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1.  Hinge Fracture during Cervical Open-door Laminoplasty: Does it Affect Clinical and Radiographic Outcomes? 
Korean Journal of Spine  2014;11(2):45-51.
Objective
The purpose of this study was to determine whether the status of the hinge gutter affected clinical and radiographic outcomes of cervical open door laminoplasty.
Methods
We retrospectively analyzed 43 patients who had undergone cervical open door laminoplasty. 23 CT scans were performed at 2 days post-operation. The number of CT scans at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months were 16, 12, 21 and 11, respectively. We collected perioperative and follow-up data, including clinical and radiographic results.
Results
There were 7 patients without a hinge fracture and 16 patients with one or more hinge fractures at 2 days postoperation. There were 90 hinges, and the rate of ideal greenstick deformation of the hinge was 63% on 2-day-postoperative CT scans. Postoperative VAS scores of neck pain (p=0.012) in patients without a hinge fracture were higher than in patients with hinge fractures. The hinge healing rates were 37% at 3 months, 57.4% at 6 months, 86.4% at 12 months, and 85.4% at 24 months. Among the patients, 14 patients had healed hinges, and 7 patients had one or more hinge(s) that was/were not healed at 12 months post-operation. However, in clinical and radiographic outcomes, there was no difference between these patients.
Conclusion
Cervical open door laminoplasty was safe and provided stable reconstruction of laminar expansion. In radiographs, the difference between hinges that had healed and hinges that had not healed was statistically negligible. Hinge fractures might not influence the clinical and radiographic outcomes of cervical open door laminoplasty.
doi:10.14245/kjs.2014.11.2.45
PMCID: PMC4124930  PMID: 25110482
Cervical vertebrae; Treatment outcome; Laminoplasty; Fracture
2.  The Difference of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Between Sympathetic Hyperactive and Hypoactive Men 
Purpose
Heart rate variability (HRV) is a tool used to measure autonomic nervous function; however, there is no evidence that it can be used to define sympathetic hyperactivity in men with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). We suspected that LUTS would differ between sympathetic hyperactive and hypoactive patients. Therefore, we measured HRV and divided the LUTS patients into two groups, a sympathetic hyperactive group and a sympathetic hypoactive group according to the low frequency/high frequency (LF/HF) ratio and made clinical comparisons between the groups.
Methods
A total of 43 patients with symptomatic LUTS (International Prostate Symptom Score [IPSS] over 8) and 49 healthy volunteers were enrolled. No subjects had diseases that could affect the autonomic nervous system, such as diabetes or hypertension. Electrocardiographic signals were obtained from subjects in the resting state and HRV indexes were calculated with spectral analyses. We divided the LUTS patients into two groups by an LF/HF ratio of 1.9, which was the median value in the healthy volunteers, and compared the differences in clinical characteristics, IPSS, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) results. The parameters were compared by independent sample t-test by use of SPSS ver. 19.
Results
There were no significant differences in age, serum PSA, or volume of the prostate between the 2 LUTS groups. However, analyzing IPSS questionnaires between two groups showed that there were significant differences in mean of Q2 score (frequency) and storage symptom score ([Q2+Q4+Q7]/3) (P<0.05).
Conclusions
We suggest that an imbalance of autonomic nervous system activity may be a factor that evokes varieties of symptoms in men with LUTS. LUTS patients with hypoactive sympathetic tone may suffer from frequency and storage symptoms.
doi:10.5213/inj.2013.17.1.30
PMCID: PMC3627996  PMID: 23610709
Prostatic hyperplasia; Autonomic nervous system; Lower urinary tract symptoms; Heart rate variability
3.  The Relationship between Cross Sectional Area and Strength of Back Muscles in Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain 
Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine  2012;36(2):173-181.
Objective
To evaluate the relationship between the cross sectional area (CSA) and isokinetic strength of the back muscles in patients with chronic low back pain.
Method
Data of twenty-eight middle-aged patients with chronic back pain were analyzed retrospectively. CSAs of both paraspinal muscles and the disc at the L4-L5 level were measured in MRI axial images and the relative CSAs (rCSA: CSA ratio of muscle and disc) were calculated. The degree of paraspinal muscle atrophy was rated qualitatively. Isokinetic strengths (peak torque, peak torque per body weight) of back flexor and extensor were measured with the isokinetic testing machine. Multiple regression analysis with backward elimination was used to evaluate relations between isokinetic strength and various factors, such as CSA or rCSA and clinical characteristics in all patients. The same analysis was repeated in the female patients.
Results
In analysis with CSA and clinical characteristics, body mass index (BMI) and CSA were significant influencing factors in the peak torque of the back flexor muscles. CSA was a significant influencing factor in the peak torque of total back muscles. In analysis with rCSA and clinical characteristics, BMI was significant in influencing the peak torque of the back flexors. In female patients, rCSA was a significant influencing factor in the peak torque per body weight of the back flexors, and age and BMI were influencing factors in the peak torque of back flexors and total back muscles.
Conclusion
In middle-aged patients with chronic low back pain, CSA and rCSA were influencing factors in the strength of total back muscles and back flexors. Also, gender and BMI were influencing factors.
doi:10.5535/arm.2012.36.2.173
PMCID: PMC3358672  PMID: 22639740
Low back pain; Muscle strength; Muscle strength dynamometer; Magnetic resonance imaging
4.  Stone extraction balloon-guided repeat self-expanding metal stent placement 
Self-expanding metal stent (SEMS) placement offers safe and effective palliation in patients with upper gastrointestinal obstruction due to a malignancy. Well described complications of SEMS placement include tumor growth, obstruction, and stent migration. SEMS occlusions are treated by SEMS redeployment, argon plasma coagulation application, balloon dilation, and surgical bypass. At our center, we usually place the second SEMS into the first SEMS if there is complete occlusion by the tumor. We discovered an unusual complication during SEMS redeployment. The guidewire passed through the mesh of the first SEMS and caused the second SEMS to become entangled with the first SEMS. This led to the distortion and malfunction of the second SEMS, which worsened the gastric outlet obstruction. For lowering the risk of entanglement, we studied stone extraction balloon-guided repeat SEMS placement. This is the first report of a SEMS entangled by the mesh of the first SEMS and stone extraction balloon-guided repeat SEMS placement for lowering the risk of this complication.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v16.i24.3087
PMCID: PMC2890952  PMID: 20572315
Gastric outlet obstruction; Self-expanding metal stent
5.  Mycobacterium ulcerans infection as a cause of chronic diarrhea in an AIDS patient: A case report 
Chronic diarrhea is one of the most frequent gastro-intestinal manifestations in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Protozoa and nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are opportunistic pathogens that can easily infect these patients. Among the NTM, Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is the most frequently observed pathogen in HIV-infected patients. However, NTMs other than MAC have not been reported as a gastrointestinal pathogen as yet. We present a case of chronic diarrhea in an AIDS patient in whom Mycobacterium ulcerans and cryptosporidium co-infection is evidenced from colonic tissue.
doi:10.3748/wjg.14.808
PMCID: PMC2684015  PMID: 18205278
Mycobacterium ulcerans; Cryptosporidium; HIV; Chronic diarrhea
6.  Brain Metastases of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma with Horner's Syndrome 
Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common type of thyroid malignancy and has relatively favorable prognosis. Blood-borne metastases of PTC are very rare among the thyroid malignancies. Moreover a case of blood-borne central nervous system metastasized PTC with only unilateral Horner's syndrome, and without any abnormalities in laboratory or physical examinations has not been described before. A 53-year-old female patient had been managed in ophthalmologic clinic due to vague symptoms of right monocular blurred vision with eye dryness for 3 months, but showed no signs of improvement. So it was performed a magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography to evaluate the possibilities of cerebral lesion. And a left frontal mass was incidentally found, and the tumor turned out to be a PTC that had metastasized to brain, regional lymph node, cervical, thoracic spine, and lung. We describe a PTC with extraordinary initial symptoms that metastasized to an unusual site. We recommend that if a papillary thyroid tumor with unusual symptoms or at an advanced stage is found, further investigation should be performed for distant metastasis.
doi:10.14791/btrt.2014.2.2.132
PMCID: PMC4231621  PMID: 25408940
Papillary thyroid carcinoma; Metastases; Horner syndrome; Treatment
7.  The Correlation Between the Treatment Efficacy and the Sympathetic Activity in Men With Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms 
Purpose
In this study, we examined the difference in the treatment efficacy depending on the sympathetic activity in men with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS).
Methods
In the current single-center, retrospective study, we evaluated a total of 66 male patients aged 40-70 years of age, presenting with LUTS, whose International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) exceeded 8 points. They had a past 3-month history of taking alfuzosin XL, and their heart rate variability (HRV) was measured before and after the treatment. In addition, we also recruited 39 healthy volunteers who visited a health promotion center for a regular medical check-up. They were aged between 40 and 70 years and had an IPSS of <8 points. We divided the patients with LUTS into two groups: the groups A and B, based on a low frequency/high frequency (LF/HF) ratio of 1.7, which was the mean value of the LF/HF ratio in the healthy volunteers. After a 3-month treatment with alfuzosin XL, we compared treatment outcomes, based on the IPSS and peak urine flow rate, between the two groups.
Results
A 3-month treatment with alfuzosin XL, comprising the measurement of the HRV, was performed for the 23 patients of the group A (23/38) and 17 of the group B (17/28). After a 3-month treatment with alfuzosin XL, total IPSS and IPSS questionnaire 2 and 5 were significantly lower in the group A as compared with the group B. But this was not seen in the group B. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in other parameters, such as maximal flow rate and IPSS storage subscore, between the two groups.
Conclusions
Our results indicate that the treatment efficacy was lower in patients with sympathetic hyperactivity as compared with those with sympathetic hypoactivity. Thus, our results will provide a basis for further studies to clarify causes of LUTS in a clinical setting.
doi:10.5213/inj.2014.18.3.145
PMCID: PMC4180165  PMID: 25279242
Autonomic nervous system; Heart rate; Lower urinary tract symptoms
8.  Development of an aptamer-conjugated fluorescent nanoprobe for MMP2 
Nanoscale Research Letters  2014;9(1):104.
Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) plays critical roles in various diseases, such as atherosclerosis and cancer, and has been suggested to contribute to the instability of atherosclerotic plaque. To visualize MMP2 in pathologic tissues, we developed an aptamer targeting MMP2 protein by performing eight rounds of modified DNA systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX). The aptamer showed high affinity for MMP2 (Kd = 5.59 nM), precipitated MMP2, and detected MMP2 protein in pathological tissues such as atherosclerotic plaque and gastric cancer tissues. Furthermore, a MMP2 aptamer-conjugated fluorescent nanoprobe successfully visualized atherosclerotic plaques in apolipoprotein E (ApoE) knockout mice. These results suggest that the devised MMP2 aptamer could be useful for the development of various diagnostic tools.
doi:10.1186/1556-276X-9-104
PMCID: PMC3974006  PMID: 24589243
MMP2; Aptamer; Nanoprobe; Atherosclerosis; Cancer
9.  Differential expression of apoptosis-related factors induces the age-related apoptosis of the gracilis muscle in humans 
In the normal aging process, apoptosis has been implicated as a mechanism responsible for the loss of muscle cells and plays an important role in age-related muscle loss. Several signaling pathways involved in skeletal muscle apoptosis are currently under intense investigation, particularly the caspase-independent pathway. This study investigated the age-related apoptotic changes occurring in the gracilis muscle in humans between 10 and 50 years of age. For this purpose, muscle samples were divided into 5 groups (n=8). Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) staining and immunofluorescence detection were performed to determine the number of apoptotic muscle cells in each group. In addition, the expression levels of apoptosis-related factors, such as Bcl-2, Bax, apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), caspase-3 and calpain-1 were determined by RT-PCR and western blot analysis. TUNEL assay revealed a significant increase in gracilis muscle apoptosis with aging. The activity of caspase-3 in the gracilis muscle tended to change with age, although the changes were not significant, while the increase in DNA nuclei in muscle from 50 years of age (5.419±0.97) was associated with an increase in the expression of AIF, as observed both at protein (10–30%) and mRNA level (10–60%) in gracilis tissues. Taken together, our results demonstrated that the relative Bcl-2 expression decreased with aging, while Bax expression was upregulated compared to 10 -year-olds. In addition, a double-labeling experiment with TUNEL staining and immunofluorescence revealed the co-localization of nuclear AIF-positive and TUNEL-labeled cells. This study suggests that apoptosis in gracilis skeletal muscle in the elderly is partly mediated through the expression of Bcl-2/Bax and the degradation of AIF.
doi:10.3892/ijmm.2014.1675
PMCID: PMC4020492  PMID: 24584667
human skeletal muscle; gracilis; apoptosis; aging; apoptosis-inducing factor
10.  The effect of bonded resin surface area on the detachment force of lingual bonded fixed retainers: An in vitro study 
Korean Journal of Orthodontics  2014;44(1):20-27.
Objective
The aims of this study were to evaluate the relationship between the detachment force and bonding resin surface are and to determine the resin bonding surface area that would provide adequate bonding strength with minimum resin volume.
Methods
One hundred and sixty human premolars were randomly divided into 4 groups of 40 teeth each. The diameter of the resin surface area in each group was as follows: group 1, 1.5 mm; group 2, 2.5 mm; group 3, 3.5 mm; and group 4, 4.5 mm. Respond Dead Soft straight (length 0.0175 inch) was used to fabricate the retainers, and Transbond™ XT was used to fix the retainers to the tooth surfaces. A pair of teeth was embedded in acrylic blocks for each specimen. Thus, each group comprised 20 samples. Fixed retainers were bonded to the teeth, and vertical force was applied at the middle of wire. The force was measured using a universal testing machine.
Results
The mean value of detachment force was the highest for group 4 (102.38 ± 2.92 N), followed by group 3 (63.54 ± 2.21 N), group 2 (51.95 ± 1.61 N), and group 1 (24.14 ± 1.38 N).
Conclusions
The detachment force of lingual fixed retainers was significantly affected as the area of the resin bonding surface increased. Considering the minimum bonding strength of brackets, a resin bonding surface area with a diameter of 3.5 mm would provide adequate bonding strength.
doi:10.4041/kjod.2014.44.1.20
PMCID: PMC3915172  PMID: 24511512
Lingual fixed retainer; Surface area; Bonding strength
11.  Aptamer-modified magnetic nanoprobe for molecular MR imaging of VEGFR2 on angiogenic vasculature 
Nanoscale Research Letters  2013;8(1):399.
Nucleic acid-based aptamers have been developed for the specific delivery of diagnostic nanoprobes. Here, we introduce a new class of smart imaging nanoprobe, which is based on hybridization of a magnetic nanocrystal with a specific aptamer for specific detection of the angiogenic vasculature of glioblastoma via magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The magnetic nanocrystal imaging core was synthesized using the thermal decomposition method and enveloped by carboxyl polysorbate 80 for water solubilization and conjugation of the targeting moiety. Subsequently, the surface of the carboxylated magnetic nanocrystal was modified with amine-functionalized aptamers that specifically bind to the vascular growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) that is overexpressed on angiogenic vessels. To assess the targeted imaging potential of the aptamer-conjugated magnetic nanocrystal for VEGFR2 markers, the magnetic properties and MR imaging sensitivity were investigated using the orthotopic glioblastoma mouse model. In in vivo tests, the aptamer-conjugated magnetic nanocrystal effectively targeted VEGFR2 and demonstrated excellent MR imaging sensitivity with no cytotoxicity.
doi:10.1186/1556-276X-8-399
PMCID: PMC3849016  PMID: 24066922
Magnetic nanocrystal; Aptamer; VEGFR2; Angiogenesis; Magnetic resonance imaging; Molecular imaging
12.  A Comparison of the Short-Term Effects of a Botulinum Toxin Type A and Triamcinolone Acetate Injection on Adhesive Capsulitis of the Shoulder 
Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine  2013;37(2):208-214.
Objective
To evaluate the short-term clinical effects of the intra-articular injection of botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) for the treatment of adhesive capsulitis.
Methods
A prospective, controlled trial compared the effects of intra-articular BoNT-A (Dysport; 200 IU, n=15) with the steroid triamcinolone acetate (TA; 20 mg, n=13) in patients suffering from adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder. All patients were evaluated using a Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) of the pain intensity and a measurement of the range of motion (ROM) at baseline (before treatment) and at 2, 4, and 8 weeks post-treatment.
Results
The NRS at 2 weeks (BoNT-A vs. TA; 5.0 vs. 5.2), 4 weeks (4.1 vs. 4.9) and 8 weeks (3.8 vs. 4.6) of both treatment groups were significantly lower than that measured at baseline (7.4 vs. 7.6). The ROM of patients' shoulders increased significantly from baseline in both treatment groups. There was no significant difference in the NRS of pain intensity or the ROM between the two groups. Reduction in the pain intensity score was maintained for 8 weeks post-injection in both groups. There were no significant adverse events in either treatment group.
Conclusion
The results suggest that there are no significant short-term differences between the intra-articular injections of BoNT-A and TA. Although BoNT-A has a high cost, it may be used as a safe alternative of TA to avoid the steroid-induced side effects or as a second-line agent, for patients who have failed to respond to the current treatments.
doi:10.5535/arm.2013.37.2.208
PMCID: PMC3660481  PMID: 23705115
Adhesive capsulitis; Botulinum toxin type A; Intra-articular injections
13.  Case of concurrent Riedel's thyroiditis, acute suppurative thyroiditis, and micropapillary carcinoma 
Riedel's thyroiditis (RT) is a rare chronic inflammatory disease of the thyroid gland. It is characterized by a fibroinflammatory process that partially destroys the gland and extends into adjacent neck structures. Its clinical manifestation can mask an accompanying thyroid neoplasm and can mimic invasive thyroid carcinoma. Therefore, diagnosis can be difficult prior to surgical removal of the thyroid, and histopathologic examination of the thyroid is necessary for a definite diagnosis. The concurrent presence of RT and other thyroid diseases has been reported. However, to our knowledge, the association of RT with acute suppurative thyroiditis and micropapillary carcinoma has not been reported. We report a rare case of concurrent RT, acute suppurative thyroiditis, and micropapillary carcinoma in a 48-year-old patient.
doi:10.3904/kjim.2013.28.2.236
PMCID: PMC3604615  PMID: 23526581
Riedel's thyroiditis; Thyroiditis, suppurative; Thyroid cancer, papillary
14.  A Case of Inguinal Sparganosis Mimicking Myeloid Sarcoma 
We report here a case of inguinal sparganosis, initially regarded as myeloid sarcoma, diagnosed in a patient undergone allogeneic hematopoietic transplantation (HSCT). A 56-year-old male patient having myelodysplastic syndrome was treated with allogeneic HSCT after myeloablative conditioning regimen. At day 5 post-HSCT, the patient complained of a painless palpable mass on the left scrotum and inguinal area. Pelvic magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography revealed suspected myeloid sarcoma. Gun-biopsy was performed, and the result revealed eosinophilic infiltrations without malignancy. Subsequent serologic IgG antibody test was positive for sparganum. Excisional biopsy as a therapeutic diagnosis was done, and the diagnosis of sparganosis was confirmed eventually. This is the first report of sparganosis after allogeneic HSCT mimicking myeloid sarcoma, giving a lesson that the physicians have to consider the possibility of sparganosis in this clinical situation and perform adequate diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.
doi:10.3347/kjp.2012.50.4.353
PMCID: PMC3514429  PMID: 23230335
Sparganum; sparganosis; myeloid sarcoma; hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; myelodysplastic syndrome
15.  A Case of Lambert-Eaton Myasthenic Syndrome with Small-Cell Lung Cancer and Transient Increase in Anti-Acetylcholine-Receptor-Binding Antibody Titer 
Background
Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS) is a presynaptic neuromuscular junction disorder that is most frequently associated with small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). The titers of antibodies against voltage-gated calcium channels are frequently increased in LEMS, but only rarely is titer of anti-acetylcholine-receptor-binding antibodies (AChR-abs) increased.
Case Report
A 57-year-old male was admitted to our hospital due to dry mouth and eyes and progressive proximal limb weakness of 2 months duration. The results of a repetitive nerve stimulation test disclosed all criteria for the electrophysiological LEMS pattern, and the patient's AChR-abs titer was 0.587 nmol/L. At a follow-up performed 5 years after successful treatment of SCLC and LEMS, his AChR-abs titer had decreased to 0.001 nmol/L.
Conclusions
We suggest that this was a case of transient pseudopositivity of AChR-abs in SCLC with LEMS.
doi:10.3988/jcn.2012.8.4.305
PMCID: PMC3540291  PMID: 23323140
Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome; small-cell lung carcinoma; myasthenia gravis
16.  Dysphagia due to Retropharyngeal Abscess that Incidentally Detected in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Patient 
Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine  2012;36(6):861-865.
Cerebral hemorrhage is one of the most common causes of dysphagia. In many cases, dysphagia gets better once the acute phase has passed. Structural lesions such as thyromegaly, cervical hyperostosis, congenital web, Zenker's diverticulum, neoplasm, radiation fibrosis, and retropharyngeal abscess must be considered as other causes of dysphagia as well. Retropharyngeal abscess seldom occur in adults and if it does so, a search for a prior dental procedure, trauma, head and neck infection is needed. The symptoms may include neck pain, dysphagia, sore throat, and in rare cases, dyspnea accompanied by stridor. We present a case and discuss a patient who had dysphagia and neck pain after a cerebral hemorrhage. Testing revealed a retropharyngeal abscess. The symptoms were successfully treated after the administration of antibiotics.
doi:10.5535/arm.2012.36.6.861
PMCID: PMC3546191  PMID: 23342321
Retropharyngeal abscess; Dysphagia; Neck pain
17.  The effect of laparoscopic surgery in stage II and III right-sided colon cancer: a retrospective study 
Background
This retrospective study compared the clinicopathological results among three groups divided by time sequence to evaluate the impact of introducing laparoscopic surgery on long-term oncological outcomes for right-sided colon cancer.
Methods
From April 1986 to December 2006, 200 patients who underwent elective surgery with stage II and III right-sided colon cancer were analyzed. The period for group I referred back to the time when laparoscopic approach had not yet been introduced. The period for group II was designated as the time when first laparoscopic approach for right colectomy was carried out until we overcame its learning curve. The period for group III was the period after overcoming this learning curve.
Results
When groups I and II, and groups II and III were compared, overall survival (OS) did not differ significantly whereas disease-free survival (DFS) in groups I and III were statistically higher than in group II (P = 0.042 and P = 0.050). In group III, laparoscopic surgery had a tendency to provide better long-term OS ( P = 0.2036) and DFS ( P = 0.2356) than open surgery. Also, the incidence of local recurrence in group III (2.6%) was significantly lower than that in groups II (7.4%) and I (12.1%) ( P = 0.013).
Conclusions
Institutions should standardize their techniques and then provide fellowship training for newcomers of laparoscopic colon cancer surgery. This technique once mastered will become the gold standard approach to colon surgery as it is both safe and feasible considering the oncological and technical aspects.
doi:10.1186/1477-7819-10-89
PMCID: PMC3449202  PMID: 22594580
Laparoscopic surgery; Learning curve; Long-term outcome; Right sided colon cancer
18.  Effects of Tamsulosin on Urinary Bladder Function and Neuronal Activity in the Voiding Centers of Rats with Cyclophosphamide-induced Overactive Bladder 
Purpose
The overactive bladder (OAB) syndrome is characterized by urgency usually with frequency and nocturia. Tamsulosin, α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist, is widely used to reduce symptoms of urinary obstruction and prostatic hyperplasia. Tamsulosin can across the blood-brain barrier. We investigated the effects of tamsulosin on the symptoms of OAB in relation to neuronal activity using rats.
Methods
Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 250±10 g (9 weeks old), were used in this study. The animals were divided into five groups (n=8 in each group): control group, OAB-induced group, OAB-induced and 0.01 mg/kg tamsulosin-treated group, OAB-induced and 0.1 mg/kg tamsulosin-treated group, and OAB-induced and 1 mg/kg tamsulosin-treated group. OAB was induced by intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide (75 mg/kg) every third day for 10 days. The rats in the tamsulosin-treated groups orally received tamsulosin once a day for 14 consecutive days at the respective dose of the groups, starting 1 day after the induction of OAB. Cystometry for bladder pressure determination, immunohistochemistry for c-Fos, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase histochemistry for nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the neuronal voiding centers and western blot for inducible NOS in the bladder were conducted.
Results
Cyclophosphamide injection enhanced contraction pressure and time, representing the induction of OAB. Contraction pressure and time were significantly suppressed by tamsulosin treatment. c-Fos and NOS expressions in the neuronal voiding centers were enhanced by induction of OAB. OAB-induced c-Fos and NOS expressions were suppressed by tamsulosin treatment.
Conclusions
Tamsulosin exerts inhibitory effect on neuronal activation in the neuronal voiding centers of OAB. The present results suggest the possibility that tamsulosin is effective therapeutic modality for ameliorating the symptoms of OAB.
doi:10.5213/inj.2012.16.1.13
PMCID: PMC3321398  PMID: 22500249
Overactive bladder; Cyclophosphamide; Tamsulosin; Rats
19.  Intramedullary Spinal Cord Metastasis of Choriocarcinoma 
The authors describe a case of choriocarcinoma that metastasized to the cerebral cortex, vertebral body, and intramedullary spinal cord. A 21-year-old woman presented with sudden headache, vomiting and a visual field defect. Brain computed tomography and magnetic resonance examinations revealed an intracranial hemorrhage in the left temporo-parietal lobe and two enhancing nodules in the left temporal and right frontal lobe. After several days, the size of the hemorrhage increased, and a new hemorrhage was identified in the right frontal lobe. The hematoma and enhancing mass in the left temporo-parietal lobe were surgically removed. Choriocarcinoma was diagnosed after histological examination. At 6 days after the operation, her consciousness had worsened and she was in a state of stupor. The size of the hematoma in the right frontal lobe was enlarged. We performed an emergency operation to remove the hematoma and enhancing mass. Her mental status recovered slowly. Two months thereafter, she complained of paraplegia with sensory loss below the nipples. Whole spine magnetic resonance imaging revealed a well-enhancing mass in the thoracic intramedullary spinal cord and L2 vertebral body. Despite chemotherapy and radiotherapy, the patient died 13 months after the diagnosis.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2012.51.3.141
PMCID: PMC3358599  PMID: 22639709
Choriocarcinoma; Intracerebral hematoma; Intramedullary spinal cord metastasis; Spinal metastasis
20.  Gender Differences in Susceptibility to Smoking among Patients with Lung Cancer 
Background/Aims
To determine whether female smokers are more or less susceptible to the detrimental pulmonary-function effects of smoking when compared to male smokers among patients with lung cancer.
Methods
Pack-years and pulmonary function indices were compared between 1,594 men and women with lung cancer ifferences in individual susceptibility to smoking were estimated using a susceptibility index formula.
Results
Of the patients, 959 (92.8%) men and 74 (7.2%) women were current smokers. Common histological types of lung cancer were squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and small cell carcinoma, among others. Women had a lower number of pack-years, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1, liters), forced vital capacity (FVC, liters), and total lung capacity (TLC, liters) compared to those of men (25.0 ± 19.2 vs. 42.9 ± 21.7 for pack-years; 1.4 ± 0.5 vs. 2.0 ± 0.6 for FEV1; 3.0 ± 0.7 vs. 2.0 ± 0.6 for FVC; 4.5 ± 0.8 vs. 5.7 ± 1.0 for TLC; all p < 0.001). The susceptibility index for women was significantly higher compared to that of men (1.1 ± 4.1 vs. 0.7 ± 1.1; p = 0.001). A significant inverse association was shown between the susceptibility index and TLC and FVC (r = -0.200 for TLC, -0.273 for FVC; all p < 0.001).
Conclusions
The results suggest that the detrimental effects of smoking on pulmonary function are greater in women, as compared to those in men, among patients with lung cancer.
doi:10.3904/kjim.2011.26.4.427
PMCID: PMC3245391  PMID: 22205843
Gender; Lung neoplasms; Smoking; Disease susceptibility; Pulmonary function
21.  Dysphagia in Ramsay Hunt's Syndrome - A Case Report - 
Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine  2011;35(5):738-741.
Ramsay-Hunt syndrome is caused by varicella zoster virus infection in the geniculate ganglion of the facial nerve. It is characterized by facial palsy, otic pain, and herpetic vesicles around the auricle and external auditory canal. Additionally, symptoms may develop related to other cranial nerve involvement, such as dizziness or hearing loss by the vestibulocochlear nerve being invaded. We report a rare case of a Ramsay-Hunt syndrome patient who developed dysphagia due to multiple cranial nerve involvement including the glossopharyngeal nerve and vagus nerve.
doi:10.5535/arm.2011.35.5.738
PMCID: PMC3309268  PMID: 22506200
Herpes zoster oticus; Dysphagia; Facial paralysis
22.  Transient Global Aphasia with Hemiparesis Following Cerebral Angiography : Relationship to Blood Brain Barrier Disruption 
Temporary disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) after cerebral angiography is presumably caused by nonionic radiographic contrast medium (CM). We hereby report a case of 58-year-old woman who developed decreased mentality, global aphasia and aggravated right hemiparesis after cerebral angiography. Brain CT examination demonstrated gyriform enhancement throughout the left cerebral cortex and thalamus. MR diffusion did not reveal acute infarction. MR angiography did not show any stenosis, spasm or occlusion at the major cerebral vessels. Follow-up CT scan after 1 day did not show any gyriform enhancement. Worsened neurologic signs and symptoms were improved completely after 7 days. In the present study, disruption of the BBB with contrast medium after angiography seems to be the causative factor of transient neurologic deterioration.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2010.48.6.524
PMCID: PMC3053547  PMID: 21430979
Blood brain barrier (BBB) disruption; Contrast medium; Transient global aphasia; Transient hemiparesis; Cerebral angiography
23.  Clinical Characteristics of Colonic Diverticulosis in Korea: A Prospective Study 
Background/Aims
The prevalence of colonic diverticulosis has been reported to be lower in Korea than in Western countries. This disease also shows markedly different characteristics in the Korean population. We describe herein a prospective investigation, based on colonoscopic examination, of the prevalence, clinical characteristics, and factors associated with colonic diverticulosis in Korea.
Methods
The prevalence of colonic diverticulosis has been reported to be lower in Korea than in Western countries. This disease also shows markedly different characteristics in the Korean population. We describe herein a prospective investigation, based on colonoscopic examination, of the prevalence, clinical characteristics, and factors associated with colonic diverticulosis in Korea.
Results
The overall prevalence of colonic diverticulosis was 12.1% (103 / 848). The right side of the colon was involved in 84.5% of patients (87 / 103); patients with right side diverticula were, on average, younger than those with left side diverticulosis (p = 0.014). Multiple diverticula were observed in 60.2% (62 / 103) of patients. Age greater than 60 years, a high-fat diet, and alcohol consumption were significantly associated with the presence of colonic diverticulosis (p < 0.05).
Conclusions
The prevalence of colonic diverticulosis in Korea is increasing and is most commonly located in the right side of the colon. Further, old age and diet may affect the risk of development of this disease.
doi:10.3904/kjim.2010.25.2.140
PMCID: PMC2880686  PMID: 20526386
Diverticulum, colon; Korea; Colonoscopy; Prospective studies
24.  Bioimaging of Nucleolin Aptamer-Containing 5-(N-benzylcarboxyamide)-2′-deoxyuridine More Capable of Specific Binding to Targets in Cancer Cells 
Chemically modified nucleotides have been developed and applied into SELEX procedure to find a novel type of aptamers to fit with targets of interest. In this study, we directly performed chemical modification of 5-(N-benzylcarboxyamide)-2′-deoxyuridine (called 5-BzdU) in the AS1411 aptamer, which binds to the nucleolin protein expressed in cancer cells. Forty-seven compounds of AS1411-containing Cy3-labeled 5-BzdU (called Cy3-(5-BzdU)-modified-AS1411) were synthesized by randomly substituting thymidines one to twelve in AS1411 with Cy3-labeled 5-BzdU. Both statistically quantified fluorescence measurements and confocal imaging analysis demonstrated at least three potential compounds of interest: number 12, 29 and 41 that significantly increased the targeting affinity to cancer cells but no significant activity from normal healthy cells. These results suggest that the position and number of substituents in AS1411 are critical parameters to improve the aptamer function. In this study, we demonstrated that chemical modification of the existing aptamers enhanced the binding and targeting affinity to targets of interest without additional SELEX procedures.
doi:10.1155/2010/168306
PMCID: PMC2829770  PMID: 20204158
25.  Spectroscopic Interpretation of PAH-Spectra in Minerals and Its Possible Application to Soil Monitoring 
Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)  2010;10(4):3868-3881.
In order to properly assess the feasibility of using Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy for soil monitoring, the variation of fluorescence intensity due to the heterogeneity and complexity of soil media was investigated. Different soil minerals showed fluorescence spectral structures distinguishable from the contaminants, implying dissimilar interactions or the binding of contaminants on mineral surfaces. More interestingly, solvent and water addition showed different responses in the fluorescence spectral structure showing their effect on the interactions between contaminants and minerals. These results support the claim that the spectral structure contains information on contaminant-mineral interactions; therefore contaminants can be used as a fluorescence probe for these interactions.
doi:10.3390/s100403868
PMCID: PMC3274252  PMID: 22319331
PAH; fluorescence; spectral structure; contaminant-soil interaction

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