Administrative health data; International classification of diseases
This study examined whether regular exercise training, at a level that would be recommended for middle-aged people interested in improving fitness could lead to improved cognitive performance and increased blood flow to the brain in another primate species. Adult female cynomolgus monkeys were trained to run on treadmills for one hour a day, 5 days a week, for a 5 month period (n=16; 1.9±0.4 miles/day). A sedentary control group sat daily on immobile treadmills (n=8). Half of the runners had an additional sedentary period for 3 months at the end of the exercise period (n=8). In all groups, half of the monkeys were middle-aged (10–12 years old) and half were more mature (15–17 years old). Starting the fifth week of exercise training, monkeys underwent cognitive testing using the Wisconsin General Testing Apparatus (WGTA). Regardless of age, the exercising group learned to use the WGTA significantly faster (4.6±3.4 days) compared to controls (8.3±4.8 days; p=0.05). At the end of 5 months of running monkeys showed increased fitness, and the vascular volume fraction in the motor cortex in mature adult running monkeys was increased significantly compared to controls (p=0.029). However, increased vascular volume did not remain apparent after a three-month sedentary period. These findings indicate that the level of exercise associated with improved fitness in middle-aged humans is sufficient to increase both the rate of learning and blood flow to the cerebral cortex, at least during the period of regular exercise.
spatial cognition; discrimination; learning; blood flow; motor cortex; primate
Melanoma is an aggressive and drug-resistant cancer in need of improved therapeutic strategies. Restored expression of transcriptionally silenced genes is a potential approach, but it is limited by the genetic diversity of the melanoma tumors. The atypical heat shock protein H11/HspB8 has kinase activity and is silenced in melanoma through aberrant DNA methylation. We report that its restored expression induces the death of genetically diverse melanoma lines and inhibits tumor growth through the activation of novel TAK1-dependent death pathways. These include (i) caspase-1 activation independent of the inflammasome through upregulation of apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC), (ii) Beclin-1 upregulation through phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) at S2481 and (iii) apoptosis caused by caspase-1-mediated Beclin-1 cleavage. These data extend current understanding of cell death-associated functions, underscore the strong therapeutic promise of H11/HspB8 and identify TAK1 as a potential intervention target in melanoma.
caspase-1; caspase-3/7; apoptosis; ASC; Beclin-1; mTOR