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1.  Reliability and Applicability of the Bayley Scale of Infant Development-II for Children With Cerebral Palsy 
Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine  2013;37(2):167-174.
Objective
To obtain reliability and applicability of the Korean version Bayley Scale of Infant Development-II (BSID-II) in evaluating the developmental status of children with cerebral palsy (CP).
Methods
The inter-rater reliability of BSID-II scores from 68 children with CP (46 boys and 22 girls; mean age, 32.54┬▒16.76 months; age range, 4 to 78 months) was evaluated by 10 pediatric occupational therapists. Patients were classified in several ways according to age group, typology, and the severity of motor impairment by the level of the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS). The measures were performed by video analysis, and the results of intraclass correlation (ICC) were obtained for each of the above classifications. To evaluate the clinical applicability of BSID-II for CP, its correlation with the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM), which has been known as the standard motor assessment for CP, was investigated.
Results
ICC was 0.99 for the Mental scale and 0.98 for the Motor scale in all subjects. The values of ICC ranged from 0.92 to 0.99 for each age group, 0.93 to 0.99 for each typology, and 0.99 to 1.00 for each GMFCS level. A strong positive correlation was found between the BSID-II Motor raw score and the GMFM total score (r=0.84, p<0.001), and a moderate correlation was observed between the BSID-II Mental raw score and the GMFM total score (r=0.65, p<0.001).
Conclusion
The Korean version of BSID-II is a reliable tool to measure the functional status of children with CP. The raw scores of BSID-II showed a great correlation with GMFM, indicating validity of this measure for children with CP on clinical basis.
doi:10.5535/arm.2013.37.2.167
PMCID: PMC3660476  PMID: 23705110
Cerebral palsy; Child development; Reliability; Gross motor function
2.  Association between Cross-sectional Areas of Lumbar Muscles on Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Chronicity of Low Back Pain 
Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine  2011;35(6):852-859.
Objective
To investigate the prognostic value of cross-sectional areas (CSA) of paraspinal (multifidus and erector spinae) and psoas muscles on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in chronicity of low back pain.
Method
Thirty-eight subjects who visited our hospital for acute low back pain were enrolled. Review of their medical records and telephone interviews were done. Subjects were divided into two groups; chronic back pain group (CBP) and a group showing improvement within 6 months after onset of pain (IBP). The CSA of paraspinal and psoas muscles were obtained at the level of the lower margin of L3 and L5 vertebrae using MRI.
Results
CSA of erector spinae muscle and the proportion of the area to lumbar muscles (paraspinal and psoas muscles) at L5 level in the CBP group were significantly smaller than that of the IBP group (p<0.05). The mean value of CSA of multifidus muscle at L5 level in the CBP group was smaller than that of the IBP group, but was not statistically significant (p>0.05). CSA of psoas muscle at L5 level and all values measured at L3 level were not significantly different between the groups (p>0.05).
Conclusion
CSA of erector spinae muscle at the lower lumbar level and the proportion of the area to the lumbar muscles at the L5 level can be considered to be prognostic factors of chronicity of low back pain.
doi:10.5535/arm.2011.35.6.852
PMCID: PMC3309393  PMID: 22506214
Low back pain; Magnetic resonance imaging; Cross-sectional area; Muscles

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