Plasma cell granulomas, inflammatory pseudotumours and myofibroblastomas are synonymous with characteristic plasma cell infiltration in various body organs including the pancreas, liver, retroperitoneum and mediastinal structures causing idiopathic fibrosclerosis. Recently, a new concept has arisen regarding the relationship between immunoglobulin (Ig)G4-positive cell infiltration and idiopathic systemic fibrosclerosis. We report two cases showing IgG4-positive cell infiltration in the lung presenting as lung nodules with or without extrapulmonary manifestations.
The prevalence of Behcet's disease is the highest in the East Asian and the Mediterranean countries. Behcet's disease is also distributed in the Asian countries, but the nationwide survey has not been performed in Korea yet. The Korean Study Group for Behcet's Disease, founded in 1999, conducted a multicenter, retrospective survey on epidemiologic and clinical features of the patients with Behcet's disease from 20 hospitals around the nation from 1997 to 1999. Of 3,497 patients, 1,527 were classified into complete or incomplete type of Behcet's disease according to the revised Shimizu's classification. The sex ratio was 1:1.75 with the female predominance. Geographical distribution showed the highest frequency in Seoul (38.5%). Clinically, 98.8% had oral ulcers, 83.2% had genital ulcers, 84.3% had skin lesions and 50.9% had ocular lesions. As for the minor clinical manifestations, articular symptoms were the most frequent. The pathergy test showed positive in 15.4% of patients and revealed a higher positive rate in males (20.2%) than in females (12.7%). In conclusion, we performed the first multicenter study on Behcet's disease in Korea and revealed the female predominance, higher frequency of ocular lesions, and lower positivity of pathergy test in the patients.
For evaluating the effects of thoracic epidural anesthesia, with or without bilateral vagotomy, epinephrine-induced arrhythmias were studied in 31 rabbits anesthetized with 1 minimum alveolar concentration of enflurane. We divided the rabbits into 5 groups: Group I (epidural saline as control group; n=6), Group II (epidural lidocaine without vagotomy; n=6), Group III (intravenous lidocaine; n=7), Group IV (epidural saline with vagotomy; n=6), and Group V (epidural lidocaine with vagotomy; n=6). Using logdose protocol, epinephrine was infused at an initial rate of 0.67 microg/kg/min and increased by Exp[0.4] until arrhythmias occurred; if arrhythmias occurred at any of these doses, a smaller dose, divided by Exp[0.2], was tested. Arrhythmic dose of epinephrine was defined as the smallest infusion rate needed to produce four or more arrhythmias within 15 sec during epinephrine infusion. Arrhythmic dose of epinephrine and its plasma concentration in epidural lidocaine group were significantly higher than control (p<0.05). Similarity of results was also noted amongst the intravenous lidocaine group, vagotomy only group, and vagotomized epidural lidocaine group with respect to the control. These results suggest that thoracic epidural anesthesia raises the threshold for enflurane-epinephrine induced arrhythmias in rabbits and that this effect is eliminated by bilateral vagotomy.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is commonly associated with arthritic manifestations. They are divided into three clinical categories; peripheral arthritis, spondylitis, and sacroiliitis. To evaluate the incidence of arthritis associated with IBD in Korea, we retrospectively reviewed one hundred and twenty-nine patients with IBD, 77 with ulcerative colitis (UC) and 52 with Crohn's disease (CD). Arthritis occurred in twenty-two patients (17.1%); 15 with UC(19.6%), 7 with CD (13.5%). Patients with arthritis had more active inflammations and all were seronegative except one patient. Peripheral arthritis was found in twenty patients (15.5%) and more common in UC (19.6%) than in CD (9.6%). Joint involvements tended to be monoarticular or pauciarticular, and most frequently developed in the knee and ankle. Spondylitis was diagnosed in one patient (1.6%) who showed HLA B27 positivity. Radiographic sacroiliitis was observed in eight patients (6.2%) who revealed HLA B27 negativity. Both peripheral arthritis and sacroiliitis were found in six patients (4.6%). In CD, arthritis occurred in 20% of the patients with colonic involvement but in none of the patients without colonic involvement. In conclusion, arthritis was frequent in patients with IBD. Peripheral arthritis was more common in patients with UC than CD. All the patients with CD and arthritis had colonic involvement.
Expression of the Kdp system sensitizes cells to methylglyoxal (MG) whether this electrophile is added externally or is synthesized endogenously. The basis of this enhanced sensitivity is the maintenance of a higher cytoplasmic pH (pHi) in cells expressing Kdp. In such cells, MG elicits rapid cytoplasmic acidification via KefB and KefC, but the steady-state pHi attained is still too high to confer protection Lowering pHi further by incubation with acetate increases the sensitivity of cells to MG.
A nation-wide study was performed to estimate the incidence of bladder, kidney, renal pelvis and ureter, prostate, testicular and other genitourinary cancer among Koreans in Korea using medical records of the inpatients of the beneficiaries of the Korea Medical Insurance Corporation (KMIC) from Jan. 1, 1989 to Dec. 31, 1989. The crude incidence rate of bladder cancer (ICD-9 188) is estimated to be 4.43 and 0.98 per 100,000 in males and females, respectively. Around 1,093 new cases of bladder cancer (895 male and 198 female) are estimated to occur in a year. The adjusted rate for the world population is 7.76 in males and 1.19 in females which is similar to that of Japanese in Osaka and Chinese in Shanghai, but lower than in American whites and blacks. The crude incidence of kidney, renal pelvis and ureteral cancer (ICD-9 189) is estimated to be 1.61 and 0.87 in males and females, respectively. Around 507 new cases of kidney, renal pelvis and ureteral cancer (332 male and 175 female) are estimated to occur in a year. The adjusted rate for the world population is 2.69 in males and 1.04 in females. In the prostate (ICD-9 185), the crude incidence rate of cancer is estimated to be 1.36. Around 274 new cases of prostate cancer are occurring in a year. The adjusted rate for the world population is 2.98 which is similar to the Chinese rate. The incidence of genitourinary cancer continuously increases with age.
To evaluate the activity and safety of everolimus and identify potential biomarkers for efficacy of everolimus in patients with advanced gastric cancer (AGC), who failed both fluoropyrimidine and platinum.
Fifty-four patients received everolimus (10 mg day−1). The primary objective was to determine the 4-month progression-free survival (PFS) rate, assumed to be 30%. We additionally investigated the potential biomarkers for everolimus as an exploratory endpoint in those who underwent tumour biopsies.
Two patients (3.7%) achieved partial response and the disease control rate (DCR) was 38.9%. At a median follow-up duration of 8.7 months, the 4-month PFS rate was 18.4%, not fulfilling the primary hypothesis, with a median PFS of 1.7 months and a median overall survival of 8.3 months. The high expression of pS6Ser240/4 at baseline was significantly associated with higher DCR (P=0.043) and prolonged PFS (P=0.001). Grade 1/2 asthenia (96.3%) recorded as the leading toxicity and hyperglycaemia (20.4%) was the most common non-hematological grade 3/4 toxicity. Three patients experienced grade 3/4 pneumonitis. Notably, two experienced treatment-related deaths.
Everolimus is active against a limited number of patients with AGC. pS6Ser240/4 may be a potential predictive biomarker for everolimus, which requires validation. Careful monitoring is necessary despite generally favourable toxicity profile.
everolimus; advanced gastric cancer; biomarker
Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is less invasive than axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) for staging early breast cancer, and has a lower risk of arm lymphoedema and similar rates of locoregional recurrence up to 8 years. This study estimates the longer-term effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of SLNB.
A Markov decision model was developed to estimate the incremental quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and costs of an SLNB-based staging and management strategy compared with ALND over 20 years' follow-up. The probability and quality-of-life weighting (utility) of outcomes were estimated from published data and population statistics. Costs were estimated from the perspective of the Australian health care system. The model was used to identify key factors affecting treatment decisions.
The SLNB was more effective and less costly than the ALND over 20 years, with 8 QALYs gained and $883 000 saved per 1000 patients. The SLNB was less effective when: SLNB false negative (FN) rate >13% 5-year incidence of axillary recurrence after an SLNB FN>19% risk of an SLNB-positive result >48% lymphoedema prevalence after ALND <14% or lymphoedema utility decrement <0.012.
The long-term advantage of SLNB over ALND was modest and sensitive to variations in key assumptions, indicating a need for reliable information on lymphoedema incidence and disutility following SLNB. In addition to awaiting longer-term trial data, risk models to better identify patients at high risk of axillary metastasis will be valuable to inform decision-making.
cost; effectiveness; breast cancer; decision; model; sentinel node biopsy
Pin site infection is a common problem in external fixation. Plain gauze wetted with normal saline is commonly used for a pin site dressing owing to the simplicity and low cost. Evidence to support adding an antimicrobial agent in the dressing material is lacking.
We compared the rate of pin tract infection using plain gauze and gauze impregnated with polyhexamethylene biguanide in patients undergoing limb lengthening procedures.
Patients and Methods
We included 38 patients (40 limbs) undergoing limb lengthening or deformity correction using an external fixator between July 2009 and June 2010. There were 23 male patients and 15 female patients, with a mean age of 26.3 years (range, 5–68 years). The patients were randomized into two groups: a polyhexamethylene biguanide group (22 limbs) and a control group (18 limbs). The metal-skin interfaces were assessed by a researcher blinded to the type of gauze at 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks after surgery for the pin site infection based on a predetermined grading system. There were a total of 483 metal-skin interfaces, with 1932 total observations. Infection rates were compared using the chi square test and relative risk with 95% confidence interval.
The infection rate was lower (χ2 [1, n = 1932] = 23.00) and the risk for infection was lower (relative risk, 0.228; 95% confidence interval, 0.118, 0.443) for the polyhexamethylene biguanide group (n = 1068; 1.0%) than for the control group (n = 864; 4.5%).
Use of polyhexamethylene biguanide-impregnated gauze can reduce the risk of pin tract infection in external fixation.
Level of Evidence
Level I, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
Telomere length is critical for chromosome stability that affects cell proliferation and survival. Telomere elongation by telomerase is inhibited by the telomeric protein, TRF1. Tankyrase-1 (TNKS1) poly(ADP-ribosyl)ates TRF1 and releases TRF1 from telomeres, thereby allowing access of telomerase to the telomeres. TNKS1-mediated poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation also appears to be crucial for regulating the mitotic cell cycle. In searching for proteins that interact with polo-like kinase-1 (Plk1) by using complex proteomics, we identified TNKS1 as a novel Plk1-binding protein. Here, we report that Plk1 forms a complex with TNKS1 in vitro and in vivo, and phosphorylates TNKS1. Phosphorylation of TNKS1 by Plk1 appears to increase TNKS1 stability and telomeric poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activity. By contrast, targeted inhibition of Plk1 or mutation of phosphorylation sites decreased the stability and PARP activity of TNKS1, leading to distort mitotic spindle-pole assembly and telomeric ends. Taken together, our results provide evidence of a novel molecular mechanism in which phosphorylation of TNKS1 by Plk1 may help regulate mitotic spindle assembly and promote telomeric chromatin maintenance.
Polo-like kinase-1; Tankyrase-1; telomeres; proteomics; poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation; mitosis
Preoperative radiotherapy may improve the resectability and subsequent local control of rectal cancers. However, the extent of radiation induced regression in these tumours varies widely between individuals. To date no reliable predictive marker of radiation sensitivity in rectal cancer has been identified. At the cellular level, radiation injury initiates a complex molecular network of DNA damage response (DDR) pathways that leads to cell cycle arrest, attempts at re-constituting the damaged DNA and should this fail, then apoptosis. This review presents the details which suggest the roles of DNA mismatch repair proteins, the lack of which define a distinct subset of colorectal cancers with microsatellite instability (MSI), in the DDR pathways. Hence routine assessment of the MSI status in rectal cancers may potentially serve as a predictor of radiotherapy response, thereby improving patient stratification in the administration of this otherwise toxic treatment.
Rectal neoplasms; Radiotherapy sensitivity; Microsatellite instability; DNA damage response; DNA mismatch repair
Troxacitabine is a novel L-nucleoside analogue. Preclinical studies showed improved activity with infusions of at least 3 days compared with bolus regimens, especially at concentrations >20 ng/ml. This phase I study tested the feasibility of achieving a troxacitabine steady-state concentration of 20 ng/ml for at least 72 h in patients with solid tumors.
Patients and methods
Patients with solid tumors received troxacitabine as a progressively longer infusion on days 1–4 of a 28-day cycle. The initial length of infusion and infusion rate were 48 h and 3 mg/m2/day.
Twenty-one patients were treated at infusion lengths that increased from 48 to 72 h and then 96 h. The infusion rate was decreased from 3 to 1.88 mg/m2/day due to toxicity. Dose-limiting toxicities consisted of grade 4 neutropenia (three) and grade 3 constipation (one). The maximum tolerated dose of continuous infusion troxacitabine in patients with solid tumors is 7.5 mg/m2 administered over 96 h. This dose level resulted in steady-state drug concentration of at least 20 ng/ml for 72 h.
Administration of troxacitabine by continuous infusion achieved the prospectively defined target plasma concentration. Pharmacokinetics (PK) modeling coupled with real-time PK assessment was an efficient approach to conduct hypothesis-driven phase I trials.
continuous infusion; PK modeling; troxacitabine
Astrocytes regulate neuronal excitability and synaptic activity by releasing gliotransmitters such as glutamate. Our recent study demonstrated that astrocytes release glutamate upon GPCR activation via Ca2+ activated anion channel, Bestrophin-1 (Best1). The target of Best1-mediated astrocytic glutamate has been shown to be the neuronal NMDA receptors (NMDAR). However, whether it targets synaptically or extra-synaptically localized NMDAR is not known.
We recorded spontaneous miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) from CA1 pyramidal cells to test whether Best1-mediated astrocytic glutamate targets synaptic NMDAR. An agonist of protease activated receptor 1 (PAR1) was used to induce astrocytic Ca2+ increase and glutamate release. Firstly, we found that activation of PAR1 and subsequent release of glutamate from astrocyte does not alone increase the frequency of mEPSCs. Secondly, we found that mEPSC rise time is variable depending on the different electrotonic distances from the somatic recording site to the synaptic region where each mEPSC occurs. Two subgroups of mEPSC from CA1 pyramidal neuron by rise time were selected and analyzed. One group is fast rising mEPSCs with a rise time of 1 ~ 5 ms, representing synaptic activities arising from proximal dendrites. The other group is slowly rising mEPSCs with a rise time of 5 ~ 10 ms, representing synaptic events arising from glutamate release at synapses located in the distal dendrites. We used cell-type specific Best1 gene silencing system by Cre-loxP cleavage to dissociate the effect of neuronal and astrocytic Best1. Astrocytic Best1-mediated glutamate release by PAR1 activation did not affect decay kinetics, frequency, and amplitude of fast rising mEPSC. In contrast, PAR1 activation resulted in an NMDA receptor component to be present on slowly rising mEPSC, but did not alter frequency or amplitude.
Our results indicate that astrocytic glutamate via Best1 channel targets and activates synaptic NMDARs.
Astrocyte; Bestrophin-1; mEPSC; NMDAR
Transformation to a large cell lymphoma may occur during the course of chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL) in approximately 5% of the cases. This is known as Richter's transformation. A much less frequent transformation to Hodgkin lymphoma may occur. We report a case of CLL/SLL in which a transformation to Hodgkin lymphoma occurred, and we review previously published reports of this transformation. Transformation to Hodgkin lymphoma in CLL/SLL has a poor outcome compared to de novo cases of Hodgkin lymphoma.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships between the severity of appendicitis as depicted on CT and blood inflammatory markers of serum white blood cell (WBC) count and C-reactive protein (CRP).
CT images in 128 patients (109 surgically proven and 19 with clinically excluded appendicitis) were retrospectively reviewed. Two radiologists by consensus evaluated and scored (using a 0, 1 or 2 point scale) severities based on CT-determined appendiceal diameters, appendiceal wall changes, caecal changes, periappendiceal inflammatory stranding and phlegmon or abscess formation. We investigated whether CT findings were significantly related to elevated WBC counts or CRP levels and performed the correlations of WBC counts and CRP levels with CT severity scores. Patients were also subjectively classified using four grades from normal (Grade I) to perforated appendicitis (Grade IV) on the basis of CT findings to evaluate differences in WBC counts and CRP levels between grades.
Only appendiceal wall changes and the phlegmon or abscess formation were related to elevated WBC counts and CRP levels, respectively (p<0.05). CT severity scores were found to be more strongly correlated with CRP levels (r = 0.669) than with WBC counts (r = 0.222). On the basis of CT grades, the WBC counts in Grade I were significantly lower than in other grades (p<0.001), whereas CRP levels in Grade IV were significantly higher than in other grades (p<0.001).
CRP levels were found to correlate with CT-determined acute appendicitis severity and could be a useful predictor for perforated appendicitis, whereas WBC counts might be useful to detect early acute appendicitis.
Recently, microwave-induced melt granulation was shown to be a promising alternative to conventional melt granulation with improved process monitoring capabilities. This study aimed to compare the physicochemical and compaction properties of granules produced from microwave-induced and conventional melt granulation. Powder admixtures comprising equivalent proportions by weight of lactose 200 M and anhydrous dicalcium phosphate were granulated with polyethylene glycol 3350 under the influence of microwave-induced and conventional heating in a 10-L single pot high shear processor. The properties of the granules and compacts produced from the two processes were compared. Relative to conventional melt granulation, the rates at which the irradiated powders heated up in microwave-induced melt granulation were lower. Agglomerate growth proceeded at a slower rate, and this necessitated longer massing durations for growth induction. These factors prompted greater evaporative moisture losses from the melt granules. Additionally, nonuniform heating of the powders under the influence of microwaves led to increased inter-batch variations in the binder contents of resultant melt granules and a reliance of content homogeneity on massing duration. Agglomerate growth proceeded more rapidly under the influence of conventional heating due to the enhanced heating capabilities of the powders. Melt granules produced using the conventional method possessed higher moisture contents and improved content homogeneity. The compaction behavior of melt granules were affected by their mean sizes, porosities, flow properties, binder, and moisture contents. The last two factors were responsible for the disparities in compaction behavior of melt granules produced from microwave-induced and conventional melt granulation.
compaction; compressibility; high shear granulation; melt granulation; microwave
Glutamate is the major transmitter that mediates the principal form of excitatory synaptic transmission in the brain. It has been well established that glutamate is released via Ca2+-dependent exocytosis of glutamate-containing vesicles in neurons. However, whether astrocytes exocytose to release glutamate under physiological condition is still unclear.
We report a novel form of glutamate release in astrocytes via the recently characterized Ca2+-activated anion channel, Bestrophin-1 (Best1) by Ca2+ dependent mechanism through the channel pore. We demonstrate that upon activation of protease activated receptor 1 (PAR1), an increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration leads to an opening of Best1 channels and subsequent release of glutamate in cultured astrocytes.
These results provide strong molecular evidence for potential astrocyte-neuron interaction via Best1-mediated glutamate release.
Astrocyte; Bestrophin-1; Glutamate
Patients with platinum-sensitive recurrent ovarian cancer are a heterogeneous group, and it is not possible to accurately predict the progression-free survival (PFS) in these patients. We developed and validated a nomogram to help improve prediction of PFS in patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy.
The nomogram was developed in a training cohort (n=955) from the CALYPSO trial and validated in the AGO-OVAR 2.5 Study (n=340). The proportional-hazards model (nomogram) was based on pre-treatment characteristics.
The nomogram had a concordance index (C-index) of 0.645. Significant predictors were tumour size platinum-chemotherapy-free interval, CA-125, number of organ metastatic sites and white blood count. When the nomogram was applied without CA-125 (CA-125 was not available in validation cohort), the C-indices were 0.624 (training) and 0.594 (validation). When classification was based only on the platinum-chemotherapy-free interval, the indices were 0.571 (training) and 0.560 (validation). The calibration plot in the validation cohort based on four predictors (without CA-125) suggested good agreement between actual and nomogram-predicted 12-month PFS probabilities.
This nomogram, using five pre-treatment characteristics, improves prediction of PFS in patients with platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer having platinum-based chemotherapy. It will be useful for the design and stratification of patients in clinical trials and also for counselling patients.
nomogram; recurrent ovarian cancer; prognosis; platinum sensitivity; progression-free survival
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of acute, oral modafinil (200 mg) exposure on daytime sleepiness in methamphetamine (Meth)-dependent individuals. Eighteen Meth-dependent subjects were enrolled in a 7-d inpatient study and were administered placebo or modafinil on day 6 and the counter-condition on day 7 (randomized) of the protocol. Subjects completed several subjective daily assessments (such as the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Beck Depression Inventory and visual analogue scale) throughout the protocol as well as objective assessments on days 5–7, when the Multiple Sleep Latency Test was performed. The results of the current study suggest that short-term abstinence from Meth is associated with increased daytime sleepiness and that a single dose of 200 mg modafinil reduces daytime somnolence in this population. In addition, a positive correlation was found between subjective reporting of the likelihood of taking a nap and craving and desire for Meth, as well as the likelihood of using Meth and whether Meth would make the participant feel better. The results of this study should be considered when investigating candidate medications for Meth-dependence, especially in those individuals who attribute their Meth use to overcoming deficits resulting from sleep abnormalities.
Methamphetamine; modafinil; sleep
In Asia, large-scale studies on anti-HER2 treatment in HER2-positive breast cancer patients with brain metastases are limited. We studied the treatment patterns of these patients in Asia to evaluate the impact of anti-HER2 treatment on the time to occurrence of brain metastases (TTBM) and survival after brain metastasis (BM).
A retrospective study of HER2-positive breast cancer patients diagnosed with BM between January 2006 and December 2008 in six Asian countries was conducted. Demographics, tumour characteristics, treatment details, and events dates were collected from medical records.
Data from 280 patients were analysed. Before BM, 63% received anti-HER2 treatment. These patients had significantly longer TTBM than those without anti-HER2 treatment (median 33 vs 19 months; P<0.002). After BM, 93% received radiotherapy, 57% received chemotherapy, and 41% received anti-HER2 treatment (trastuzumab and/or lapatinib). Use of both anti-HER2 agents, primarily sequentially, after BM demonstrated the longest survival after BM and was associated with a significant survival benefit over no anti-HER2 treatment (median 26 vs 6 months; hazard ratio 0.37; 95% CI 0.19–0.72).
Anti-HER2 treatment before BM was associated with longer TTBM. Anti-HER2 treatment after BM was associated with a survival benefit, especially when both trastuzumab and lapatinib were utilised.
Asian; HER2-positive breast cancer; brain metastases; lapatinib; trastuzumab; survival
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in CNS, has been demonstrated to paradoxically produce excitation even in mature brain. However activity-dependent form of GABA excitation in cortical neurons has not been observed. Here we report that after an intense electrical stimulation adult cortical neurons displayed a transient GABA excitation that lasted for about 30s.
Whole-cell patch recordings were performed to evaluate the effects of briefly applied GABA on pyramidal neurons in adult rodent sensorimotor cortical slice before and after 1 s, 20 Hz suprathreshold electrical stimulation of the junction between layer 6 and the underlying white matter (L6/WM stimulation). Immediately after L6/WM stimulation, GABA puffs produced neuronal depolarization in the center of the column-shaped region. However, both prior to or 30s after stimulation GABA puffs produced hyperpolarization of neurons. 2-photon imaging in neurons infected with adenovirus carrying a chloride sensor Clomeleon revealed that GABA induced depolarization is due to an increase in [Cl-]i after stimulation. To reveal the spatial extent of excitatory action of GABA, isoguvacine, a GABAA receptors agonist, was applied right after stimulation while monitoring the intracellular Ca2+ concentration in pyramidal neurons. Isoguvacine induced an increase in [Ca2+]i in pyramidal neurons especially in the center of the column but not in the peripheral regions of the column. The global pattern of the Ca2+ signal showed a column-shaped distribution along the stimulation site.
These results demonstrate that the well-known inhibitory transmitter GABA rapidly switches from hyperpolarization to depolarization upon synaptic activity in adult somatosensory cortical neurons.
The molecular determinants of the severity and persistence of allergic asthma remain poorly understood. Suppressor Of Cytokine Signaling 1 (SOCS1) is a negative regulator of interleukin (IL)-4-dependent pathways in vitro and might therefore, control T helper type 2 (Th2) immunity associated traits, such as IgE levels, mucin production, IL-5 and IL-13 induction, and eosinophilic mucosal inflammation, which are implicated in allergic asthma.
To investigate the role of SOCS1 in regulating Th2-associated disease traits in a murine sub-chronic aeroallergen-driven asthma model.
Following sensitization and challenge with ovalbumin (OVA), bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and serum were collected from mice lacking the Socs1 gene on an interferon γ (IFN-γ) null background (Socs1−/−Ifnγ−/−). The composition of infiltrating cells in the lung, serum IgE and IgG1 levels and cytokine levels were analysed.
Serum IgE levels and infiltrating eosinophils were greatly increased in the lungs of OVA-treated Socs1−/−Ifnγ−/− mice compared to Ifnγ−/− and C57BL/6 controls. Expression of the Th2 cytokines, IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 was increased in CD4+ cells and lung tissue from OVA-treated Socs1−/−Ifnγ−/− mice. IgE, IL-5 levels and infiltrating eosinophils were also elevated in saline-treated Socs1−/−Ifnγ−/− mice, suggesting that in the absence of SOCS1, mice are already biased towards a Th2 response. It is at present unclear whether the elevated cytokine levels are sufficient to result in the exacerbated Th2-response to OVA challenge or whether enhanced intracellular signalling also contributes. Surprisingly, of the various IL-4/IL-13 responsive genes tested, only Arginase I appeared to be modestly up-regulated in the lungs of OVA-treated Socs1−/−Ifnγ−/− mice, suggesting that regulation by SOCS1 occurs primarily in hematopoietic cells and not in the airway epithelium.
Together these results indicate that SOCS1 is an important regulator of the Th2 response.
SOCS1; asthma; Th2 type cytokines; bronchoalveolar lavage; eosinophils
The diabetic Charcot foot syndrome is a serious and potentially limb-threatening lower-extremity complication of diabetes. First described in 1883, this enigmatic condition continues to challenge even the most experienced practitioners. Now considered an inflammatory syndrome, the diabetic Charcot foot is characterized by varying degrees of bone and joint disorganization secondary to underlying neuropathy, trauma, and perturbations of bone metabolism. An international task force of experts was convened by the American Diabetes Association and the American Podiatric Medical Association in January 2011 to summarize available evidence on the pathophysiology, natural history, presentations, and treatment recommendations for this entity.