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author:("Lee, Jae hen")
1.  Clinical Effect of Surgical Correction for Nasal Pathology on the Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(6):e98765.
Objectives
This study aimed to evaluate the hypothesis that relief of nasal obstruction in subjects with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) would lead to reduce OSA severity and to discuss the available evidence on the clinical efficacy of nasal surgery as a treatment modality for OSA.
Study Design
Twenty-five subjects who had reduced patency of nasal cavity and narrowing of retroglossal or retropalatal airways were diagnosed with OSA and underwent nasal surgery, such as septoplasty or turbinoplasty to correct nasal pathologies. The effect of the surgery on nasal patency was quantified by measuring minimal cross-sectional area (MCA) using acoustic rhinometry. The watch-PAT-derived respiratory disturbance index (RDI), apnea and hypopnea index (AHI), lowest oxygen saturation, and valid sleep time were measured before and after nasal surgery.
Results
The present study shows that the AHI and RDI decreased significantly and the lowest oxygen saturation and valid sleep time rose after nasal surgery in 25 OSA subjects. In addition, a reduction in subjective symptoms was observed in subjects and mean MCA increased after nasal surgery. Fourteen subjects were classified as responders and 11 subjects as non-responders. Responders showed considerable improvement of their subjective symptoms and the AHI and RDI were significantly lower after surgery. We found that the changes between pre- and post-operative AHI and RDI values were minimal in 11 non-responders. However, daytime somnolence and REM sleep time improved after nasal surgery in non-responders.
Conclusions
Our study provides evidence that the surgical treatment of nasal pathology improves nasal airway patency and reduces OSA severity in 56% subjects. Furthermore, correction of nasal pathology appears to result in improved sleep quality in both responder and non-responders OSA subjects.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0098765
PMCID: PMC4045850  PMID: 24896824
2.  Therapeutic Effects of Carbogen Inhalation and Lipo-Prostaglandin E1 in Sudden Hearing Loss 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2012;53(5):999-1004.
Purpose
Vascular disorders and viral infections are considered the main causes of sudden hearing loss (SHL), although its pathogenesis remain unclear. Treatments include carbogen inhalation and lipo-prostaglandin E1 (lipo-PGE1), both of which have circulation-enhancing effects. We investigated the effectiveness of carbogen inhalation and lipo-PGE1 in SHL.
Materials and Methods
This retrospective review included 202 patients with idiopathic SHL who visited our clinic within 14 days of symptom onset between January 2006 and June 2010. All patients received oral prednisolone for 10 days. Of the 202 patients, 44 received no additional treatment, 106 received additional carbogen inhalation, and 52 received additional lipo-PGE1. Hearing improvement was measured using Siegel's criteria.
Results
Overall recovery rates were 67.9% in the carbogen group, 53.8% in the lipo-PGE1 group, and 52.3% in the steroid-only control group (p=0.097). Limited to type 1 and type 2 categories of Sigels's criteria, the carbogen group had a significantly higher recovery rate (53.8%) than the lipo-PGE1 group (26.9%) and the steroid-only control group (38.6%) (p=0.005).
Conclusion
Carbogen inhalation added to steroid was a more effective treatment than lipo-PGE1 added to steroid or steroid alone in patients with SHL.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2012.53.5.999
PMCID: PMC3423832  PMID: 22869484
Sudden hearing loss; lipo-prostaglandin E1; carbogen
3.  A Case of Bilateral Postauricular Sinuses 
Korean Journal of Audiology  2012;16(2):99-101.
Preauricular sinuses are common congenital malformations that usually occur at the anterior margin of the ascending limb of the helix. There are rare cases in which the location of the preauricular sinus is posterior to the tragus, and the direction of the sinus tract is toward the posterior. This variant type of preauricular sinus is called, 'postauricular sinus'. Postauricular sinus is uncommon. Thus, diagnosis and treatment may be delayed due to its location of its opening and atypical clinical symptoms. Typical treatment is a single stage operation through bidirectional skin incision. However, we found out that according to the length and invasion depth of the sinus tract, there was an option between unidirectional and bidirectional skin incisions that we may choose from.
doi:10.7874/kja.2012.16.2.99
PMCID: PMC3936561  PMID: 24653881
Preauricular sinus; Variant; Excision
4.  Evaluation of an Experimentally Designed Stereotactic Guidance System for Determining Needle Entry Point during Uniplanar Fluoroscopy-guided Intervention 
The Korean Journal of Pain  2012;25(2):81-88.
Background
In discography performed during percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy (PELD) via the posterolateral approach, it is difficult to create a fluoroscopic tunnel view because a long needle is required for discography and the guide-wire used for consecutive PELD interrupts rotation of fluoroscope. A stereotactic system was designed to facilitate the determination of the needle entry point, and the feasibility of this system was evaluated during interventional spine procedures.
Methods
A newly designed stereotactic guidance system underwent a field test application for PELD. Sixty patients who underwent single-level PELD at L4-L5 were randomly divided into conventional or stereotactic groups. PELD was performed via the posterolateral approach using the entry point on the skin determined by premeasured distance from the midline and angles according to preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. Needle entry accuracy provided by the two groups was determined by comparing the distance and angle measured by postoperative computed tomography with those measured by preoperative MRI. The duration and radiation exposure for determining the entry point were measured in the groups.
Results
The new stereotactic guidance system and the conventional method provided similarly accurate entry points for discography and consecutive PELD. However, the new stereotactic guidance system lowered the duration and radiation exposure for determining the entry point.
Conclusions
The new stereotactic guidance system under fluoroscopy provided a reliable needle entry point for discography and consecutive PELD. Furthermore, it reduced the duration and radiation exposure associated with determining needle entry.
doi:10.3344/kjp.2012.25.2.81
PMCID: PMC3324745  PMID: 22514774
equipment design; fluoroscopy; needle; percutaneous discectomy; stereotactic technique

Results 1-4 (4)