PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-3 (3)
 

Clipboard (0)
None

Select a Filter Below

Journals
Authors
more »
Year of Publication
Document Types
1.  N-Docosahexaenoylethanolamide promotes development of hippocampal neurons 
The Biochemical journal  2011;435(2):327-336.
DHA (docosahexaenoic acid, C22:6,n−3) has been shown to promote neurite growth and synaptogenesis in embryonic hippocampal neurons, supporting the importance of DHA known for hippocampus-related learning and memory function. In the present study, we demonstrate that DHA metabolism to DEA (N-docosahexaenoylethanolamide) is a significant mechanism for hippocampal neuronal development, contributing to synaptic function. We found that a fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor URB597 potentiates DHA-induced neurite growth, synaptogenesis and synaptic protein expression. Active metabolism of DHA to DEA was observed in embryonic day 18 hippocampal neuronal cultures, which was increased further by URB597. Synthetic DEA promoted hippocampal neurite growth and synaptogenesis at substantially lower concentrations in comparison with DHA. DEA-treated neurons increased the expression of synapsins and glutamate receptor subunits and exhibited enhanced glutamatergic synaptic activity, as was the case for DHA. The DEA level in mouse fetal hippocampi was altered according to the maternal dietary supply of n−3 fatty acids, suggesting that DEA formation is a relevant in vivo process responding to the DHA status. In conclusion, DHA metabolism to DEA is a significant biochemical mechanism for neurite growth, synaptogenesis and synaptic protein expression, leading to enhanced glutamatergic synaptic function. The novel DEA-dependent mechanism offers a new molecular insight into hippocampal neurodevelopment and function.
doi:10.1042/BJ20102118
PMCID: PMC3169088  PMID: 21281269
docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); N-docosahexaenoylethanolamide (DEA); hippocampus; neurite growth; neuron; synaptogenesis
2.  Inhibition of aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 suppresses cocaine seeking by generating THP, a cocaine use–dependent inhibitor of dopamine synthesis 
Nature medicine  2010;16(9):1024-1028.
There is no effective treatment for cocaine addiction despite extensive knowledge of the neurobiology of drug addiction1–4. Here we show that a selective aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH-2) inhibitor, ALDH2i, suppresses cocaine self-administration in rats and prevents cocaine- or cue-induced reinstatement in a rat model of cocaine relapse-like behavior. We also identify a molecular mechanism by which ALDH-2 inhibition reduces cocaine-seeking behavior: increases in tetrahydropapaveroline (THP) formation due to inhibition of ALDH-2 decrease cocaine-stimulated dopamine production and release in vitro and in vivo. Cocaine increases extracellular dopamine concentration, which activates dopamine D2 autoreceptors to stimulate cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase C (PKC) in primary ventral tegmental area (VTA) neurons. PKA and PKC phosphorylate and activate tyrosine hydroxylase, further increasing dopamine synthesis in a positive-feedback loop. Monoamine oxidase converts dopamine to 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (DOPAL), a substrate for ALDH-2. Inhibition of ALDH-2 enables DOPAL to condense with dopamine to form THP in VTA neurons. THP selectively inhibits phosphorylated (activated) tyrosine hydroxylase to reduce dopamine production via negative-feedback signaling. Reducing cocaine- and craving-associated increases in dopamine release seems to account for the effectiveness of ALDH2i in suppressing cocaine-seeking behavior. Selective inhibition of ALDH-2 may have therapeutic potential for treating human cocaine addiction and preventing relapse.
doi:10.1038/nm.2200
PMCID: PMC3191463  PMID: 20729865
3.  A Critical Evaluation of Influence of Ethanol and Diet on Salsolinol Enantiomers in Humans and Rats 
Background
(R /S)-Salsolinol (SAL), a condensation product of dopamine (DA) with acetaldehyde, has been speculated to have a role in the etiology of alcoholism. Earlier studies have shown the presence of SAL in biological fluids and postmortem brains from both alcoholics and non-alcoholics. However, the involvement of SAL in alcoholism has been controversial over several decades, since the reported SAL levels and their changes after ethanol exposure were not consistent, possibly due to inadequate analytical procedures and confounding factors such as diet and genetic predisposition. Using a newly developed mass spectrometric method to analyze SAL stereoisomers, we evaluated the contribution of ethanol, diet, and genetic background to SAL levels as well as its enantiomeric distribution.
Methods
Simultaneous measurement of SAL enantiomers and DA were achieved by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC / MS / MS). Plasma samples were collected from human subjects before and after banana (a food rich in SAL) intake, and during ethanol infusion. Rat plasma and brain samples were collected at various time points after the administration of SAL or banana by gavage. The brain parts including nucleus accumbens (NAC) and striatum (STR) were obtained from alcohol-non-preferring (NP) or alcohol-preferring (P) rats as well as P-rats which had a free access to ethanol (P-EtOH).
Results
Plasma SAL levels were increased significantly after banana intake in humans. Consistently, administration of banana to rats also resulted in a drastic increase of plasma SAL levels, whereas brain SAL levels remained unaltered. Acute ethanol infusion did not change SAL levels or R / S ratio in plasma from healthy humans. The levels of both SAL isomers and DA were significantly lower in the NAC of P rats in comparison to NP rats. The SAL levels in NAC of P rats remained unchanged after chronic free-choice ethanol drinking. There were decreasing trends of SAL in STR and DA in both brain regions. No changes in enantiomeric ratio were observed after acute or chronic ethanol exposure.
Conclusions
SAL from dietary sources is the major contributor to plasma SAL levels. No significant changes of SAL plasma levels or enantiomeric distribution after acute or chronic ethanol exposure suggest that SAL may not be a biomarker for ethanol drinking. Significantly lower SAL and DA levels observed in NAC of P rats may be associated with innate alcohol preference.
doi:10.1111/j.1530-0277.2009.01087.x
PMCID: PMC2858379  PMID: 19951298
Salsolinol; Diet; Ethanol; Dopamine; Alcohol-Preferring Rats; Alcohol-Non-Preferring Rats; Nucleus Accumbens; Striatum; HPLC / MS / MS

Results 1-3 (3)