Purpose: Sodium stibogluconate (SSG), a small molecule inhibitor of protein tyrosine phosphatases, combined with IFN-alpha-2b (IFN-α) inhibited solid tumor cell line growth in vitro. We conducted a phase I clinical trial with SSG plus IFN-α in advanced cancer patients to assess tolerance, maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and immune system effects.
Experimental Design: SSG was administered intravenously alone for five days of week 1, cycle 1 (21 days per cycle) and together with IFN-α 2b s (3 million units sc TIW) in week 2, and after a rest during week 3, on a 2-week on/1-week off cycle. SSG dose levels were 400, 600, 900, 1125, and 1350 mg/m2.
Results: Twenty-four patients were studied. Common toxicities included asymptomatic elevated serum lipase, thrombocytopenia, fatigue, fever, chills and anemia. The dose-limiting toxicities (DLT) were hypokalemia, thrombocytopenia, fatigue, pancreatitis and skin rash. The MTD was 900 mg/m2 SSG and IFN-α, 3 million units TIW. At this dose, patients had a significantly lower number of regulatory T cells (TR Cells) (p = 0.012), myeloid dendritic cells (mDC) (p = 0.028); higher percentage of natural killer (NK) cells that synthesized perforin (p = 0.046) and of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) that secreted IFN-α (p = 0.018) in response to activation through toll-like receptor (TLR) 7 and TLR 8 by CL097, the highly water-soluble derivative of the imidazoquinoline compound R848.
Conclusions: SSG in combination with IFN-α 2b was well tolerated and augmented cellular immune parameters.