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1.  Effect of Trendelenburg position on right and left internal jugular vein cross-sectional area 
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology  2014;67(5):305-309.
Unlike the right internal jugular vein (RIJV), there is a paucity of data regarding the effect of the Trendelenburg position on the left internal jugular vein (LIJV). The purpose of this study is to investigate the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the LIJV and RIJV and their response to the Trendelenburg position using two-dimensional ultrasound in adult subjects.
This study enrolled fifty-eight patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status class I-II who were undergoing general anesthesia. CSAs of both the RIJV and LIJV were measured with a two-dimensional ultrasound in the supine position and then in a 10° Trendelenburg position.
In the supine position, the transverse diameter, anteroposterior diameter, and CSA of the RIJV were significantly larger than those of the LIJV (P < 0.001). Of 58 patients, the RIJV CSA was larger than the LIJV CSA in 43 patients (74.1%), and the LIJV CSA was larger than the RIJV CSA in 15 patients (25.9%). In the Trendelenburg position, CSAs of the RIJV and LIJV increased 39.4 and 25.5%, respectively, compared with the supine position. However, RIJV changed at a rate that was significantly greater than that of the LIJV (P < 0.05). Of 58 patients, the RIJV CSA was larger than the LIJV CSA in 48 patients (82.8%), and the LIJV CSA was larger than the RIJV CSA in 10 patients (17.2%).
In supine position, the RIJV CSA was larger than the LIJV CSA. The increased CSA in the Trendelenburg position was greater in the RIJV than the LIJV.
PMCID: PMC4252341  PMID: 25473458
Central venous catheter; Cross-sectional area; Internal jugular vein; Trendelenburg position
2.  Predictors of difficult intubation defined by the intubation difficulty scale (IDS): predictive value of 7 airway assessment factors 
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology  2012;63(6):491-497.
The intubation difficulty scale (IDS) has been used as a validated difficulty score to define difficult intubation (DI). The purpose of this study is to identify airway assessment factors and total airway score (TAS) for predicting DI defined by the IDS.
There were 305 ASA physical status 1-2 patients, aged 19-70 years, who underwent elective surgery with endotracheal intubation. During the pre-anesthetic visit, we evaluated patients by 7 preoperative airway assessment factors, including the following: Mallampati classification, thyromental distance, head & neck movement, body mass index (BMI), buck teeth, inter-incisor gap, and upper lip bite test (ULBT). After endotracheal intubation, patients were divided into 2 groups based on their IDS score estimated with 7 variables: normal (IDS < 5) and DI (IDS ≥ 5) groups. The incidence of TAS (> 6) and high score of each airway assessment factor was compared in two groups: odds ratio, confidence interval (CI) of 95%, with a significant P value ≤ 0.05.
The odds ratio of TAS (> 6), ULBT (class III), head & neck movement (< 90°), inter-incisor gap (< 4 cm), BMI (≥ 25 kg/m2) and Mallampati classification (≥ class III) were respectively 13.57 (95% CI = 2.99-61.54, P < 0.05), 12.48 (95% CI = 2.50-62.21, P < 0.05), 3.11 (95% CI = 0.87-11.13), 2.32 (95% CI = 0.75-7.19), 2.22 (95% CI = 0.81-6.06), and 1.22 (95% CI = 0.38-3.89).
We suggest that TAS (> 6) and ULBT (class III) are the most useful factors predicting DI.
PMCID: PMC3531526  PMID: 23277808
Anesthesia; Evaluation studies; Intubation
3.  The effects of lidocaine and procaine on microRNA expression of adipocyte-derived adult stem cells 
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology  2012;62(6):552-557.
The microRNA (miRNA) pathway has emerged as one of the biologic pathways implicated in stem cell regulation. miRNA is a noncoding, single-stranded RNA consisting of 20-25 nucleotides that inhibits the protein production at the step of translation. The molecular effects of lidocaine and procaine on adipose stem cells were investigated by examining RNA expression array.
Adipose stem cells were isolated from a prior abdominal liposuction procedure. The human adipose stem cells were cultured and then added to a mixture of 1 ml of culture medium plus 1 ml of 2% lidocaine or 2% procaine for the duration of 30 minutes. The expression levels of miRNAs were estimated by using peptide nucleic acid (PNA)-miRNA array analysis throughout the denaturation and hybridization processes after the isolation of miRNA. The miRNAs detected by microarray that either decreased by half fold or increased by 1.5 fold from the control level were interpreted as significant.
According to microarray analysis there were 61 miRNAs in total, and no miRNA had decreased expression levels. The stem cells treatment with lidocaine showed 4 alteration of expression with miR-9a* (1.53 fold), miR-29a (1.64 fold), miR-296-5p (1.64 fold) and miR-373 (1.94 fold). The stem cells treated with procaine showed 32 miRNAs that were significantly up-regulated with a range of 1.5 to 2.06 fold. They were stem cell differentiation-related miRNAs, apoptosis and cell cycle-associated miRNAs, immunity-associated miRNAs and hormonal response-related miRNAs.
Lidocaine and procaine affect the miRNA expression on adipose stem cells and the effect of procaine is more marked than that of lidocaine.
PMCID: PMC3384794  PMID: 22778892
Lidocaine; MicroRNA; Procaine; Stem cells
4.  Delayed Onset Neurological Deterioration due to a Spinal Epidural Hematoma after a Spine Fracture 
Asian Spine Journal  2007;1(2):98-101.
There are no reports of a 7-day delay in the onset of neurological deterioration because of a spinal epidural hematoma (SEH) after a spinal fracture. A hematoma was detected from the T12 to L2 area in a 36-year-old male patient with a T12 burst fracture. On the same day, the patient underwent in situ posterior pedicle instrumentation on T10-L3 with no additional laminectomy. On the seventh postoperative day, the patient suddenly developed weakness and sensory changes in both extremities, together with a sharp pain. A MRI showed that the hematoma had definitely increased in size. A partial laminectomy was performed 12 hours after the onset of symptoms. Two days after surgery, recovery of neurological function was noted. This case shows that spinal surgeons need to be aware of the possible occurrence of a delayed aggravated SEH and neurological deterioration after a spinal fracture.
PMCID: PMC2857477  PMID: 20411132
Spinal epidural hematoma; Spine fracture; Neurology

Results 1-4 (4)