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1.  Unraveling wetting transition through surface textures with X-rays: Liquid meniscus penetration phenomena 
Scientific Reports  2014;4:4055.
In this report we show that synchrotron X-ray radiography is a powerful method to study liquid-air interface penetration through opaque microtextured surface roughness, leading to wetting transition. We investigate this wetting phenomenon in the context of sessile drop evaporation, and establish that liquid interface sinking into the surface texture is indeed dictated by the balance of capillary and Laplace pressures, where the intrinsically three-dimensional nature of the meniscus must be accounted for. Air bubble entrapment in the texture underneath impacting water drops is also visualized and the mechanisms of post-impact drop evaporation are discussed.
doi:10.1038/srep04055
PMCID: PMC3920273  PMID: 24514762
2.  The efficacy of intravenous ketorolac for pain relief in single-stage adjustable strabismus surgery: a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled trial 
Eye  2010;25(2):154-160.
Purpose
To determine the efficacy of preoperative intravenous ketorolac in reducing intraoperative and postoperative pain and improving patient satisfaction in patients undergoing single-stage adjustable strabismus surgery.
Methods
A prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed with 67 patients who underwent horizontal recti muscle surgery with adjustable sutures. The test group received intravenous ketorolac (60 mg) before surgery, and the control group received intravenous normal saline. Topical 0.5% proparacaine was administered to both groups during surgery. Vital signs including heart rate and blood pressure were recorded every 10 min throughout the surgery. The patients were asked to rate their maximum intraoperative and postoperative pain scores using a numerical pain rating scale. Patient satisfaction was also assessed using a five-point analogue scale.
Results
The ketorolac-premedicated patients had less pain both during and after surgery (P=0.033 and P=0.024, respectively). There were no differences in vital signs during surgery and patient satisfaction between the two groups.
Conclusions
Intravenous ketorolac, when administered preoperatively for single-stage adjustable strabismus surgery under topical anaesthesia, was effective in reducing pain during and after surgery.
doi:10.1038/eye.2010.168
PMCID: PMC3169226  PMID: 21102493
one-stage adjustable strabismus surgery; topical strabismus surgery; ketorolac; eye pain; prospective; randomized trial
3.  Use of a forensic technique to identify blood contamination of emergency department and ambulance trauma equipment 
Using a Kastle‐Meyer (KM) technique, the following equipment from the emergency departments of six UK hospitals (four trusts) and three regional ambulance services was tested for blood contamination: extrication (“spinal”) boards, cervical collars, straps, box splints, head blocks, and headboards. Only equipment ready for patient use was tested. Over half of trauma equipment (57%) tested positive for blood, including 15% of equipment that was visibly stained with blood. There have been no recorded cases of infection from contaminated trauma equipment but our study has identified the potential risk. Disposable covers for boards, disposable straps, and disposable radiolucent head blocks which are currently available provide a solution but have resource implications
doi:10.1136/emj.2005.025346
PMCID: PMC2564139  PMID: 16373813
Kastle‐Meyer; blood contaminition; equipment; infection risk; trauma
4.  A case of a giant mucocoele of the appendiceal stump presented with a palpable mass in the right thigh: pre-operative diagnosis based on characteristic multidetector CT findings 
The British Journal of Radiology  2010;83(994):e220-e223.
The pre-operative diagnosis of a mucocoele of the appendiceal stump (MAS) may be difficult owing to rarity and non-specific clinical presentation. However, a pre-operative diagnosis of a MAS is important to prevent widespread dissemination by inadvertent spillage of mucous contents. We describe a case of a MAS presenting with a palpable mass in the right thigh in which a pre-operative diagnosis was made by characteristic multidetector CT (MDCT) findings.
doi:10.1259/bjr/98679856
PMCID: PMC3473738  PMID: 20846981
5.  Efficacy and safety of solifenacin succinate in Korean patients with overactive bladder: a randomised, prospective, double-blind, multicentre study 
Purpose:
We assessed the efficacy and safety of solifenacin compared with tolterodine for treatment of overactive bladder (OAB) in Korean patients.
Materials and methods:
The study was randomised, double-blind, tolterodine-controlled trial in Korea. Patients had average frequency of ≥ 8 voids per 24 h and episodes of urgency or urgency incontinence ≥ 3 during 3-day voiding diary period. Patients were randomised to 12-week double-blind treatment with either tolterodine immediate release (IR) 2 mg twice daily (TOL4) or solifenacin 5 mg (SOL5) or 10 mg (SOL10) once daily. The outcome measure was mean change in daily micturition frequency, volume, daily frequency of urgency incontinence, urgency and nocturia from baseline to week 12. Quality of life was assessed using the King’s Health Questionnaire.
Results:
A total of 357 were randomised and 329 were evaluated for efficacy. All voiding parameters recorded in micturition diary improved after treatment in all three groups. Mean changes in volume voided were 19.30 ml (26.69%) in TOL4, 30.37 ml (25.89%) in SOL5 and 37.12 ml (33.36%) in SOL10 group (p = 0.03). Speed of onset of SOL10 efficacy on urgency incontinence was faster than that of SOL5 and TOL4. Quality of life improved in all three groups. Dry mouth was the most common adverse event; its incidence was the lowest in SOL5 group (7.63%, compared with 19.49% and 18.64% in SOL10 and TOL4 groups respectively).
Conclusions:
Solifenacin succinate 5 and 10 mg once daily improve OAB symptoms with acceptable tolerability levels compared with tolterodine IR 4 mg. Solifenacin 5 mg is a recommended starting dose in Korean patients with OAB.
doi:10.1111/j.1742-1241.2008.01898.x
PMCID: PMC2680337  PMID: 19143854
6.  Amniotic membrane transplantation for necrotising conjunctival ulceration following subconjunctival atropine injection 
The British Journal of Ophthalmology  2002;86(11):1316-1317.
PMCID: PMC1771376  PMID: 12386100
amniotic membrane transplantation; conjunctival ulceration; atropine
7.  Enhanced expression of transglutaminase 2 in anterior polar cataracts and its induction by TGF-β in vitro 
The British Journal of Ophthalmology  2002;86(11):1293-1298.
Background/aims: Transglutaminase activity has long been implicated in the cataract formation. However, the precise mechanism of how it is produced and involved in this process remains unclear. Here the authors sought to examine whether transglutaminase 2 (TGase 2) is expressed in lens epithelial cells from patients with anterior polar cataracts, to determine whether TGase 2 expression is induced by transforming growth factor (TGF-β) in cultured lens epithelial cells, and to determine whether TGase 2 participates in the crosslinking of fibronectin in lens epithelial cells in vitro.
Methods: Lens epithelial cells from anterior polar cataracts, nuclear cataracts, and non-cataractous clear lenses were examined for the expression of TGase 2 using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, western blot analysis, and immunohistochemical analysis. The modulation of extracellular TGase 2 activity by TGF-β was measured by the formation of fibronectin polymers and the incorporation of fluorescein cadaverine into extracellular matrix proteins. The effect of TGase 2 overexpression was analysed by immunofluorescence staining and western blot analysis of human lens epithelial (HLE) B-3 cells transiently transfected with TGase 2 gene.
Results: The expression of TGase 2 mRNA and its protein was markedly enhanced in lens epithelial cells from patients with anterior polar cataracts. Treatment of HLE B-3 cells with TGF-β caused an increase in TGase 2 protein, its extracellular activity, and the crosslinking of fibronectin. Transient transfection of HLE B-3 cells with the TGase 2 gene led to the increased production of fibronectin monomers and polymers.
Conclusions: This study shows that TGase 2 is overexpressed in lens epithelial cells from anterior polar cataracts and that TGF-β may be a causative factor in the induction of TGase 2. The enhanced expression of TGase 2 might cause the accumulation and crosslinking of the extracellular matrix proteins and might play a part in anterior polar cataract development.
PMCID: PMC1771348  PMID: 12386092
cataract; fibronectin; lens epithelium; TGF-β; transglutaminase 2
8.  Allele frequency and its forensic application of STR Y27 in Korean males. 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  1996;11(5):386-389.
The allele frequency and mutation rate in a Short Tandem Repeat locus, Y27 were studied in 247 unrelated Korean males using polymerase chain reaction followed by high-resolution polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, a procedure called the amplification fragment length polymorphism technique. Six alleles were noted ranging from 190 bp to 210 bp. They existed as discrete bands with 4 bp discrepancy. Among which DY3(198 bp), DY4(202 bp) were common with the frequencies of 0.408, 0.356 respectively. Other alleles, DY1(190 bp, frequency 0.020), DY2(194 bp, frequency 0.121), DY5(206 bp, frequency 0.089), DY6(210 bp, frequency 0.004) were relatively uncommon. In a 78 subject father-son study with parenthood confirmed through other genetic studies, no case of mutation was noted. As the allele number was not as large as 6 and two alleles were dominant, the discrimination power in routine individual identification was thought to be low. But in selective cases such as father-son determination or sex determination, this locus could be a valuable genetic marker and we thought these results to be common for the Korean population. These results were also compared with that of other race.
PMCID: PMC3054181  PMID: 8934392
9.  Analysis of antigenic characteristics of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi Boryong strain and antigenic heterogeneity of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi using monoclonal antibodies. 
Twenty-four monoclonal antibodies were produced by immunizing BALB/c mice with Rickettsia tsutsugamushi Boryong strain and used for the analysis of antigenic characteristics of R.tsutsugamushi Boryong strain and antigenic heterogeneity of R.tsutsugamushi by indirect immunofluorescent(IF) test. R. tsutsugamushi Kato, Karp, Gilliam, TA686, TA716, TA763, TC586, TH1817, and Boryong were used for the analysis of antigenic heterogeneity of R.tsutsugamushi. Five monoclonal antibodies were reactive with 27-kDa protein, four monoclonal antibodies were reactive with 47-kDa protein, and eight monoclonal antibodies were reactive with 56-kDa protein of R.tsutsugamushi Boryong strain. The reactive protein of seven monoclonal antibodies could not be identified by immunoblotting method. All monoclonal antibodies to 27-kDa protein and three monoclonal antibodies to 47-kDa protein, and five monoclonal antibodies to 56-kDa protein were reactive with three to eight strains among nine strains of R. tsutsugamushi tested. One monoclonal antibody reactive to 47-kDa protein(KI18) and two monoclonal antibodies reactive to 56-kDa protein(KI36, and KI37) reacted with all the strains of R. tsutsugamushi tested. Strain-specific monoclonal antibody(KI58) could be found among antibodies which were reactive with 56-kDa protein. There was no strain which showed same reactivity pattern to these 24 monoclonal antibodies among nine strains. From this results, it could be concluded that Boryong strain is antigenically different from other strains of R.tsutsugamushi and antigenic heterogeneity of R.tsutsugamushi is due to the antigenic diversity of several proteins of R. tsutsugamushi including 56-kDa protein.
PMCID: PMC3053706  PMID: 8305138
10.  Tumorous syphilid. 
Genitourinary Medicine  1990;66(3):202-204.
An unusual form of secondary syphilis, characterised by oozing tumours on the forehead and scalp concomitantly with plaques in the genital area, is presented. The patient was diagnosed as having secondary syphilis by dark-field examination, serologic tests for syphilis, and demonstration of spirochetes in the tissues by the immunoperoxidase technique with avidin-biotin peroxidase complex. Treatment with benzathine penicillin led to rapid resolution of the skin lesions one month later. This case of tumorous syphilid, a variant of papular syphilid, which appears not to have been described in the literature previously.
Images
PMCID: PMC1194503  PMID: 2370064
11.  Changes of serum IgG antibody reactivity to protein antigens of Treponema pallidum in syphilis patients after treatment. 
The changes of serum IgG antibody reactivity to protein antigens of Treponema pallidum after treatment of syphilis were observed using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blot. Until 9 to 12 months after treatment, it was seen that there was a loss of several antibodies and some diminution in their reactivity in primary, secondary and early latent syphilis, but no changes occurred in late latent and reinfected syphilis. In primary syphilis, there was a significant loss of two IgG antibodies to the treponemal antigens of molecular weights 68,500 and 47,000 at 11 months after treatment. According to our previous study, the treponemal antigen of molecular weight 68,500 was T. pallidum specific and appeared only in primary syphilis, and that of molecular weight 47,000 was one of the major antigens of T. pallidum. The reaction between serum IgG antibodies of 14 patients who had been treated for secondary, early latent and late latent syphilis 2 to 14 years ago and major antigens of T. pallidum was observed and any loss or decrease in reactivity was not discovered. From the results obtained, it was concluded that the observation of serum IgG antibody reactivity to protein antigens of T. pallidum is not helpful in evaluating the efficacy of treatment in secondary, early latent, late latent and reinfected syphilis. However, serum IgG antibodies to treponemal antigens of molecular weights 68,500 and 47,000 could possibly be useful in the assessment of the efficacy of treatment in primary syphilis.
PMCID: PMC3053684  PMID: 2688687
12.  Recent trends of syphilis prevalence in normal population in Korea-1986. 
The 6,097 blood donors in Seoul area, the 1,883 pregnant women delivered at Severance Hospital and the 5,136 physical examinees were evaluated for VDRL reactivity. Also, the FTA-ABS and TPHA tests were performed on those who were VDRL-positive, and the 19S (IgM)-FTA test were done on the subjects who were reactive for the FTA-ABS and TPHA tests. All the subjects were over the age of 20 and the study period was conducted from January of 1986 through December of 1986. The results are summarized as follows: 1. VDRL-positive rates were 0.5% in the blood donors, 0.6% in the pregnant women and 0.8% in the physical examinees. 2. The quantitative test of VDRL resulted in low titer below 1:4 in 96% of VDRL-positive pregnant women and physical examinees. 3. The 19S (IgM)-FTA test was reactive in 3 of 12 treated subjects (25%) and 4 of 10 untreated subjects (40%). From the results it is clear that the prevalence of syphilis is continually decreasing compared to the mid 1970's and the early 1980's.
PMCID: PMC3053656  PMID: 3267349
13.  Seroreversion of the serological tests for syphilis in the newborns born to treated syphilitic mothers. 
Genitourinary Medicine  1995;71(2):68-70.
BACKGROUND--IgG antibodies from mothers adequately treated for syphilis can cross the placenta and appear in the sera of healthy newborns without infection. In such infants, a false diagnosis of congenital syphilis is often made. We have designed a retrospective survey to determine the time of seroreversion of the serological tests for syphilis (STS) in uninfected newborns born to mothers who were adequately treated for syphilis. MATERIALS AND METHODS--Fifty two seropositive, untreated newborns born to 51 mothers treated for syphilis were studied. The newborns were followed at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months of age until seroreversion was detected. The VDRL test was followed until 12 months in 12 of the 22 newborns who were positive at birth, the TPHA in 21 of the 46 newborns, and the FTA-ABS test in 22 of the 48 newborns. RESULTS--In the first serological tests done within 1 month after birth, the VDRL was positive in 22 newborns (42%), the TPHA in 46 (88%), and FTA-ABS in 48 (92%). The VDRL seroreverted within 6 months after birth in 84%, and within 1 year in 100%. The TPHA test seroreverted in 95% within 1 year after birth. The FTA-ABS test seroreverted in 100% within 1 year after birth. CONCLUSIONS--In most seropositive, untreated newborns born to treated mothers the VDRL became negative within 6 months after birth and the TPHA and FTA-ABS within 1 year. This result is consistent with current Centers for Disease Control (CDC) guidelines. However, although the CDC guidelines are adequate in general, we think that some revision is desirable concerning the IgM test and combination of the test results in order to rule out congenital syphilis in seropositive, nonsymptomatic newborns born to the treated mothers.
PMCID: PMC1195455  PMID: 7744415
15.  Detection of immunoglobulin M in cerebrospinal fluid from syphilis patients by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1986;24(5):736-740.
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were evaluated in an immunoglobulin M enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IgM ELISA) for syphilis with sonic extracts of Treponema pallidum coated on polystyrene plates. The ELISA procedure was reproducible, and T. pallidum antigens were stable., A total of 15 CSF samples from patients with neurosyphilis, 18 CSF samples from patients with syphilis, 12 CSF samples from patients treated for syphilis, and 494 CSF samples from patients with neurologic or other systemic diseases were tested. The IgM ELISA gave reactive results in all of six symptomatic and congenital neurosyphilitic patients and none of nine asymptomatic neurosyphilitic patients. Of 524 CSF samples from nonneurosyphilitic individuals, 513 were nonreactive, resulting in 98% test specificity. The IgM ELISA in CSF should prove to be useful for confirmation of symptomatic neurosyphilis.
PMCID: PMC269019  PMID: 3533984

Results 1-15 (15)