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1.  The Prevalence and Therapeutic Effect of Constipation in Pediatric Overactive Bladder 
Purpose
Overactive bladder (OAB) is a manifestation of urgency, regardless of urge incontinence, due to involuntary bladder contraction during the storage period. There is a close association between constipation and OAB, but constipation cannot be readily diagnosed. The aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of constipation in OAB and the consequent therapeutic effects according to the diagnostic criteria for constipation.
Methods
We collected clinical data from 40 children (mean age, 71±22 months) with chief complaints of urgency, frequency, and incontinence. A voiding questionnaire and a 2-day voiding diary were collected, and urinalysis, the Bristol stool scale, and plain abdominal radiography were performed. Constipation was defined as conditions satisfying at least one of the following criteria: Rome III diagnostic criteria, Bristol stool scale types I/II, or a Leech score higher than 8 points as determined by plain radiography. Lower urinary tract symptoms, defecation symptoms, and the bladder volume of patients were examined, and the therapeutic outcomes by constipation diagnostic criteria were evaluated.
Results
Of the 40 OAB patients, 25 had constipation. Among them, 6 had reduced functional bladder capacity (24%; P>0.05). Regarding treatment, in patients who satisfied only one diagnostic criterion, the symptoms improved in 76.9%, 76.9%, and 69.6% of patients meeting the Rome III criteria, Bristol stool scale, and Leech score, respectively (P<0.05). Among the 8 patients satisfying all three criteria, 75% responded to treatment (P<0.05).
Conclusions
The prevalence of constipation in OAB is high. Constipated patients recruited by use of the Rome III criteria, Bristol scale, and Leech score alone and together showed similar outcomes on OAB improvement after the treatment of constipation, which implies that each criterion has the same strength and can be applied comprehensively and generally.
doi:10.5213/inj.2011.15.4.206
PMCID: PMC3256305  PMID: 22259734
Overactive urinary bladder; Pediatrics; Constipation
2.  Endoscopic management of occluded metal biliary stents: Metal versus 10F plastic stents 
AIM: To compare the efficacy of self-expandable metal stents (SEMSs) with 10F plastic stents (PSs) in the endoscopic management of occluded SEMSs.
METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 56 patients who underwent SEMS insertion for palliation of unresectable malignant biliary obstruction between 2000 and 2007 and subsequent endoscopic retrograde biliary drainage (ERBD) with SEMS or PS for initial SEMS occlusion between 2000 and 2008.
RESULTS: Subsequent ERBD with SEMS was performed in 29 patients and with PS in 27. The median time to stent occlusion after subsequent ERBD was 186 d in the SEMS group and 101 d in the PS group (P = 0.118). Overall median stent patency was 79 d for the SEMS group and 66 d for the PS group (P = 0.379). The mean number of additional biliary drainage procedures after subsequent ERBD in patients that died (n = 50) during the study period was 2.54 ± 4.12 for the SEMS group and 1.85 ± 1.95 for the PS group (P = 0.457). The mean total cost of additional biliary drainage procedures after the occlusion of subsequent SEMS or PS was $410.04 ± 692.60 for the SEMS group and $630.16 ± 671.63 for the PS group (P = 0.260). Tumor ingrowth as the cause of initial SEMS occlusion was the only factor associated with a shorter time to subsequent stent occlusion (101 d for patients with tumor ingrowth vs 268 d for patients without tumor ingrowth, P = 0.008).
CONCLUSION: Subsequent ERBD with PSs offered similar patency and number of additional biliary drainage procedures compared to SEMSs in the management of occluded SEMS.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v16.i42.5347
PMCID: PMC2980685  PMID: 21072899
Stents; Biliary tract neoplasms; Obstructive jaundice; Endoscopy; Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography
3.  Combined spinal-epidural anesthesia using a reduced-dose of spinal bupivacaine and epidural top up leads to faster motor recovery after lower extremity surgeries 
Background
The purpose of the present study is to investigate the anesthetic effect of reduced doses of spinal bupivacaine with epidural top ups in comparison with those of spinal bupivacaine and to determine the adequate doses of drugs used during lower extremity surgeries.
Methods
Sixty adult patients were randomized to three different technique groups: S group (10 mg of spinal bupivacaine), SE1 group (7.5 mg of spinal bupivacaine + epidural 1.5% lidocaine 10 ml) or SE2 group (5 mg of spinal bupivacaine + epidural 1.5% lidocaine 10 ml). The level of sensory block, modified Bromage motor scores (MBS), systolic blood pressure and heart rate were recorded for 30 min following anesthesia. Peak sensory block height and MBS, time for sensory regression to L1 and motor recovery to MBS 1, side effects and operator's satisfaction were noted.
Results
The levels of peak sensory block were similar among the groups (P > 0.05). For the SE2 group, the regression to the L1 dermatome was faster (P = 0.004) and the maximum MBS was lower (P = 0.001) than that of the other two groups. Motor block recovery to MBS 1 was faster for the SE1 and SE2 groups than for the S group (P < 0.001). The operator's satisfaction scores of the SE2 group were lower than those of the other two groups (P = 0.019).
Conclusions
During combined spinal-epidural anesthesia, 7.5 mg of spinal bupivacaine and epidural 1.5% lidocaine 10 ml produced faster motor recovery than did 10 mg of spinal bupivacaine in patients undergoing lower extremity surgeries.
doi:10.4097/kjae.2014.66.1.28
PMCID: PMC3926997  PMID: 24567810
Anesthesia; Epidural; Methods; Motor; Sensory; Spinal
4.  Antiemetic efficacy of capsicum plaster on acupuncture points in patients undergoing thyroid operation 
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology  2013;65(6):539-543.
Background
Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) occurs in up to 63-84% of patients after thyroid surgery. This study aims to assess the effects of using a capsicum plaster to reduce PONV after thyroid surgery at either the Chinese acupuncture point (acupoint) Pericardium 6 (P6) or Korean hand acupuncture point K-D2.
Methods
One-hundred eighty-four patients who underwent thyroid surgery were randomized in four groups (n = 46 each): control group = inactive tape at P6 acupoints and on both shoulders as a nonacupoint; P6 group = capsicum plaster at P6 points and inactive tape on both shoulders; K-D2 group = capsicum plaster at K-D2 acupoints and inactive tape on both shoulders; Sham group = capsicum plaster on both shoulders and inactive tape at P6 acupoints. The capsicum plaster was applied before the induction of anesthesia and removed at 8 hr after surgery.
Results
The incidence and severity of nausea and vomiting and the need for rescue antiemetics were decreased in the patients in the P6 and K-D2 groups compared to the patients in the control and sham groups (P < 0.001). The patients in the P6 and K-D2 groups also reported that they were more satisfied (P < 0.05).
Conclusions
We conclude that the capsicum plaster at the P6 and K-D2 acupoint was a promising antiemetic method for the patients undergoing thyroid surgery.
doi:10.4097/kjae.2013.65.6.539
PMCID: PMC3888847  PMID: 24427460
Acupuncture; Capsaicin; Nausea and vomiting; Thyroid surgery
7.  An Investigation of Vocal Tract Characteristics for Acoustic Discrimination of Pathological Voices 
BioMed Research International  2013;2013:758731.
This paper investigates the effectiveness of measures related to vocal tract characteristics in classifying normal and pathological speech. Unlike conventional approaches that mainly focus on features related to the vocal source, vocal tract characteristics are examined to determine if interaction effects between vocal folds and the vocal tract can be used to detect pathological speech. Especially, this paper examines features related to formant frequencies to see if vocal tract characteristics are affected by the nature of the vocal fold-related pathology. To test this hypothesis, stationary fragments of vowel /aa/ produced by 223 normal subjects, 472 vocal fold polyp subjects, and 195 unilateral vocal cord paralysis subjects are analyzed. Based on the acoustic-articulatory relationships, phonation for pathological subjects is found to be associated with measures correlated with a raised tongue body or an advanced tongue root. Vocal tract-related features are also found to be statistically significant from the Kruskal-Wallis test in distinguishing normal and pathological speech. Classification results demonstrate that combining the formant measurements with vocal fold-related features results in improved performance in differentiating vocal pathologies including vocal polyps and unilateral vocal cord paralysis, which suggests that measures related to vocal tract characteristics may provide additional information in diagnosing vocal disorders.
doi:10.1155/2013/758731
PMCID: PMC3832970  PMID: 24288686
8.  Effects of administration of IH901, a ginsenoside intestinal metabolite, on muscular and pulmonary antioxidant functions after eccentric exercise 
Journal of Veterinary Science  2013;14(3):249-256.
This study was conducted to investigate whether administration of IH901, a ginseng intestinal metabolite, ameliorates exercise-induced oxidative stress while preserving antioxidant defense capability in rat skeletal muscles and lung. Eight adult male Sprague-Dawley rats per group were randomly assigned to the resting control, exercise control, resting with IH901 (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg) consumption (R/IH901), or exercise with IH901 (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg) consumption (E/IH901) group. The trained groups ran 35 min 2 days/week for 8 weeks. To analyze the IH901-training interaction, serum biochemical analysis, lipid peroxidation, citrate synthase, protein oxidation, antioxidant and superoxide dismutase in skeletal muscles and lung tissue were measured. Compared to the exercise control group, animals that consumed IH901 had significantly increased exercise endurance times (p < 0.05) and decreased plasma creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase levels (p < 0.05), while those in the E/IH901 groups had increased citrate synthase and anti-oxidant enzymes and decreased lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation (p < 0.05). In conclusion, IH901 consumption in aging rats after eccentric exercise has beneficial effects on anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities through down-regulation of pro-inflammatory mediators, lipid peroxidation, and protein oxidation and up-regulation of anti-oxidant enzymes.
doi:10.4142/jvs.2013.14.3.249
PMCID: PMC3788149  PMID: 23820200
anti-oxidant activity; eccentric exercise; IH901; lipid peroxidation; rat
9.  Association of Sleep Dysfunction and Emotional Status With Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in Korea 
Background/Aims
Sleep disturbances and emotional dysfunction are commonly associated with gastroeophageal reflux disease (GERD). The aims of this study were to evaluate GERD symptoms and disturbance in erosive reflux disease (ERD) and nonerosive reflux disease (NERD) patients, and to compare sleep dysfunction, depressive mood, anxiety and quality of life (QOL) among the control, ERD and NERD patients in Korea.
Methods
The Korean subjects were enrolled between 2010 and 2012, classified into 3 groups; the control group with no symptom and normal endoscopic findings, the ERD group with erosive esophagitis and the NERD group with more than one episode of heartburn or acid regurgitation per week, positive response to proton pump inhibitor, and normal endoscopic findings. Questionnaire included GERD symptoms, GERD impact scale (GIS) and daytime pathological sleepiness (Epworth sleepiness scale), sleep dysfunction (Pittsburgh sleep quality index, PSQI), depression and anxiety (Hospital anxiety and depression scale, HADS) and QOL (WHO quality of life scale abbreviated version, WHOQOL-BREF).
Results
A total of 217 subjects were enrolled as follows; control (n = 70), ERD (n = 70) and NERD (n = 77). Impact of symptom of GIS score was higher in the NERD (9.2 ± 0.4) than in the ERD (6.5 ± 0.3) group (P < 0.001). Sleep dysfunctions were more frequent in GERD than the control group (PSQI score [P = 0.021]). Anxiety subscale of HAD score was higher in NERD (7.0 ± 0.5, P = 0.002) and ERD (6.2 ± 0.7, P = 0.004) groups than control (4.3 ± 0.7) group. WHOQOL-BREF scores in NERD (54.9 ± 2.3) and ERD (57.8 ± 2.4) groups were significantly lower than those in the control group (63.8 ± 2.4) (P = 0.002; P = 0.014, respectively).
Conclusions
The patients with NERD than ERD suffered more from the symptoms and disturbance in Korea. Sleep dysfunction and anxiety mood were higher and QOL was decreased in GERD, especially in NERD, suggesting that those factors might affect the severity of NERD.
doi:10.5056/jnm.2013.19.3.344
PMCID: PMC3714413  PMID: 23875102
Emotions; Gastroesophageal reflux; Quality of life; Sleep
10.  Preventive Effects of Lactobacillus Mixture on Experimental E. coli Urinary Tract Infection in Infant Rats 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2013;54(2):489-493.
Purpose
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is an ascending infection of fecal uropathogens, urogenital lactobacilli are suggested to play a role in the prevention of UTI. This study was to investigate whether lactobacillus mixture (LM) could prevent the experimental infantile UTI.
Materials and Methods
The LM were composed of three lactobacillus strains (L. gasseri, L. rhamnosus, and L. reuteri). Mother rats were grouped as lactobacillus (LB) group I (LB I, n=22), II (LB II, n=24) and control (n=20). LB I and LB II were fed with LM (1 mL/day) and control with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) from late pregnancy through lactation. All newborn rats were breast-fed and their urine and stool were collected at the end of the 3rd week to compare lactobacillus colony. Then, infant rats from LB II were treated with intravesical instillation of LM. Infant rats from LB I and control were instilled with PBS. Twenty-four hours later, experimental UTI was introduced by intravesical instillation of standard E. coli strain. After 72 hours later, the infant rats were sacrificed for histologic examination.
Results
Lactobacilli colonies in urine and stool were not statistically different among the three groups. The incidence of pyelonephritis in the LB II was 16.7% (4/24), LB I 72.7% (16.22) and control 75.0% (15/20) (p=0.015). The incidence of cystitis was not significantly different among the three groups.
Conclusion
The intravesically instilled LM significantly prevented experimental pyelonephritis in infant rats, however, LM administered orally to the pregnant and lactating mother rats did not.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2013.54.2.489
PMCID: PMC3575986  PMID: 23364986
Lactobacillus; intravesical instillation; cystitis; pyelonephritis
11.  Parent and Physician Perspectives on the Treatment of Primary Nocturnal Enuresis in Korea 
Korean Journal of Urology  2013;54(2):127-134.
Purpose
Parental decisions about the treatment of nocturnal enuresis (NE) are generally based on silent agreement with a physician's recommendation. However, physicians may have an insufficient understanding about parents' concerns and expectations regarding treatment. The aim of this study was to clarify the discrepancies between the perceptions of parents and physicians and to better understand the attitudes related to NE treatment.
Materials and Methods
A survey was conducted in six centers and included 105 parents and 102 physicians. Two questionnaires, one for parents and another for physicians, were prepared. Each contained items on demographic characteristics, concerns, and NE treatment preferences. The parents completed the questionnaire during their child's first clinical visit, and the physicians completed the questionnaire via e-mail or individual interviews.
Results
Low self-esteem was the most common concern among both parents and physicians. Parents showed a more serious concern regarding disease progression and sequelae than did physicians. In the parent group, parents of younger children were mainly concerned about growth, whereas parents of children with daytime symptoms were mainly concerned about disease progression and relationships. Treatment outcome preferences differed significantly between the two groups. Physicians preferred treatments yielding immediate results, whereas parents preferred long-term treatments that would result in low recurrence.
Conclusions
This survey presents the differences between parents and physicians regarding NE concerns and therapeutic preferences. Our study may provide valuable insight for physicians regarding parental attitudes toward NE treatment.
doi:10.4111/kju.2013.54.2.127
PMCID: PMC3580303  PMID: 23550223
Attitudes; Health knowledge, Nocturnal enuresis; Practice
12.  In vitro antioxidant properties of a ginseng intestinal metabolite IH-901 
Laboratory Animal Research  2011;27(3):227-234.
IH-901 (20-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-20(S)-protopanaxadiol or compound K) is a final intestinal bacterial metabolite of ginseng in humans. It has various pharmacologic effects such as antiaging, immunopotentiation, antistress, and antimetastatic activities. We analyzed the antioxidant activities of IH-901 using several assays including: total antioxidant activity, reductive potential, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl, hydroxyl, superoxide and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assays, a nitric oxide scavenging assay and a lipid peroxidation assay. At concentrations of 25 and 100 µg/mL, IH-901 inhibited lipid peroxidation of a linoleic acid emulsion with a potency comparable to ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxyanisole. The reductive potential of IH-901 increased in a concentration-dependent manner. IH-901 exhibited strong DPPH, hydroxyl, superoxide and ABTS radical scavenging activities. IH-901 was also an effective inhibitor of lipid peroxidation, although IH-901 had only a mild scavenging activity against nitric oxide. These results suggest that IH-901 may be a useful antioxidant agent against reactive oxygen species.
doi:10.5625/lar.2011.27.3.227
PMCID: PMC3188730  PMID: 21998612
IH-901; ginseng intestinal metabolite; antioxidant activity
13.  Curing efficiency of various resin-based materials polymerized through different ceramic thicknesses and curing time 
PURPOSE
The aim of this in vitro study was to examine the curing efficiency of various resin-based materials polymerized through ceramic restorations with 3 different thicknesses. Curing efficiency was evaluated by determining the surface microhardness (VHN) of the resin specimens.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Four kinds of resin materials were used. Z350 (3M ESPE Filtek™ Z350: A2 Shade), Z250 (3M ESPE Filtek™ Z250: A2 Shade) and Variolink® II (VL: Ivoclar vivadent, base: transparent) either with or without a self-curing catalyst (VLC: Ivoclar vivadent, catalyst: low viscosity/transparent) were filled into the silicone mold (10 mm diameter, 1 mm thick). They were cured through ceramic discs (IPS e.max Press MO-0 ingot ivoclar vivadent, 10 mm diameter, 0.5, 1 and 2 mm thicknesses) by LED light-curing units for 20 and 40 seconds. Vicker's microhardness numbers (VHNs) were measured on the bottom surfaces by a microhardness tester. Data were analyzed using a 3- way analysis of variance (ANOVA) at a significance level of 0.05.
RESULTS
The thickness of ceramic disc increased, the VHNs of all four resin types were decreased (P<.05). The mean VHN values of the resins light cured for 40 seconds were significantly higher than that of LED for 20 seconds in all four resin materials (P<.05). VLC showed significantly higher VHN values than VL regardless of other conditions (P<.05). Z350 and Z250 showed higher values than VL or VLC (P<.01).
CONCLUSION
Thinner ceramic disc with increased curing time resulted higher VHN values of all resin materials. The use of a catalyst produced a greater hardness with all polymerization methods. Restorative resin materials (Z350, Z250) showed higher VHN values than resin cement materials (VL, VLC).
doi:10.4047/jap.2011.3.3.126
PMCID: PMC3204447  PMID: 22053242
Dental ceramic; VHN; Resin-based material; Light curing
14.  Epidural Fluid Collection after Cranioplasty : Fate and Predictive Factors 
Objective
Infection and bone resorption are major complications of cranioplasty and have been well recognized. However, there are few clinical series describing the epidural fluid collection (EFC) as complication of cranioplasty. This study was planned to identify the predictive factors and fate of EFC after cranioplasty.
Methods
We reviewed retrospectively the demographic, clinical, and radiographic data in 59 patients who underwent a first cranioplsty following decompressive craniectomy during a period of 6 years, from January 2004 to December 2009. We compared demographic, clinical, and radiographic factors between EFC group and no EFC group. The predictive factors associated with the development of EFC were assessed by logistic regression analysis.
Results
Overall, 22 of 59 patients (37.3%) suffered from EFC following cranioplasty. EFC had disappeared (n=6, 31.8%) or regressed (n=6, 31.8%) over time on follow up brain computed tomographic (CT) scans. However, 5 patients (22.7%) required reoperation due to symptomatic and persistent EFC. Predictive factors for EFC were male [odds ratio (OR), 5.48; 95% CI, 1.26-23.79], air bubbles in the epidural space (OR, 12.52; 95% CI, 2.26-69.28), and dural calcification on postoperative brain CT scan (OR, 4.21; 95% CI, 1.12-15.84).
Conclusion
The most of EFCs could be treated by conservative therapy. Air bubble in the epidural space and dural calcification are proposed to be the predictive factors in the formation of EFC after cranioplasty.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.50.3.231
PMCID: PMC3218183  PMID: 22102954
Cranioplasty; Epidural fluid collection
15.  The Runt-related transcription factor RUNX3 is a target of MDM2-mediated ubiquitination 
Cancer research  2009;69(20):8111-8119.
The p14ARF-MDM2-p53 pathway constitutes an effective mechanism for protecting cells from oncogenic stimuli like activated Ras and Myc. Importantly, Ras activation induces p14ARF and often occurs earlier than p53 inactivation during cancer development. Here we show that RUNX3, a tumor suppressor in various tumors including stomach, bladder, colon and lung, is stabilized by Ras activation through the p14ARF-MDM2 signaling pathway. RUNX3 directly binds MDM2 through its Runt-related DNA binding domain. MDM2 blocks RUNX3 transcriptional activity by interacting with RUNX3 through an acidic domain adjacent to the p53 binding domain of MDM2, and ubiquitinates RUNX3 on key lysine residues to mediate nuclear export and proteasomal degradation. Our data indicate that the lineage-specific tumor suppressor RUNX3 and the ubiquitous p53 protein are both principal responders of the p14ARF-MDM2 cell surveillance pathway that prevents pathological consequences of abnormal oncogene activation.
doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-09-1057
PMCID: PMC3059505  PMID: 19808967
RUNX3; Ras; p14ARF; MDM2; ubiquitination
16.  Fibrous Dysplasia with Aneurysmal Bone Cyst Presenting as Painful Solitary Skull lesion 
We report a rare case of fibrous dysplasia with the development of a secondary aneurysmal bone cyst presenting as solitary tumor of calvarium. Although fibrous dysplasia with aneurysmal bone cyst is rare, it should be taken into account in differential diagnosis of the osteolytic solitary skull lesion.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2010.48.6.551
PMCID: PMC3053555  PMID: 21430987
Aneurysmal bone cyst; Fibrous dysplasia; Skull
17.  Change in Expression of Survivin Caused by Using Oxaliplatin in HCT116 Colon Cancer Cells 
Purpose
Oxaliplatin is a third-generation platinum compound, and it has no nephrotoxicity and has reduced bone marrow toxicity. Cancer cells that are resistant to cisplatin are sensitive to oxaliplatin. Oxaliplatin is used widely for the treatment of colon cancers. Recently, oxaliplatin was reported to inhibit the expression of survivin, which protects cell apoptosis. However, there are no reports on the expressions of survivin variants and the changes in intracellular localization of survivin in cancer cells. We studied the expression of survivin caused by oxaliplatin in HCT116 colon cancer cells, and we observed the localization of survivin in the mitotic phase.
Methods
We treated the HCT116 colon cancer cells with 2.0 µM of oxaliplatin, and we studied the expressions of survivin protein, and survivin mRNA variants, as well as the changes in intracellular localization, by using the Western blot method, RT-PCR, immunocytochemistry, and flowcytometry.
Results
Oxaliplatin inhibits the expression of the survivin protein and survivin mRNA in HCT116 colon cancer cells. The expression of the survivin-2B variants, which have no antiapoptotic activity but control cell mitosis by localization on a microtubule, is reduced continuously 2 days after treatment with oxaliplatin. In immunocytochemistry, expression of survivin in the cytoplasm is reduced and especially is not expressed in microtubules and contractile rings.
Conclusion
One of the mechanisms of oxaliplatin is to inhibit the expression of and to change the localization of survivin. Based on these results, we suggest that changes in the expression of survivin variants and in their localization are two effects of oxaliplatin.
doi:10.3393/jksc.2010.26.4.246
PMCID: PMC2998014  PMID: 21152225
Oxaliplatin; Survivin; Colorectal cancer; Mitosis; Microtubule

Results 1-17 (17)