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author:("Lee, chungoo")
1.  Comparison of Renal Function between Robot-Assisted and Open Partial Nephrectomy as Determined by Tc 99m-DTPA Renal Scintigraphy 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2016;31(5):743-749.
We compared postoperative renal function impairment between patients undergoing robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN) and those undergoing open partial nephrectomy (OPN) by using Tc-99m diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) renal scintigraphy. Patients who underwent partial nephrectomy by a single surgeon between 2007 and 2013 were eligible and were matched by propensity score, based on age, tumor size, exophytic properties of tumor, and location relative to the polar lines. Of the 403 patients who underwent partial nephrectomy, 114 (28%) underwent RAPN and 289 (72%) underwent OPN. Mean follow-up duration was 35.2 months. Following propensity matching, there were no significant differences between the two groups in tumor exophytic properties (P = 0.818) or nephrometry score (P = 0.527). Renal ischemic time (24.4 minutes vs. 17.8 minutes, P < 0.001) was significantly longer in the RAPN group than in the OPN group, while the other characteristics were similar. Multivariate analysis showed that greater preoperative renal unit function (P = 0.011) and nephrometry score (P = 0.041) were independently correlated with a reduction in glomerular filtration rate. The operative method did not correlate with renal function impairment (P = 0.704). Postoperative renal function impairment was similar between patients who underwent OPN and those who underwent RAPN, despite RAPN having a longer ischemic time.
Graphical Abstract
doi:10.3346/jkms.2016.31.5.743
PMCID: PMC4835600  PMID: 27134496
DTPA; Delayed Graft Function; Nephron Sparing Surgery; Scintigraphy; Robot-assisted Partial Nephrectomy
2.  Comparative Study of Autologous Stromal Vascular Fraction and Adipose-Derived Stem Cells for Erectile Function Recovery in a Rat Model of Cavernous Nerve Injury 
The abilities of intracavernous injection of autologous stromal vascular fraction (SVF) and adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) to facilitate recovery of erectile function in a rat model of cavernous nerve injury were compared. Intracavernous injection of SVF significantly improved erectile function compared with that in the control group, whereas the ADSC group showed marginally significant improvement. The increases in the smooth muscle/collagen ratio and von Willebrand factor expression were larger in the SVF group than in the ADSC group. Both cell types are equally effective in recovering penile erection, but SVF may be superior to ADSCs in terms of histomorphometric changes.
The abilities of intracavernous injection of autologous stromal vascular fraction (SVF) and adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) to facilitate recovery of erectile function in a rat model of cavernous nerve (CN) injury were compared. Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham and control groups (intracavernous injection of phosphate-buffered saline), SVF group (intracavernous injection of SVF), and ADSC group (intracavernous injection of ADSCs). Rats in the latter three groups underwent bilateral CN injury prior to injection. The evaluation of erectile function and histomorphometric studies were performed 4 weeks after injection. The ratio of maximal intracavernous pressure to mean arterial pressure was significantly lower in the control group than in the sham group (0.18 vs. 0.56, p < .001). Intracavernous injection of SVF (0.36, p = .035) significantly improved erectile function compared with that in the control group, whereas the ADSC group (0.35, p = .052) showed marginally significant improvement. The smooth muscle/collagen ratio, smooth muscle content, number of neuronal nitric-oxide synthase-positive nerve fibers, and expression of von Willebrand factor were significantly higher in the SVF and ADSC groups than in the control group. Expression of endothelial nitric-oxide synthase was significantly increased in the SVF group. The increases in the smooth muscle/collagen ratio and von Willebrand factor expression were larger in the SVF group than in the ADSC group. Intracavernous injection of SVF or ADSCs was equally effective in recovering penile erection in a rat model of CN injury.
doi:10.5966/sctm.2014-0161
PMCID: PMC4367505  PMID: 25792486
Adipose; Culture; Endothelial cell; Neuropathy; Rat model; Smooth muscle cells
3.  KML001 Induces Apoptosis and Autophagic Cell Death in Prostate Cancer Cells via Oxidative Stress Pathway 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(9):e0137589.
We investigated the effects of KML001 (NaAsO2, sodium metaarsenite, Kominox), an orally bioavailable arsenic compound, on the growth and death of human prostate cancer cells and its mechanism of action. Growth inhibition was assessed by cytotoxicity assays in the presence or absence of inhibitor of apoptosis, inhibitor of autophagy or antioxidant N-Acetyl-L-cysteine to study mechanism of cell death induced by KML001 in PC3, DU145 and LNCaP prostate cancer cell lines. Electron microscopy, flow cytometry and Western blotting were used to study apoptotic and autophagic mechanisms. The DU145 xenograft model was used to determine the efficacy of KML001 in vivo. KML001 decreased the viability of cells and increased the percentage of annexin V-positive cells dose-dependently in prostate cancer cells, and LNCaP cells were more sensitive to KML001 than PC3 or DU145 cells. Electron microscopy revealed typical apoptotic characters and autophagic vacuoles in cells treated with KML001. Exposure to KML001 in prostate cancer cells induced apoptosis and autophagy in a time- and dose-dependent manner. KML001 induced dose-dependent accumulation of reactive oxygen species, and scavenging the reactive oxygen species with N-Acetyl-L-cysteine reduced LC3 and cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. KML001 significantly inhibited tumor growth in the DU145 xenograft model. In addition, significant decrease of proliferation and significant increases of apoptosis and autophagy were observed in KML001-treated tumors than in vehicle-treated tumors. Exposure of human prostate cancer cells to KML001 induced both apoptosis and autophagic cell death via oxidative stress pathway. And KML001 had an antiproliferative effect on DU145 cells in xenograft mice.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0137589
PMCID: PMC4564181  PMID: 26352139
4.  Effects of statin use on the response duration to androgen deprivation therapy in metastatic prostate cancer 
Korean Journal of Urology  2015;56(9):630-636.
Purpose
To determine whether statin use delays the development of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) in patients with metastatic prostate cancer treated with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT).
Materials and Methods
A total of 171 patients with metastatic prostate cancer at the time of diagnosis who were treated with ADT between January 1997 and December 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were classified into two groups: the nonstatin use group (A group) and the statin use group (B group). Multivariate analysis was performed on statin use and other factors considered likely to have an effect on the time to progression to CRPC.
Results
The mean patient age was 67.1┬▒9.1 years, and the mean follow-up period was 52 months. The mean initial prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level was 537 ng/mL. Of the 171 patients, 125 (73%) were in group A and 46 (27%) were in group B. The time to progression to CRPC was 22.7 months in group A and 30.5 months in group B, and this difference was significant (p=0.032). Blood cholesterol and initial PSA levels did not differ significantly according to the time to progression to CRPC (p=0.288, p=0.198). Multivariate analysis using the Cox regression method showed that not having diabetes (p=0.037) and using a statin (p=0.045) significantly increased the odds ratio of a longer progression to CRPC.
Conclusions
Statin use in metastatic prostate cancer patients appears to delay the progression to CRPC. Large-scale, long-term follow-up studies are needed to validate this finding.
doi:10.4111/kju.2015.56.9.630
PMCID: PMC4565897  PMID: 26366275
Castration-resistant prostatic neoplasms; Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductatse inhibitors; Metastatic prostatic neoplasm
5.  Clinical features and prognosis of prostate cancer with high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia 
Korean Journal of Urology  2015;56(8):565-571.
Purpose
To evaluate the clinical features and biochemical recurrence (BCR) in prostate cancer (PCa) with high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN).
Materials and Methods
We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 893 patients who underwent a radical prostatectomy for PCa between 2011 and 2012 at Asan Medical Center; 752 of these patients who did not receive neoadjuvant or adjuvant therapy and were followed up for more than 1 year were included. The cohort was divided into two groups-patients with and without HGPIN-and their characteristics were compared. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to analyze factors affecting BCR.
Results
In total, 652 study patients (86.7%) had HGPIN. There were no significant differences in preoperative factors between the two groups, including age (p=0.369) and preoperative prostate-specific antigen concentration (p=0.234). Patients with HGPIN had a higher Gleason score (p=0.012), more frequent multiple tumor (p=0.013), and more perineural invasion (p=0.012), but no other postoperative pathologic characteristics were significantly different between the two groups. There were no significant differences in BCR (13.0% vs. 11.5%, p=0.665) and HGPIN was not associated with BCR (p=0.745). In multivariate analysis, only the T stage (p<0.001) was associated with BCR.
Conclusions
PCa patients with HGPIN have a higher Gleason score, more frequent multiple tumors, and more perineural invasion than those without HGPIN. The presence of HGPIN is not an independent predictor of BCR.
doi:10.4111/kju.2015.56.8.565
PMCID: PMC4534430  PMID: 26279825
Prostatectomy; Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia; Prostatic neoplasms
6.  Transition From Hand-Assisted to Pure Laparoscopic Donor Nephrectomy 
Background and Objectives:
We compared perioperative donor outcomes and early graft function of hand-assisted laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (HALDN) and pure laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (PLDN) performed by a single surgeon, to define the feasibility of technical transition from HALDN to PLDN.
Methods:
From October 1, 2012, through June 30, 2014, 60 donor nephrectomies were performed by a single surgeon who lacked experience with laparoscopic renal surgery: the first 30 by HALDN and the last 30 by PLDN. Operative and convalescence parameters were compared, as were intra- and postoperative complications within 90 days according to the Satava and Clavien-Dindo classifications, respectively. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the association of baseline characteristics with complications.
Results:
Baseline characteristics were similar in the 2 groups, except for American Society of Anesthesiologists score II (10.0% vs 43.3%; P = .007). All procedures were completed as planned. All operative and convalescence parameters of donors and graft outcomes were similar in the 2 groups, as were overall rates of intraoperative (43.3% vs 36.7%, P = .598) and postoperative (86.7% vs 70.0%; P = .209) complications. No factor was significantly predictive of intraoperative complications, whereas sex (female vs male, odds ratio, 0.183; P = .029) and learning curve (odds ratio, 0.602; P = .036) were significant determinants of postoperative complication.
Conclusion:
The technical transition from HALDN to PLDN does not involve a steep learning curve for surgeons less experienced with laparoscopic renal surgery and maintains similar perioperative donor and graft outcomes.
doi:10.4293/JSLS.2015.00044
PMCID: PMC4517067  PMID: 26229420
Hand-assisted; Intraoperative complications; Laparoscopic; Living donors; Postoperative complications
7.  Antibiotic prophylaxis with intravenous ceftriaxone and fluoroquinolone reduces infectious complications after transrectal ultrasound-guided prostatic biopsy 
Korean Journal of Urology  2015;56(6):466-472.
Purpose
To assess the rates of infectious complications before and after the change of prophylactic antibiotic regimens in prostate needle biopsy.
Materials and Methods
The records of 5,577 patients who underwent prostate needle biopsy at Asan Medical Center between August 2005 and July 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Group 1 (n=1,743) included patients treated between 2005 and 2009 with fluoroquinolone for 3 days, group 2 (n=2,723) included those treated between 2009 and 2012 with ceftriaxone once before the biopsy and fluoroquinolone before biopsy and continue therapy for 3 days, and group 3 (n=1,111) received the same treatment for more than 7 days after the biopsy. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression models addressed risk factors associated with infectious complication after prostate needle biopsy.
Results
Infectious complication after prostate needle biopsy developed in 18 (group 1), seven (group 2), and two patients (group 3) (p=0.001). In group 1, seven patients with infectious complication had positive blood cultures and harbored fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli, four had ceftriaxone susceptible isolates, and three had extended spectrum beta-lactamase-positive E. coli. Two patients in group 1 required intensive care because of septic shock. In multivariable analysis, the patients with combination of fluoroquinolone and ceftriaxone had significantly lower infectious complication rate than the fluoroquinolon alone (p=0.003).
Conclusions
Antibiotic prophylaxis with ceftriaxone and fluoroquinolone before prostate needle biopsy decreased the risk of potentially serious infectious complications.
doi:10.4111/kju.2015.56.6.466
PMCID: PMC4462638  PMID: 26078845
Antibiotic prophylaxis; Biopsy; Ceftriaxone; Infection; Prostate
8.  Prostate-specific antigen response rate of sequential chemotherapy in castration-resistant prostate cancer: the results of real life practice 
Prostate International  2013;1(3):125-132.
Purpose:
Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response rate (>50% PSA decline in pretreatment PSA following chemotherapy) carries a significant survival advantage in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). We compared PSA response rates in first-, second- and third-line chemotherapy after failure of previous chemotherapy according to chemotherapeutic agents.
Methods:
We retrospectively evaluated the oncological outcomes and PSA response rates of 384 patients with CRPC, who were treated with chemotherapy and had histologically proven adenocarcinoma of the prostate with failure after androgen ablation therapy between 1991 and 2012, at Asan Medical Center.
Results:
In 384 eligible patients, the median age was 67.5 years. The median pretreatment PSA and initial Gleason scores at baseline were 92.4 ng/mL (range, 2.0 to 6,370 ng/mL) and 9 (range, 6 to 10), respectively. The time from first diagnosis of prostate cancer to CRPC was 23 months (range, 1 to 164 months). As first-line chemotherapy, 245 patients (63.8%) received estramustine, 91 (23.7%) received docetaxel, and 39 (10.2%) received mitoxantrone. The PSA response rates were 39.6%, 51.6%, and 46.2%, respectively. Of 169 patients with second-line chemotherapy, estramustine was 15 (8.9%), docetaxel was 84 (49.7%), and mitoxantrone was 52 (30.8%). PSA response rates were 57.1%, 52%, and 28.0%, respectively. Of 81 patients with third-line chemotherapy, estramustine was 18 (22.2%), docetaxel was 16 (19.8%), and mitoxantrone was 28 (34.6%). The PSA response rates were 41.2%, 53.8%, and 11.1%, respectively. Declines in serum PSA levels of at least 50% occurred more frequently after treatment with docetaxel than with other chemo-agents regardless of second-and third-line chemotherapy. Even in third-line chemothrapy, docetaxel maintained the PSA response rate, whereas the PSA response rate of other agents, including mitoxantrone, decreased in patients in whom prior therapy failed.
Conclusions:
Docetacel was the most effective chemotherapeutic agent in second- and third-line trials of chemotherapy in Korean CRPC patients. Although docetaxel is not used as first-line chemotherapy, and new agents are not available for therapy in CRPC patients, we can consider docetaxel a second- or third-line chemotherapy in CRPC.
doi:10.12954/PI.13024
PMCID: PMC3814118  PMID: 24223414
Castration refractory prostate cancer; Chemotherapy; Prostate-specific antigen
9.  Validation of the 2009 TNM Classification for Renal Cell Carcinoma: Comparison with the 2002 TNM Classification by Concordance Index 
Korean Journal of Urology  2011;52(8):524-530.
Purpose
To assess the validity of the 2009 TNM classification for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and compare its ability to predict survival relative to the 2002 classification.
Materials and Methods
We identified 1,691 patients who underwent radical nephrectomy or partial nephrectomy for unilateral, sporadic RCC between 1989 and 2007. Cancer-specific survival was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method and was compared among groups by the log-rank test. Associations of the 2002 and 2009 TNM classifications with death from RCC were evaluated by Cox proportional hazards regression models. The predictive abilities of the two classifications were compared by using Harrell's concordance (c) index.
Results
There were 234 deaths from RCC a mean of 38 months after nephrectomy. According to the 2002 primary tumor classification, 5-year cancer-specific survival was 97.6% in T1a, 92.0% in T1b, 83.3% in T2, 61.9% in T3a, 51.1% in T3b, 40.0% in T3c, and 33.6% in T4 (p for trend<0.001). According to the 2009 classification, 5-year cancer-specific survival was 83.2% in T2a, 83.8% in T2b, 62.6% in T3a, 41.1% in T3b, 50.0% in T3c, and 26.1% in T4 (p for trend<0.001). The c index for the 2002 primary tumor classification was 0.810 in the univariate analysis and increased to 0.906 in the multivariate analysis. The c index for the 2009 primary tumor classification was 0.808 in the univariate analysis and increased to 0.904 in the multivariate analysis.
Conclusions
Our data suggest that the predictive ability the 2009 TNM classification is not superior to that of the 2002 classification.
doi:10.4111/kju.2011.52.8.524
PMCID: PMC3162217  PMID: 21927698
Kidney neoplasms; Mortality; Neoplasm staging; Prognosis; Renal cell carcinoma

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