DiGeorge syndrome is associated with a chromosome 22q11.2 deletion and manifests with variable clinical findings. Aspiration pneumonia can be a perioperative complication of great concern in this syndrome. In this report, we present a case of a 16-month old child with DiGeorge syndrome undergoing cranioplasty. He developed perioperative aspiration pneumonia but was managed successfully.
Aspiration pneumonia; DiGeorge syndrome
Zoster sine herpete (ZSH) is difficult to diagnosis during an acute period due to the absence of the characteristic zosteriform dermatomal rash; therefore, progression to postherpetic neuralgia is more common than typical zoster. In addition, misdiagnosis of other neuropathic pain as ZSH is common in clinical situations. Here, we report a case of spinal arteriovenous malformation that mimics ZSH. This is a rare condition; therefore, high clinical suspicion for a correct diagnosis and proper examination are not easy. However, early diagnosis and definitive treatment are essential to prevent neurologic deficit and mortality.
arteriovenous malformation; herpes zoster; postherpetic neuralgia; zoster sine herpete
Although approximately 20 common genetic susceptibility loci have been identified for breast cancer risk through genome-wide association studies (GWASs), genetic risk variants reported to date explain only a small fraction of heritability for this common cancer. We conducted a four-stage GWAS including 17 153 cases and 16 943 controls among East-Asian women to search for new genetic risk factors for breast cancer. After analyzing 684 457 SNPs in 2062 cases and 2066 controls (Stage I), we selected for replication among 5969 Chinese women (4146 cases and 1823 controls) the top 49 SNPs that had neither been reported previously nor were in strong linkage disequilibrium with reported SNPs (Stage II). Three SNPs were further evaluated in up to 13 152 Chinese and Japanese women (6436 cases and 6716 controls) (Stage III). Finally, two SNPs were evaluated in 10 847 Korean women (4509 cases and 6338 controls) (Stage IV). SNP rs10822013 on chromosome 10q21.2, located in the zinc finger protein 365 (ZNF365) gene, showed a consistent association with breast cancer risk in all four stages with a combined per-risk allele odds ratio of 1.10 (95% CI: 1.07–1.14) (P-value for trend = 5.87 × 10−9). In vitro electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated the potential functional significance of rs10822013. Our results strongly implicate rs10822013 at 10q21.2 as a genetic risk variant for breast cancer among East-Asian women.
All positive strand RNA viruses are known to replicate their genomes in close association with intracellular membranes. In case of the hepatitis C virus (HCV), a member of the family Flaviviridae, infected cells contain accumulations of vesicles forming a membranous web (MW) that is thought to be the site of viral RNA replication. However, little is known about the biogenesis and three-dimensional structure of the MW. In this study we used a combination of immunofluorescence- and electron microscopy (EM)-based methods to analyze the membranous structures induced by HCV in infected cells. We found that the MW is derived primarily from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and contains markers of rough ER as well as markers of early and late endosomes, COP vesicles, mitochondria and lipid droplets (LDs). The main constituents of the MW are single and double membrane vesicles (DMVs). The latter predominate and the kinetic of their appearance correlates with kinetics of viral RNA replication. DMVs are induced primarily by NS5A whereas NS4B induces single membrane vesicles arguing that MW formation requires the concerted action of several HCV replicase proteins. Three-dimensional reconstructions identify DMVs as protrusions from the ER membrane into the cytosol, frequently connected to the ER membrane via a neck-like structure. In addition, late in infection multi-membrane vesicles become evident, presumably as a result of a stress-induced reaction. Thus, the morphology of the membranous rearrangements induced in HCV-infected cells resemble those of the unrelated picorna-, corona- and arteriviruses, but are clearly distinct from those of the closely related flaviviruses. These results reveal unexpected similarities between HCV and distantly related positive-strand RNA viruses presumably reflecting similarities in cellular pathways exploited by these viruses to establish their membranous replication factories.
All positive-strand RNA viruses replicate in the cytoplasm in distinct membranous compartments acting as ‘replication factories’. Membranes building up these factories are recruited from different sources and serve as platforms for the assembly of multi-subunit protein complexes (the ‘replicase’) that catalyze the amplification of the viral RNA genome. In this study we found that hepatitis C virus (HCV), a major causative agent of chronic liver disease, induces profound remodeling of primarily endoplasmic reticulum-derived membranes. Surprisingly, the 3D architecture of these membrane rearrangements is similar to those induced by the unrelated picorna- and coronaviruses, but in striking contrast to the closely related flaviviruses. Early in infection HCV induces double membrane vesicles (DMVs) that emerge as protrusions of the ER; later on, HCV induces in addition multi-membrane vesicles that are probably the result of a cellular stress reaction and that are reminiscent to an autophagic response. These profound membrane rearrangements are induced by the concerted action of HCV-encoded nonstructural proteins of which NS5A is the only one capable to induce DMVs. These results provide important insights into the 3D architecture of the membrane alterations induced by HCV and reveal unexpected similarities between HCV and the very distantly related picorna- and coronaviruses.
A substantial proportion of patients with lamivudine-resistant hepatitis B virus (HBV) show suboptimal virologic response during rescue combination treatment with lamivudine plus adefovir. In this randomized active-control trial, 90 patients with serum HBV DNA levels of >2,000 IU/ml after at least 24 weeks of treatment with lamivudine-plus-adefovir therapy for lamivudine-resistant HBV were randomized to combination treatment with entecavir plus adefovir (ETV+ADV, n = 45) or continuation of lamivudine plus adefovir (LAM+ADV, n = 45) for 52 weeks. At baseline, patients' mean serum HBV DNA level was 4.60 log10 IU/ml (standard deviation [SD], 1.03). All 90 patients completed 52 weeks of treatment. At week 52, the proportion of patients with serum HBV DNA levels of <60 IU/ml, the primary endpoint, was significantly higher in the ETV+ADV group than in the LAM+ADV group (n = 13, 29%, versus n = 2, 4%, respectively; P = 0.004). The mean reduction in serum HBV DNA levels from baseline was significantly greater in the ETV+ADV group than in the LAM+ADV group (−2.2 log10 IU/ml versus −0.6 log10 IU/ml, respectively; P < 0.001). At week 52, additional mutations causing resistance to adefovir or entecavir were analyzed in all patients with detectable HBV DNA by restriction fragment mass polymorphism assays and detected in none of the ETV+ADV group but in 15% of patients in the LAM+ADV group (P = 0.018). Safety and adverse event profiles were similar in the two groups. In conclusion, entecavir-plus-adefovir combination therapy provides superior virologic response and favorable resistance profiles, compared with the continuing lamivudine-plus-adefovir combination, in patients with lamivudine-resistant HBV who fail to respond to lamivudine-plus-adefovir combination therapy.
To investigate the effects of hippotherapy for adult patients with brain disorders.
Eight chronic brain disorder patients (7 males, mean age 42.4±16.6 years) were recruited. The mean duration from injury was 7.9±7.7 years. The diagnoses were stroke (n=5), traumatic brain disorder (n=2), and cerebral palsy (n=1). Hippotherapy sessions were conducted twice a week for eight consecutive weeks in an indoor riding arena. Each hippotherapy session lasted 30 minutes. All participants were evaluated by the Berg balance scale, Tinetti Performance-Oriented Mobility Assessment, 10 Meter Walking Test, Functional Ambulatory Category, Korean Beck Depression Inventory, and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. We performed baseline assessments twice just before starting hippotherapy. We also assessed the participants immediately after hippotherapy and at eight weeks after hippotherapy.
All participants showed no difference in balance, gait function, and emotion between the two baseline assessments before hippotherapy. During the eight-week hippotherapy program, all participants showed neither adverse effects nor any accidents; all had good compliance. After hippotherapy, there were significant improvements in balance and gait speed in comparison with the baseline assessment (p<0.05), and these effects were sustained for two months after hippotherapy. However, there was no significant difference in emotion after hippotherapy.
We could observe hippotherapy to be a safe and effective alternative therapy for adult patients with brain disorders in improving balance and gait function. Further future studies are warranted to delineate the benefits of hippotherapy on chronic stroke patients.
Brain disorder; Hippotherapy; Balance; Gait
The tuber of Liriope platyphylla Wang et Tang (Liliaceae), also known as Liriopis tuber, is famous in Oriental medicine owing to its tonic, antitussive, expectorant and anti-asthmatic properties. In the present study, the effects of Liriopis tuber water extract (LP) on proinflammatory mediators secreted from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cultured RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages were investigated. Nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and intracellular calcium release were measured after 24 h incubation. Various cytokines and nuclear transcription factors (NF-κB and CREB) of LPS-induced RAW 264.7 were measured by a multiplex bead array assay based on xMAP technology. LP (up to 200 μg/mL) significantly decreased levels of nitric oxide (NO), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, IL-12p40, interferon-inducible protein-10, keratinocyte-derived chemokine, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, vascular endothelial growth factor, granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor, platelet derived growth factor, PGE2, intracellular calcium, NF-κB and CREB in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells (p < 0.05). The results suggest that LP has immunomodulatory activity to reduce excessive immune reactions during the activation of macrophages by LPS. Further studies are needed to verify the precise mechanism regulating immunomodulatory activities of LP.
Liriope platyphylla; immunomodulatory; macrophage; cytokine; nitric oxide; transcription factor
Hypoxic microenvironment plays an important role in determining stem cell fates. However, it is controversial to which direction between self-renewal and differentiation the hypoxia drives the stem cells. Here, we investigated whether a short exposure to hypoxia (termed ‘hypoxic-priming’) efficiently directed and promoted mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) to differentiate into vascular-lineage. During spontaneous differentiation of embryoid bodies (EBs), hypoxic region was observed inside EB spheroids even under normoxic conditions. Indeed, hypoxia-primed EBs more efficiently differentiated into cells of vascular-lineage, than normoxic EBs did. We found that hypoxia suppressed Oct4 expression via direct binding of HIF-1 to reverse hypoxia-responsive elements (rHREs) in the Oct4 promoter. Furthermore, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was highly upregulated in hypoxia-primed EBs, which differentiated towards endothelial cells in the absence of exogenous VEGF. Interestingly, this differentiation was abolished by the HIF-1 or VEGF blocking. In vivo transplantation of hypoxia-primed EBs into mice ischemic limb elicited enhanced vessel differentiation. Collectively, our findings identify that hypoxia enhanced ESC differentiation by HIF-1-mediated inverse regulation of Oct4 and VEGF, which is a novel pathway to promote vascular-lineage differentiation.
embryoid bodies; endothelial cells; mesoderm differentiation; mouse embryonic stem cells; niche
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of balsamic vinegar on β-cell dysfunction.
In this study, 28-week-old Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats were fed a normal chow diet or a high-fat diet (HFD) and were provided with tap water or dilute balsamic vinegar for 4 weeks. Oral glucose tolerance tests and histopathological analyses were performed thereafter.
In rats fed both the both chow diet and the HFD, the rats given balsamic vinegar showed increased insulin staining in islets compared with tap water administered rats. Balsamic vinegar administration also increased β-cell ATP-binding cassette transporter subfamily A member 1 (ABCA1) expression in islets and decreased cholesterol levels.
These findings provide the first evidence for an anti-diabetic effect of balsamic vinegar through improvement of β-cell function via increasing β-cell ABCA1 expression.
Balsamic vinegar; Islets; Insulin; ABCA1; Diet, high-fat
We evaluated the role of Tat-mediated p66shc transduction on the activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in cultured mouse endothelial cells. To construct the Tat-p66shc fusion protein, human full length p66shc cDNA was fused with the Tat-protein transduction domain. Transduction of TAT-p66shc showed a concentration- and time-dependent manner in endothelial cells. Tat-mediated p66shc transduction showed increased hydrogen peroxide and superoxide production, compared with Tat-p66shc (S/A), serine 36 residue mutant of p66shc. Tat-mediated p66shc transduction decreased endothelial nitric oxide synthase phosphorylation in endothelial cells. Furthermore, Tat-mediated p66shc transduction augmented TNF-α-induced p38 MAPK phosphorylation in endothelial cells. These results suggest that Tat-mediated p66shc transduction efficiently inhibited endothelial nitric oxide synthase phosphorylation in endothelial cells.
p66shc; Tat-mediated transduction; Endothelial nitric oxide synthase; Superoxide; Endothelial cells
The aim of this study was to examine whether serum homocysteine (Hcy) levels correlated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) depending on the presence or absence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Korean men. We conducted a case-control study, including 138 CVD and 290 non-CVD age-matched control subjects. The subjects were divided into four subgroups: 34 CVD/MetS, 104 CVD, 77 MetS, and 213 normal subgroups. The mean Hcy was significantly higher, whereas HDL and intake of vitamin B1 and B2 were lower in the CVD group (P < 0.05) than non-CVD group. When compared to the control group, subjects with CVD/MetS, CVD and MetS exhibited high Hcy levels, with the highest observed in the CVD/MetS subgroup (P < 0.001). Multivariate stepwise linear regression between CVD and markers of CVD showed Hcy significantly correlated with CVD (P < 0.05). To predict CVD based on Hcy, Hcy threshold of 11.72 µM in non-MetS subjects had an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.664 (95% CI 0.598-0.731). In MetS subjects, the AUC was 0.618 and Hcy threshold was 13.32 µM (95% CI 0.509-0.726). The results of our study show that the presence of MetS needs to be considered when using Hcy levels for predicting CVD.
Homocysteine; Cardiovascular Diseases; Metabolic Syndrome; Cut-off Points
Although approximately 25 common genetic susceptibility loci have been identified to be independently associated with breast cancer risk through genome-wide association studies (GWAS), the genetic risk variants reported to date only explain a small fraction of the heritability of breast cancer. Furthermore, GWAS-identified loci were primarily identified in women of European descent.
To evaluate previously identified loci in Korean women and to identify additional novel breast cancer susceptibility variants, we conducted a three-stage GWAS that included 6,322 cases and 5,897 controls.
In the validation study using Stage I of the 2,273 cases and 2,052 controls, seven GWAS-identified loci [5q11.2/MAP3K1 (rs889312 and rs16886165), 5p15.2/ROPN1L (rs1092913), 5q12/MRPS30 (rs7716600), 6q25.1/ESR1 (rs2046210 and rs3734802), 8q24.21 (rs1562430), 10q26.13/FGFR2 (rs10736303), and 16q12.1/TOX3 (rs4784227 and rs3803662)] were significantly associated with breast cancer risk in Korean women (Ptrend < 0.05). To identify additional genetic risk variants, we selected the most promising 17 SNPs in Stage I and replicated these SNPs in 2,052 cases and 2,169 controls (Stage II). Four SNPs were further evaluated in 1,997 cases and 1,676 controls (Stage III). SNP rs13393577 at chromosome 2q34, located in the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 4 (ERBB4) gene, showed a consistent association with breast cancer risk with combined odds ratios (95% CI) of 1.53 (1.37-1.70) (combined P for trend = 8.8 × 10-14).
This study shows that seven breast cancer susceptibility loci, which were previously identified in European and/or Chinese populations, could be directly replicated in Korean women. Furthermore, this study provides strong evidence implicating rs13393577 at 2q34 as a new risk variant for breast cancer.
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is the movement of genetic material between kingdoms and is considered to play a positive role in adaptation. Cryptosporidium parvum is a parasitic protozoan that causes an infectious disease. Its genome sequencing reported 14 bacteria-like proteins in the nuclear genome. Among them, cgd2_1810, which has been annotated as CysQ, a sulfite synthesis pathway protein, is listed as one of the candidates of genes horizontally transferred from bacterial origin. In this report, we examined this issue using phylogenetic analysis. Our BLAST search showed that C. parvum CysQ protein had the highest similarity with that of proteobacteria. Analysis with NCBI's Conserved Domain Tree showed phylogenetic incongruence, in that C. parvum CysQ protein was located within a branch of proteobacteria in the cd01638 domain, a bacterial member of the inositol monophosphatase family. According to Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway, the sulfate assimilation pathway, where CysQ plays an important role, is well conserved in most eukaryotes as well as prokaryotes. However, the Apicomplexa, including C. parvum, largely lack orthologous genes of the pathway, suggesting its loss in those protozoan lineages. Therefore, we conclude that C. parvum regained cysQ from proteobacteria by HGT, although its functional role is elusive.
conserved domain; Cryptosporidium parvum; CysQ; horizontal gene transfer; phylogenetic tree; sulfur assimilation
Therapeutic bronchoscopy is widely employed as an effective first-line treatment for patients with central airway obstructions. Airway fires during rigid bronchoscopy are rare, but can have potentially devastating consequences. Pulmonologist and anesthesiologist undertaking this type of procedure should be aware of this serious problem and be familiar with measures to avoid this possibly fatal complication. We report the case of a 24-year-old patient with a silicone stent who experienced an electrocautery-induced airway fire during rigid bronchoscopy.
Airway fire; Electrocautery; Rigid bronchoscopy; Silicone stent
Current Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) are performed in a single trait framework without considering genetic correlations between important disease traits. Hence, the GWAS have limitations in discovering genetic risk factors affecting pleiotropic effects.
This work reports a novel data mining approach to discover patterns of multiple phenotypic associations over 52 anthropometric and biochemical traits in KARE and a new analytical scheme for GWAS of multivariate phenotypes defined by the discovered patterns. This methodology applied to the GWAS for multivariate phenotype highLDLhighTG derived from the predicted patterns of the phenotypic associations. The patterns of the phenotypic associations were informative to draw relations between plasma lipid levels with bone mineral density and a cluster of common traits (Obesity, hypertension, insulin resistance) related to Metabolic Syndrome (MS). A total of 15 SNPs in six genes (PAK7, C20orf103, NRIP1, BCL2, TRPM3, and NAV1) were identified for significant associations with highLDLhighTG. Noteworthy findings were that the significant associations included a mis-sense mutation (PAK7:R335P), a frame shift mutation (C20orf103) and SNPs in splicing sites (TRPM3).
The six genes corresponded to rat and mouse quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that had shown associations with the common traits such as the well characterized MS and even tumor susceptibility. Our findings suggest that the six genes may play important roles in the pleiotropic effects on lipid metabolism and the MS, which increase the risk of Type 2 Diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The use of the multivariate phenotypes can be advantageous in identifying genetic risk factors, accounting for the pleiotropic effects when the multivariate phenotypes have a common etiological pathway.
To identify specific genetic pathways showing altered expression in peripheral blood of depressed subjects with bipolar disorder (BPD).
Illumina Sentrix BeadChip (Human-6v2)microarrays containing > 48,000 transcript probes were used to measure levels of gene expression in peripheral blood from 20 depressed subjects with BPD and in 15 healthy control subjects. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to confirm a subset of these differences.
A total of 1,180 genes were differentially expressed between subjects with BPD and healthy controls (fold-change > 1.3, false discovery rate-corrected p < 0.05, covaried for age and sex). Of these, 559 genes were up-regulated in BPD subjects and 621 were down-regulated. Surprisingly, there was no difference between medicated (n =11) and unmedicated (n =9) subjects with BPD for any of these genes. Pathway analysis using GeneGo MetaCore software showed that the most significantly affected pathway was the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC). Of the 85 objects (genes or proteins) in this pathway, 22 were up-regulated and 2 down-regulated in subjects with BPD. qRT-PCR confirmed up-regulation of nuclear encoded ETC genes in complexes I, III, IV, and V and, in addition, demonstrated up-regulation of mitochondrially encoded genes in each of these complexes.
These results suggest that increased expression of multiple components of the mitochondrial ETC may be a primary deficit in bipolar depression, rather than an effect of medication.
bipolar disorder; gene expression; microarray; mitochondria; oxidative phosphorylation; qRT-PCR
Erectile dysfunction (ED) remains a major complication from cavernous nerve injury during radical prostatectomy. Recently, stem cell treatment for ED has been widely reported. This study was conducted to investigate the availability, differentiation into functional cells, and potential of human muscle-derived stem cells (hMDSCs) and human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) for ED treatment.
Materials and Methods
We compared the neural differentiation of hMDSCs and hADSCs. Human muscle and adipose tissues were digested with collagenase, followed by filtering and centrifugation. For neural induction, isolated hMDSCs and hADSCs were incubated in neurobasal media containing forskolin, laminin, basic-fibroblast growth factor, and epidermal growth factor for 5 days. Following neural induction, hMDSCs and hADSCs were differentiated into neural cells, including neurons and glia, in vitro.
In neural differentiated hMDSCs (d-hMDSCs) and differentiated hADSCs (d-hADSCs), neural stem cell marker (nestin) showed a significant decrease by immunocytochemistry, and neuronal marker (β-tubulin III) and glial marker (GFAP) showed a significant increase, compared with primary hMDSCs and hADSCs. Real-time chain reaction analysis and Western blotting demonstrated significantly elevated levels of mRNA and protein of β-tubulin III and GFAP in d-hADSCs compared with d-hMDSCs.
We demonstrated that hMDSCs and hADSCs can be induced to undergo phenotypic and molecular changes consistent with neurons. The neural differentiation capacity of hADSCs was better than that of hMDSCs.
Adipose tissue; Cell differentiation; Muscles; Neurons; Stem cells
To investigate the effect of alendronate on the expression of Id genes in osteoblast differentiation.
C2C12 cells were treated with alendronate for various concentrations and time periods. For evaluation of alendronate-induced osteoblast differentiation in C2C12 cells, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was measured. The expression of osteoblast differentiation markers such as ALP, type-1 collagen (Col 1), and osteocalcin (OCN), and the expression of Id-1 and Id-2 were measured by RT-PCR. In order to understand the mechanism underlying the regulation of Id genes, the promoter region of the Id-1 gene was identified. Database analysis of the promoter region for Id-1 using known consensus sequences identified several putative response elements, including CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta (C/EBPβ).
Alendronate treatment significantly increased not only ALP activity but also the expression of ALP, Col 1, and OCN, Id-1 and Id-2. C/EBPβ and alendronate cooperatively increased the promoter activity and expression of Id-1.
These results suggest that C/EBPβ-mediated Id-1 transcriptional activation may regulate alendronate-induced osteoblast differentiation of C2C12 cells.
Alendronate; Osteoblasts; Osteoporosis
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasingly recognized as a major cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality. The underlying mechanisms of disease progression remain poorly understood, and primary therapy of NAFLD is not yet established. We investigated the effects of dietary oleate on the development and progression of NAFLD in a methionine- and choline-deficient (MCD) diet-fed animal model.
A total of 30 C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into three groups (n=10 in each group) and fed various experimental diets for four weeks: chow, MCD diet, or OMCD (MCD diet with oleate, 0.5 mg/g/day). Liver samples were examined for steatohepatitis and fibrosis parameters and associated genes.
Additional dietary oleate dramatically reduced MCD diet-induced hepatic steatosis. Hepatic carbohydrate responsive element-binding protein was overexpressed in MCD diet-fed mice, and dietary oleate prevented this overexpression (P<0.001). Dietary oleate partially prevented MCD diet-induced serum level increases in aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase (P<0.001, respectively). The mRNA expressions of hepatic monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, tumor necrosis factor-α and matrix metalloproteinase-9 were increased in MCD diet-fed mice, and this overexpression of inflammatory molecules was prevented by dietary oleate (P<0.001). Hepatic pericellular fibrosis was observed in MCD diet-fed mice, and dietary oleate prevented this fibrosis. Altogether, dietary oleate prevented MCD diet-induced hepatic steatosis, inflammation and fibrosis.
Dietary oleate has beneficial effects in every step of NAFLD development and progression and could be a nutritional option for NAFLD prevention and treatment.
ChREBP; Fatty acids, monounsaturated; Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis
We have investigated the effect of various forms of phosphodiester cytidine-phosphate-guanosine oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG ODNs) on the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and related genes in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Treatment with the CpG ODNs increased the expression of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), IL-6, and inducible nitric oxide synthase but not interleukin-1β (IL-1β). We also investigated the effect of CpG ODNs on the expression of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) and G1 (ABCG1) genes which are known to facilitate cholesterol efflux from macrophages for anti-atherosclerosis. CpG 2006 significantly reduced the levels of ABCG1 mRNA as determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction, whereas ABCA1 mRNA level was not changed. Western blot analysis further confirmed the reduction of ABCG1 protein expression by CpG 2006. In addition, we also determined the protein level of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ), which is recognized as a transcriptional activator of ABC transporters, was also reduced by CpG 2006. Thus, these results suggest that ABCG1 is specifically down-regulated by CpG 2006 in a PPARγ-dependent manner in macrophages.
atherosclerosis; ATP-binding cassette transpoters; cholesterol; CpG oligonucleotide; macrophages
Early reperfusion after myocardial ischemia that is essential for tissue salvage also causes myocardial and vascular injury. Cardioprotection during reperfusion therapy is an essential aspect of treating myocardial infarction. Angiopoietin-1 is an endothelial-specific angiogenic factor. The potential effects of angiopoietin-1 on cardiomyocytes and vascular cells undergoing reperfusion have not been investigated. We propose a protective mechanism whereby angiopoietin-1 increases the integrity of the endothelial lining and exerts a direct survival effect on cardiomyocytes under myocardial ischemia followed by reperfusion. First, we found that angiopoietin-1 prevents vascular leakage through regulating vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin phosphorylation. The membrane expression of VE-cadherin was markedly decreased on hypoxia/reoxygenation but was restored by angiopoietin-1 treatment. Interestingly, these effects were mediated by the facilitated binding between SH2 domain–containing tyrosine phosphatase (SHP2) or receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase μ (PTPμ) and VE-cadherin, leading to dephosphorylation of VE-cadherin. siRNA against SHP2 or PTPμ abolished the effect of angiopoietin-1 on VE-cadherin dephosphorylation and thereby decreased levels of membrane-localized VE-cadherin. Second, we found that angiopoietin-1 prevented cardiomyocyte death, although cardiomyocytes lack the angiopoietin-1 receptor Tie2. Angiopoietin-1 increased cardiomyocyte survival through integrin-β1–mediated extracellular signal–regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation, which inhibited caspase-9 through phosphorylation at Thr125 and subsequently reduced active caspase-3. Neutralizing antibody against integrin-β1 blocked these protective effects. In a mouse myocardial ischemia/reperfusion model, angiopoietin-1 enhanced cardiac function and reduction in left ventricular–end systolic dimension (LV-ESD) and left ventricular–end diastolic dimension (LV-EDD) with an increase in ejection fraction (EF) and fractional shortening (FS). Our findings suggest the novel cardioprotective mechanisms of angiopoietin-1 that are achieved by reducing both vascular leakage and cardiomyocyte death after ischemia/reperfusion injury.
The prevalence of asthma has increased in recent decades globally. The objective of the present study is to elucidate whether hospitalization for bronchiolitis in infancy and low socioeconomic status interact for bronchial hyperreactivity during teenage years.
We studied 522 children age 13-14 years attending schools in rural and urban areas to investigate the risk factors for bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR), defined as a provocation concentration of methacholine that causes a decrease of 20% (PC20) in forced expiratory volume within 1 second. Clinical examination, skin prick test, spirometry, and methacholine challenge were performed on all study subjects, who provided written consent. We used multivariate logistic regression to investigate the risk factors for BHR, and analyze the interaction between hospitalization for bronchiolitis in infancy and low socioeconomic status.
Forty-six (10.3%) positive BHR cases were identified. In the multivariate logistic analysis, as independent predictors of BHR, adjusted odds ratio of bronchiolitis diagnosed before 2 years of age in low income families was 13.7 (95% confidence interval, 1.4 to 135.0), compared to reference group, controlling for age, gender, parental allergy history, skin prick test, and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure. Interaction was observed between bronchiolitis before 2 years old and low socioeconomic status on children's bronchial hyperreactivity (p-interaction=0.025).
This study showed that bronchiolitis diagnosed before 2 years of age and low socioeconomic status interacted on children's bronchial hyperreactivity. Prevention of acute respiratory infection in early childhood in low socioeconomic status is important to prevent BHR as a precursor of asthma.
Asthma; Bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR); Bronchiolitis; Children; Socioeconomic status
The influence of spinal cord injury (SCI) on protein expression in the rat urinary bladder was assessed by proteomic analysis at different time intervals post-injury. After contusion SCI between T9 and T10, bladder tissues were processed by 2-DE and MALDI-TOF/MS at 6 hr to 28 days after SCI to identify proteins involved in the healing process of SCI-induced neurogenic bladder. Approximately 1,000 spots from the bladder of SCI and sham groups were visualized and identified. At one day after SCI, the expression levels of three protein were increased, and seven spots were down-regulated, including heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) and heat shock protein 20 (Hsp20). Fifteen spots such as S100-A11 were differentially expressed seven days post-injury, and seven proteins including transgelin had altered expression patterns 28 days after injury. Of the proteins with altered expression levels, transgelin, S100-A11, Hsp27 and Hsp20 were continuously and variably expressed throughout the entire post-SCI recovery of the bladder. The identified proteins at each time point belong to eight functional categories. The altered expression patterns identified by 2-DE of transgelin and S100-A11 were verified by Western blot. Transgelin and protein S100-A11 may be candidates for protein biomarkers in the bladder healing process after SCI.
Spinal Cord Injuries; Urinary Bladder, Neurogenic; Proteomic Analysis; Biological Markers; S100-A11; Transgelin
A key question in developmental biology is how cells exchange positional information for proper patterning during organ development. In plant roots the radial tissue organization is highly conserved with a central vascular cylinder in which two water conducting cell types, protoxylem and metaxylem, are patterned centripetally. We show that this patterning occurs through crosstalk between the vascular cylinder and the surrounding endodermis mediated by cell-to-cell movement of a transcription factor in one direction and microRNAs in the other. SHORT ROOT, produced in the vascular cylinder, moves into the endodermis to activate SCARECROW. Together these transcription factors activate MIR165a and MIR166b. Endodermally produced microRNA165/6 then acts to degrade its target mRNAs encoding class III homeodomain-leucine zipper transcription factors in the endodermis and stele periphery. The resulting differential distribution of target mRNA in the vascular cylinder determines xylem cell types in a dosage-dependent manner.