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1.  Development of a computer-tailored nutrition and physical activity intervention for lower-educated women of Dutch, Turkish and Moroccan origin using content matching and ethnic identity tailoring 
BMC Public Health  2016;16:924.
Background
Unhealthy dietary and physical activity (PA) patterns are highly prevalent in most Western countries, especially among lower-educated and ethnic minority groups. Therefore, interventions to promote healthy eating and physical activity that can reach large numbers of lower-educated people are needed. When developing interventions, the ethnic diversity of the lower-educated population may be taken into account to make intervention material more appealing to the target group. This article describes the development and evaluation of two computer-tailored nutrition and physical activity interventions for lower-educated Dutch, Turkish and Moroccan women. One version is tailored to sociocognitive variables (traditional tailoring), while the other is additionally tailored to ethnic identity (EI-tailoring).
Method
Using intervention mapping, two evidence- and theory-based interventions were developed. In the traditional tailoring intervention, messages are tailored to health behavior, awareness of own behavior, attitude and self-efficacy. The behavior change techniques used to address these factors are: descriptive and evaluative feedback, arguments, modeling, goal setting, planning, barrier identification and advice on how to deal with barriers, stimulating resistance to social pressure, mobilization of social support (nontailored), active learning (nontailored) and iterative feedback. In the EI-tailoring intervention, the material is additionally tailored to ethnic identity (EI). This means that recipients who feel strongly attached to their ethnic background receive different intervention material than recipients with a weak attachment to their background. This includes, for instance, the use of more traditional colors, role models that match with their origin and advice messages that refer to their ethnicity of origin.
Discussion
Developing an intervention that matches the needs of this specific target population was challenging due to the little evidence regarding the determinants of their health behavior, as well as the behavioral change techniques that have not been tested among Turkish and Moroccan women in the Netherlands before. Based on previous research among this and other target populations we hypothesize, however, that the determinants and strategies we use will be suitable. A randomized controlled trial will show whether the interventions are effective among our specific target group and whether EI-tailoring is beneficial.
Trial registration
Dutch Trial Registry NTR4506, registration date: 1st may 2014
doi:10.1186/s12889-016-3596-6
PMCID: PMC5010670  PMID: 27590408
Nutrition; Physical activity; Computer tailoring; Print-delivered intervention; Ethnic identity tailoring; Turkish; Moroccan; Dutch; Evidence-based; Theory-based
2.  Use and Appreciation of a Tailored Self-Management eHealth Intervention for Early Cancer Survivors: Process Evaluation of a Randomized Controlled Trial 
Background
A fully automated computer-tailored Web-based self-management intervention, Kanker Nazorg Wijzer (KNW [Cancer Aftercare Guide]), was developed to support early cancer survivors to adequately cope with psychosocial complaints and to promote a healthy lifestyle. The KNW self-management training modules target the following topics: return to work, fatigue, anxiety and depression, relationships, physical activity, diet, and smoking cessation. Participants were guided to relevant modules by personalized module referral advice that was based on participants’ current complaints and identified needs.
Objective
The aim of this study was to evaluate the adherence to the module referral advice, examine the KNW module use and its predictors, and describe the appreciation of the KNW and its predictors. Additionally, we explored predictors of personal relevance.
Methods
From the respondents (N=231; mean age 55.6, SD 11.5; 79.2% female [183/231]), 98.3% (227/231) were referred to one or more KNW modules (mean 2.9, SD 1.5), and 85.7% (198/231) of participants visited at least one module (mean 2.1, SD 1.6). Significant positive associations were found between the referral to specific modules (range 1-7) and the use of corresponding modules. The likelihoods of visiting modules were higher when respondents were referred to those modules by the module referral advice. Predictors of visiting a higher number of modules were a higher number of referrals by the module referral advice (β=.136, P=.009), and having a partner was significantly related with a lower number of modules used (β=-.256, P=.044). Overall appreciation was high (mean 7.5, SD 1.2; scale 1-10) and was significantly predicted by a higher perceived personal relevance (β=.623, P=.000). None of the demographic and cancer-related characteristics significantly predicted the perceived personal relevance.
Results
The KNW in general and more specifically the KNW modules were well used and highly appreciated by early cancer survivors. Results indicated that the module referral advice might be a meaningful intervention component to guide the users in following a preferred selection of modules. These results indicate that the fully automated Web-based KNW provides personal relevant and valuable information and support for early cancer survivors. Therefore, this intervention can complement usual cancer aftercare and may serve as a first step in a stepped-care approach.
Conclusions
The KNW in general and more specifically the KNW modules were well used and highly appreciated by early cancer survivors. Indications were found that the module referral advice might be a meaningful intervention component to guide the users in following a preferred selection of modules. These results indicate that the fully automated Web-based KNW provides personal relevant and valuable information and support for early cancer survivors. Therefore, this intervention can complement usual cancer aftercare and may serve as a first step in a stepped-care approach.
Trial Registration
Nederlands Trial Register: NTR3375; http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=3375 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6jo4jO7kb)
doi:10.2196/jmir.5975
PMCID: PMC5013245  PMID: 27554525
eHealth; web-based intervention; computer tailoring; cancer survivorship; intervention usage; appreciation; multiple behavior intervention; process evaluation; self-management
3.  Similarities and differences in underlying beliefs of socio-cognitive factors related to diet and physical activity in lower-educated Dutch, Turkish, and Moroccan adults in the Netherlands: a focus group study 
BMC Public Health  2016;16:813.
Background
Unhealthy eating patterns and a lack of physical activity (PA) are highly prevalent in most Western countries, especially among lower-educated people, including people of non-Western origin. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the beliefs and barriers that underlie socio-cognitive and planning constructs related to healthy eating and PA among lower-educated Dutch, Turkish, and Moroccan adults.
Methods
Focus group interviews were conducted with 90 Dutch, Turkish, and Moroccan lower-educated adults between March and August 2012. Five semi-structured group interviews were conducted with Dutch participants, five with Turkish participants, and four with Moroccan participants. Men and women were interviewed separately. The question route was based on the Theory of Planned Behavior and self-regulation theories. The theoretical method used for the qualitative data analysis was content analysis. The interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed by applying the framework approach.
Results
Some participants seemed to lack knowledge of healthy eating and PA, especially regarding the health consequences of an unhealthy lifestyle. Important attitude beliefs concerning healthy eating and PA were taste and health benefits. Participants suggested that social support can encourage the actual performance of healthy behavior. For instance, exercising with other people was perceived as being supportive. Perceived barriers to PA and cooking healthily were a lack of time and tiredness. These previously mentioned beliefs arose in all the ethnic groups. Differences were also found in beliefs between the ethnic groups, which were mainly related to religious and cultural issues. Turkish and Moroccan participants discussed, for example, that the Koran contains the recommendation to eat in moderation and to take care of one’s body. Furthermore, they reported that refusing food when offered is difficult, as it can be perceived as an insult. Finally, men and women usually cannot exercise in the same location, which was perceived as a barrier. These factors did not emerge in the Dutch groups.
Conclusions
The same cognitive beliefs were discussed in all three ethnic groups. The importance of cultural and religious factors appeared to be the most significant difference between the Turkish/Moroccan groups and the Dutch groups. Accordingly, interventions for all three ethnic groups should focus on socio-cognitive beliefs, whereas interventions for Turkish and Moroccan populations can additionally take religious and cultural rules into account.
doi:10.1186/s12889-016-3480-4
PMCID: PMC4989297  PMID: 27534933
Nutrition; Physical activity; Determinants; Culture; Low educated; Ethnicity; Qualitative; Focus group
4.  Lifestyle-related effects of the web-based Kanker Nazorg Wijzer (Cancer Aftercare Guide) intervention for cancer survivors: a randomized controlled trial 
Journal of Cancer Survivorship  2016;10(5):883-897.
Purpose
The web-based Kanker Nazorg Wijzer (Cancer Aftercare Guide) responds to the needs of cancer survivors and oncology care providers to improve the counseling related to self-management of lifestyle and psychosocial challenges. In present study, overall intervention effects and the effects of using specific components were evaluated on vegetable, fruit, whole grain bread, and fish consumption, physical activity (PA), and smoking behavior.
Methods
Cancer survivors from 21 Dutch hospitals were recruited for a randomized controlled trial (N = 432). Intervention effects after 6 months were evaluated using multilevel linear regression analysis (complete cases and intention-to-treat). By conducting moderation analyses, additional effects of following the behavior-related modules were explored. The false discovery rate correction was applied to account for multiple testing.
Results
After 6 months, 409 participants completed follow-up (dropout = 11.5 %). Indications were found that access to the intervention may result in increases of moderate PA and vegetable intake. The moderate PA increase was meaningful: 74.74 min p/w higher increase in the intervention condition. Effect sizes of moderate PA (d = .25) and vegetable (d = .37) consumption were comparable to prior effective interventions. Visiting behavior-related modules affected moderate PA, fruit, and fish consumption. However, after correction for multiple testing, significances expired. No significant intervention effect was found on smoking behavior due to low numbers of smokers.
Implications for Cancer Survivors
Although the effectiveness was only shown only to a limited extend, this study provided several indications that this theory-based, comprehensive, and personalized eHealth intervention provides valuable content to complement usual cancer aftercare.
doi:10.1007/s11764-016-0535-6
PMCID: PMC5018034  PMID: 26984534
Cancer survivorship; Physical activity; Nutrition; Smoking; eHealth; Computer tailoring
5.  Prevalence and correlates of healthy lifestyle behaviors among early cancer survivors 
BMC Cancer  2016;16:4.
Background
Healthy lifestyle behaviors have been demonstrated to be beneficial for positive health outcomes and the quality of life in cancer survivors. However, adherence to recommendations is low. More insight is needed in factors that may explain engagement in lifestyle behaviors to develop effective cancer aftercare interventions. This study assessed different factors, namely socio-demographic, cancer-related, psychological, social cognitive factors (attitude, social support, self-efficacy) and intention, in relationship to five lifestyle behaviors (smoking, physical activity, alcohol, and fruit and vegetable consumption).
Methods
Early survivors of various types of cancer were recruited from eighteen Dutch Hospitals (n = 255). Distal factors (socio-demographic, cancer related, psychological), proximal factors (social cognitive), intention and five lifestyle behaviors (smoking, physical activity, alcohol, fruit and vegetable consumption) were assessed through a self-reported questionnaire. Cross-sectional analyses (correlations and regression analyses) were conducted.
Results
The lifestyle of a small group (11 %) of the cancer survivors was coherent with all five health recommendations, the majority (>80 %) adhered to two, three of four recommendations, and only few (<7 %) adhered to one or none recommendation. The highest prevalence in followed recommendations have been detected in physical activity (87.4 %), refrain from smoking (82 %), and alcohol consumption (75.4 %). There was low adherence to the fruit recommendation (54.8 %) and to the vegetable recommendation (27.4 %). Only weak associations were found between the different behaviors. Each separate lifestyle behavior was influenced by different patterns of correlates. Self-efficacy, attitude, and intention were the strongest correlates in all examined behaviors, although with various contributions, while socio-demographic, cancer-related and psychological factors provided a much smaller contribution.
Conclusions
Outcomes of engagement in healthy lifestyle behaviors were more positive in this study compared to other research in cancer survivors; however, there is room for improvements in adherence to all five lifestyle behaviors. Especially fruit consumption was poor and vegetable consumption even worse. Our findings emphasized that all examined lifestyle behaviors need to be encouraged, with taken into account that each lifestyle behavior may be influenced by a specific set of mainly social cognitive factors or intention.
doi:10.1186/s12885-015-2019-x
PMCID: PMC4702377  PMID: 26732757
Cancer survivors; Health behaviors; Physical activity; Nutrition guidelines; Smoking; Alcohol drinking; Self-efficacy; Behavior mechanisms
6.  Patient and Provider Perspectives on HIV and HIV-Related Stigma in Dutch Health Care Settings 
AIDS Patient Care and STDs  2014;28(12):652-665.
Abstract
Ensuring that people living with HIV (PLWH) feel accepted in health care settings is imperative. This mixed methods study explored the perspectives of PLWH and health professionals on their interactions. A total of 262 predominantly gay men of Dutch origin participated in a survey study of possible negative interactions with health professionals, and semi-structured interviews were subsequently conducted with 22 PLWH and 14 health professionals. Again, most PLWH were gay men of Dutch origin. All health professionals were Dutch. PLWH reported negative experiences with health professionals including awkward interactions, irrelevant questions, rude treatment, blame, pity, excessive or differential precautions, care refusal, unnecessary referrals, delayed treatment, poor support, and confidentiality breaches. They also reported positive experiences including equal treatment, being valued as a partner in one's health, social support provision, and confidentiality assurances. Health professionals reported having little experience with PLWH and only basic knowledge of HIV. They contended that PLWH are treated equally and that HIV is no longer stigmatized, but also reported fear of occupational infection, resulting in differential precautions. Additionally, they conveyed labeling PLWH's files to warn others, and curiosity regarding how patients acquired HIV. The findings suggest that there is a gap in perception between PLWH and health professionals regarding the extent to which negative interactions occur, and that these interactions should be improved. Implications for stigma reduction and care optimization are discussed.
doi:10.1089/apc.2014.0226
PMCID: PMC4250939  PMID: 25459231
7.  Comparing a Video and Text Version of a Web-Based Computer-Tailored Intervention for Obesity Prevention: A Randomized Controlled Trial 
Background
Web-based computer-tailored interventions often suffer from small effect sizes and high drop-out rates, particularly among people with a low level of education. Using videos as a delivery format can possibly improve the effects and attractiveness of these interventions
Objective
The main aim of this study was to examine the effects of a video and text version of a Web-based computer-tailored obesity prevention intervention on dietary intake, physical activity, and body mass index (BMI) among Dutch adults. A second study aim was to examine differences in appreciation between the video and text version. The final study aim was to examine possible differences in intervention effects and appreciation per educational level.
Methods
A three-armed randomized controlled trial was conducted with a baseline and 6 months follow-up measurement. The intervention consisted of six sessions, lasting about 15 minutes each. In the video version, the core tailored information was provided by means of videos. In the text version, the same tailored information was provided in text format. Outcome variables were self-reported and included BMI, physical activity, energy intake, and appreciation of the intervention. Multiple imputation was used to replace missing values. The effect analyses were carried out with multiple linear regression analyses and adjusted for confounders. The process evaluation data were analyzed with independent samples t tests.
Results
The baseline questionnaire was completed by 1419 participants and the 6 months follow-up measurement by 1015 participants (71.53%). No significant interaction effects of educational level were found on any of the outcome variables. Compared to the control condition, the video version resulted in lower BMI (B=-0.25, P=.049) and lower average daily energy intake from energy-dense food products (B=-175.58, P<.001), while the text version had an effect only on energy intake (B=-163.05, P=.001). No effects on physical activity were found. Moreover, the video version was rated significantly better than the text version on feelings of relatedness (P=.041), usefulness (P=.047), and grade given to the intervention (P=.018).
Conclusions
The video version of the Web-based computer-tailored obesity prevention intervention was the most effective intervention and most appreciated. Future research needs to examine if the effects are maintained in the long term and how the intervention can be optimized.
ClinicalTrial
Netherlands Trial Register: NTR3501; http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=3501 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6cBKIMaW1)
doi:10.2196/jmir.4083
PMCID: PMC4642381  PMID: 26481772
randomized controlled trial; web-based; computer-tailoring; obesity; educational level; delivery strategy
8.  Use and Effectiveness of a Video- and Text-Driven Web-Based Computer-Tailored Intervention: Randomized Controlled Trial 
Background
Many Web-based computer-tailored interventions are characterized by high dropout rates, which limit their potential impact.
Objective
This study had 4 aims: (1) examining if the use of a Web-based computer-tailored obesity prevention intervention can be increased by using videos as the delivery format, (2) examining if the delivery of intervention content via participants’ preferred delivery format can increase intervention use, (3) examining if intervention effects are moderated by intervention use and matching or mismatching intervention delivery format preference, (4) and identifying which sociodemographic factors and intervention appreciation variables predict intervention use.
Methods
Data were used from a randomized controlled study into the efficacy of a video and text version of a Web-based computer-tailored obesity prevention intervention consisting of a baseline measurement and a 6-month follow-up measurement. The intervention consisted of 6 weekly sessions and could be used for 3 months. ANCOVAs were conducted to assess differences in use between the video and text version and between participants allocated to a matching and mismatching intervention delivery format. Potential moderation by intervention use and matching/mismatching delivery format on self-reported body mass index (BMI), physical activity, and energy intake was examined using regression analyses with interaction terms. Finally, regression analysis was performed to assess determinants of intervention use.
Results
In total, 1419 participants completed the baseline questionnaire (follow-up response=71.53%, 1015/1419). Intervention use declined rapidly over time; the first 2 intervention sessions were completed by approximately half of the participants and only 10.9% (104/956) of the study population completed all 6 sessions of the intervention. There were no significant differences in use between the video and text version. Intervention use was significantly higher among participants who were allocated to an intervention condition that matched their preferred intervention delivery format. There were no significant interaction terms for any of the outcome variables; a match and more intervention use did not result in better intervention effects. Participants with a high BMI and participants who felt involved and supported by the intervention were more likely to use the intervention more often.
Conclusions
Video delivery of tailored feedback does not increase the use of Web-based computer-tailored interventions. However, intervention use can potentially be increased by delivering intervention content via participants’ preferred intervention delivery format and creating feelings of relatedness. Because more intervention use was not associated with better intervention outcomes, more research is needed to examine the optimum number of intervention sessions in terms of maximizing use and effects.
Trial Registration
Nederlands Trial Register: NTR3501; http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=3501 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6b2tsH8Pk)
doi:10.2196/jmir.4496
PMCID: PMC4642388  PMID: 26408488
intervention use; Web-based; computer tailoring; obesity; educational level; delivery strategy; matching
9.  Long term effects of self-determination theory and motivational interviewing in a web-based physical activity intervention: randomized controlled trial 
Background
Our main objective in the current study was to evaluate the long-term effectiveness (12 months from baseline) of I Move (a web-based computer tailored physical activity intervention, based on self-determination theory and motivational interviewing). To this end, we compared I Move to a web-based computer tailored physical activity intervention based on traditional health behavior theories (Active Plus), and to a no-intervention control group. As a secondary objective, the present study aimed to identify participant characteristics that moderate the long term effects of I Move and Active Plus.
Methods
A randomized controlled trial was conducted, comparing three research conditions: 1) the I Move condition, participants in this condition received I Move; 2) the Active Plus condition, participants in this condition received Active Plus; 3) the control condition; participants in this condition received no intervention and were placed on a waiting list. Main outcome measures were weekly minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity and weekly days with minimal 30 min of physical activity. All measurements were taken by web-based questionnaires via the study website. Intervention effects were analyzed using multilevel linear regression analyses.
Results
At 12 months from baseline, I Move was found to be effective in increasing weekly minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity (ES = .13), while Active Plus was not. In contrast, Active Plus was found to be effective in increasing weekly days with ≥ 30 min PA at 12 months (ES = .11), while I Move was not. No moderators of the effects of I Move were found.
Conclusions
The results suggest that web-based computer tailored physical activity interventions might best include elements based on both self-determination theory/motivational interviewing and traditional health behavioral theories. To be more precise, it is arguable that the focus of the theoretical foundations, used in new web-based PA interventions should depend on the intended program outcome. In order to draw firm conclusions, however, more research on the effects of self-determination theory and motivational interviewing in web-based physical activity promotion is needed.
Trial registration
Dutch Trial Register NTR4129
doi:10.1186/s12966-015-0262-9
PMCID: PMC4538737  PMID: 26283094
Physical activity; Motivational interviewing; Self-determination theory
10.  The Kanker Nazorg Wijzer (Cancer Aftercare Guide) protocol: the systematic development of a web-based computer tailored intervention providing psychosocial and lifestyle support for cancer survivors 
BMC Cancer  2015;15:580.
Background
After primary treatment, many cancer survivors experience psychosocial, physical, and lifestyle problems. To address these issues, we developed a web-based computer tailored intervention, the Kanker Nazorg Wijzer (Cancer Aftercare Guide), aimed at providing psychosocial and lifestyle support for cancer survivors. The purpose of this article is to describe the systematic development and the study design for evaluation of this theory and empirical based intervention.
Methods/design
For the development of the intervention, the steps of the Intervention Mapping protocol were followed. A needs assessment was performed consisting of a literature study, focus group interviews, and a survey study to get more insight into cancer survivors’ health issues. This resulted in seven problem areas that were addressed in the intervention: cancer-related fatigue, return to work, anxiety and depression, social relationships and intimacy, physical activity, diet, and smoking. To address these problem areas, the principles of problem-solving therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy are used. At the start of the intervention, participants have to fill in a screening questionnaire. Based on their answers, participants receive tailored advice about which problem areas deserve their attention. Participants were recruited from November 2013 through June 2014 by hospital staff from 21 hospitals in the Netherlands. Patients were selected either during follow-up visits to the hospital or from reviews of the patients’ files. The effectiveness of the intervention is being tested in a randomized controlled trial consisting of an intervention group (n = 231) and waiting list control group (n = 231) with a baseline measurement and follow-up measurements at 3, 6, and 12 months.
Discussion
Using the Intervention Mapping protocol resulted in a theory and evidence-based intervention providing tailored advice to cancer survivors on how to cope with psychosocial and lifestyle issues after primary treatment.
Trial registration
Dutch Trial Register NTR3375
doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1588-z
PMCID: PMC4532144  PMID: 26260318
Cancer survivorship; eHealth; Quality of life; Psychosocial well-being; Lifestyle; Intervention Mapping; Computer tailoring; Problem-solving; Cognitive behavioral therapy
11.  Long-term efficacy of a Web-based computer-tailored nutrition education intervention for adults including cognitive and environmental feedback: a randomized controlled trial 
BMC Public Health  2015;15:372.
Background
Unhealthy diets are prevalent in Western countries, especially among low-educated people. To have an effect on health, it is important that dietary changes are sustained over time. This study examines long-term effects of a cognitive and environmental-feedback version of a Web-based computer-tailored (CT) nutrition education intervention targeting fruit, vegetables, high-energy snacks and saturated fat.
Methods
A randomized controlled trial was conducted with a basic (tailored intervention targeting individual cognitions and self-regulation processes; n = 456), plus (additionally targeting environmental-level factors; n = 459) and control group (generic nutrition information; n = 434). Participants were recruited from the general population and randomly assigned to a study group. Online self-reported questionnaires assessed fruit, vegetable, high-energy snack and saturated fat intake, self-regulation, self-control, and Body Mass Index (BMI) at baseline and nine-months post-intervention. Linear mixed model analyses examined group differences in change over time. Educational differences were examined by ‘group X time X education’ interaction terms. Effects were examined in the total sample and among participants who did not comply with dietary- or BMI guidelines.
Results
The effects on vegetable intake in the total sample differed according to educational level (p = 02). Among low/moderate-educated participants, the basic version was significantly more effective in increasing vegetable intake than the control program (effect size (ES) = 0.32) and plus version (ES = 0.22). No effects were found for high-educated participants. Self-regulation change was significantly larger in the control group than in the basic (ES = 0.18) and plus (ES = 0.16) group.
Conclusions
In general, both intervention versions did not result in long-term intervention effects. The exception was an effect of the basic version on self-reported vegetable intake among low/moderate-educated adults in the total sample. More research is needed on how targeting self-regulation processes and environmental-level factors in Web-based CT nutrition education interventions can increase long-term efficacy.
Trial registration
Netherlands Trial Registry NTR3396.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12889-015-1707-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s12889-015-1707-4
PMCID: PMC4424509  PMID: 25887891
Cognitive feedback; Environmental-level feedback; Self-regulation; Computer tailoring; Nutrition education; Fruit intake; Vegetable intake; Fat intake; High-energy snack intake
12.  Profiling physical activity motivation based on self-determination theory: a cluster analysis approach 
BMC Psychology  2015;3(1):1.
Background
In order to promote physical activity uptake and maintenance in individuals who do not comply with physical activity guidelines, it is important to increase our understanding of physical activity motivation among this group. The present study aimed to examine motivational profiles in a large sample of adults who do not comply with physical activity guidelines.
Methods
The sample for this study consisted of 2473 individuals (31.4% male; age 44.6 ± 12.9). In order to generate motivational profiles based on motivational regulation, a cluster analysis was conducted. One-way analyses of variance were then used to compare the clusters in terms of demographics, physical activity level, motivation to be active and subjective experience while being active.
Results
Three motivational clusters were derived based on motivational regulation scores: a low motivation cluster, a controlled motivation cluster and an autonomous motivation cluster. These clusters differed significantly from each other with respect to physical activity behavior, motivation to be active and subjective experience while being active. Overall, the autonomous motivation cluster displayed more favorable characteristics compared to the other two clusters.
Conclusions
The results of this study provide additional support for the importance of autonomous motivation in the context of physical activity behavior. The three derived clusters may be relevant in the context of physical activity interventions as individuals within the different clusters might benefit most from different intervention approaches. In addition, this study shows that cluster analysis is a useful method for differentiating between motivational profiles in large groups of individuals who do not comply with physical activity guidelines.
doi:10.1186/s40359-015-0059-2
PMCID: PMC4310201  PMID: 25678981
Physical activity; Self-determination theory; Motivational profile
13.  Short- and Medium-Term Efficacy of a Web-Based Computer-Tailored Nutrition Education Intervention for Adults Including Cognitive and Environmental Feedback: Randomized Controlled Trial 
Background
Web-based, computer-tailored nutrition education interventions can be effective in modifying self-reported dietary behaviors. Traditional computer-tailored programs primarily targeted individual cognitions (knowledge, awareness, attitude, self-efficacy). Tailoring on additional variables such as self-regulation processes and environmental-level factors (the home food environment arrangement and perception of availability and prices of healthy food products in supermarkets) may improve efficacy and effect sizes (ES) of Web-based computer-tailored nutrition education interventions.
Objective
This study evaluated the short- and medium-term efficacy and educational differences in efficacy of a cognitive and environmental feedback version of a Web-based computer-tailored nutrition education intervention on self-reported fruit, vegetable, high-energy snack, and saturated fat intake compared to generic nutrition information in the total sample and among participants who did not comply with dietary guidelines (the risk groups).
Methods
A randomized controlled trial was conducted with a basic (tailored intervention targeting individual cognition and self-regulation processes; n=456), plus (basic intervention additionally targeting environmental-level factors; n=459), and control (generic nutrition information; n=434) group. Participants were recruited from the general population and randomly assigned to a study group. Self-reported fruit, vegetable, high-energy snack, and saturated fat intake were assessed at baseline and at 1- (T1) and 4-months (T2) postintervention using online questionnaires. Linear mixed model analyses examined group differences in change over time. Educational differences were examined with group×time×education interaction terms.
Results
In the total sample, the basic (T1: ES=–0.30; T2: ES=–0.18) and plus intervention groups (T1: ES=–0.29; T2: ES=–0.27) had larger decreases in high-energy snack intake than the control group. The basic version resulted in a larger decrease in saturated fat intake than the control intervention (T1: ES=–0.19; T2: ES=–0.17). In the risk groups, the basic version caused larger decreases in fat (T1: ES=–0.28; T2: ES=–0.28) and high-energy snack intake (T1: ES=–0.34; T2: ES=–0.20) than the control intervention. The plus version resulted in a larger increase in fruit (T1: ES=0.25; T2: ES=0.37) and a larger decrease in high-energy snack intake (T1: ES=–0.38; T2: ES=–0.32) than the control intervention. For high-energy snack intake, educational differences were found. Stratified analyses showed that the plus version was most effective for high-educated participants.
Conclusions
Both intervention versions were more effective in improving some of the self-reported dietary behaviors than generic nutrition information, especially in the risk groups, among both higher- and lower-educated participants. For fruit intake, only the plus version was more effective than providing generic nutrition information. Although feasible, incorporating environmental-level information is time-consuming. Therefore, the basic version may be more feasible for further implementation, although inclusion of feedback on the arrangement of the home food environment and on availability and prices may be considered for fruit and, for high-educated people, for high-energy snack intake.
Trial Registration
Netherlands Trial Registry NTR3396; http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=3396 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6VNZbdL6w).
doi:10.2196/jmir.3837
PMCID: PMC4319071  PMID: 25599828
cognitive feedback; environmental feedback; self-regulation; computer tailoring; nutrition education; fruit consumption; vegetable consumption; fat consumption; snack consumption
14.  Can individual cognitions, self-regulation and environmental variables explain educational differences in vegetable consumption?: a cross-sectional study among Dutch adults 
Background
Educational differences in health-related behaviors, where low- and moderate-educated individuals have poorer outcomes than high-educated individuals, are persistent. The reasons for these differences remain poorly understood. This study explored whether individual cognitions, self-regulation and environmental-level factors may explain educational differences in vegetable consumption.
Methods
A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1,342 Dutch adults, of whom 54.5% were low/moderate-educated. Individuals completed an online questionnaire, assessing education, vegetable consumption, demographics, individual cognitions (attitude towards consuming 200 grams of vegetables a day, self-efficacy, subjective norm, intention, perception of vegetables as being expensive), self-regulation (general self-regulation, vegetable-specific action- and coping planning) and environmental-level factors (perception of availability of vegetables in the supermarket and availability of vegetables at home). The joint-significance test was used to determine significant mediation effects.
Results
Low/moderate-educated individuals consumed less vegetables (M = 151.2) than high-educated individuals (M = 168.1, β = −0.15, P < .001). Attitude and availability of vegetables at home were found to partially mediate the association between education and vegetable consumption (percentage mediated effect: 24.46%).
Discussion
Since attitude and availability of vegetables at home partially explain the difference in vegetable consumption between low/moderate- and high-educated individuals, these variables may be good target points for interventions to promote vegetable consumption among low/moderate-educated individuals.
doi:10.1186/s12966-014-0149-1
PMCID: PMC4275939  PMID: 25480542
Vegetable consumption; Socio-economic status; Individual cognitions; Self-regulation; Physical environmental factors
15.  Long-term health outcomes and cost-effectiveness of a computer-tailored physical activity intervention among people aged over fifty: modelling the results of a randomized controlled trial 
BMC Public Health  2014;14:1099.
Background
Physical inactivity is a significant predictor of several chronic diseases, becoming more prevalent as people age. Since the aging population increases demands on healthcare budgets, effectively stimulating physical activity (PA) against acceptable costs is of major relevance. This study provides insight into long-term health outcomes and cost-effectiveness of a tailored PA intervention among adults aged over fifty.
Methods
Intervention participants (N = 1729) received tailored advice three times within four months, targeting the psychosocial determinants of PA. The intervention was delivered in different conditions (i.e. print-delivered versus Web-based, and with or without additional information on local PA opportunities). In a clustered RCT, the effects of the different intervention conditions were compared to each other and to a control group. Effects on weekly Metabolic Equivalents (MET)-hours of PA obtained one year after the intervention started were extrapolated to long-term outcomes (5-year, 10-year and lifetime horizons) in terms of health effects and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and its effect on healthcare costs, using a computer simulation model. Combining the model outcomes with intervention cost estimates, this study provides insight into the long-term cost-effectiveness of the intervention. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were calculated.
Results
For all extrapolated time horizons, the printed and the Web-based intervention resulted in decreased incidence numbers for diabetes, colon cancer, breast cancer, acute myocardial infarctions, and stroke and increased QALYs as a result of increased PA. Considering a societal Willingness-to-Pay of €20,000/QALY, on a lifetime horizon the printed (ICER = €7,500/QALY) as well as the Web-based interventions (ICER = €10,100/QALY) were cost-effective. On a 5-year time horizon, the Web-based intervention was preferred over the printed intervention. On a 10-year and lifetime horizon, the printed intervention was the preferred intervention condition, since the monetary savings of the Web-based intervention did no longer outweigh its lower effects. Adding environmental information resulted in a lower cost-effectiveness.
Conclusion
A tailored PA intervention in a printed delivery mode, without environmental information, has the most potential for being cost-effective in adults aged over 50.
Trial registration
The current study was registered at the Dutch Trial Register (NTR2297; April 26th 2010).
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1471-2458-14-1099) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-14-1099
PMCID: PMC4221676  PMID: 25342517
Cost-effectiveness; Modelling; Quality of life; Disease incidence; Physical activity; Tailored intervention; Print-delivered; Web-based
16.  Cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of a Web-based or print-delivered tailored intervention to promote physical activity among adults aged over fifty: an economic evaluation of the Active Plus intervention 
Background
The adverse health effects of insufficient physical activity (PA) result in high costs to society. The economic burden of insufficient PA, which increases in our aging population, stresses the urgency for cost-effective interventions to promote PA among older adults. The current study provides insight in the cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of different versions of a tailored PA intervention (Active Plus) among adults aged over fifty.
Methods
The intervention conditions (i.e. print-delivered basic (PB; N = 439), print-delivered environmental (PE; N = 435), Web-based basic (WB; N = 423), Web-based environmental (WE; N = 432)) and a waiting-list control group were studied in a clustered randomized controlled trial. Intervention costs were registered during the trial. Health care costs, participant costs and productivity losses were identified and compared with the intervention effects on PA (in MET-hours per week) and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) 12 months after the start of the intervention. Cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) and cost-utility ratios (ICURs) were calculated per intervention condition. Non-parametric bootstrapping techniques and sensitivity analyses were performed to account for uncertainty.
Results
As a whole (i.e. the four intervention conditions together) the Active Plus intervention was found to be cost-effective. The PB-intervention (ICER = €-55/MET-hour), PE-intervention (ICER = €-94/MET-hour) and the WE-intervention (ICER = €-139/MET-hour) all resulted in higher effects on PA and lower societal costs than the control group. With regard to QALYs, the PB-intervention (ICUR = €38,120/QALY), the PE-intervention (ICUR = €405,892/QALY) and the WE-intervention (ICUR = €-47,293/QALY) were found to be cost-effective when considering a willingness-to-pay threshold of €20,000/QALY. In most cases PE had the highest probability to be cost-effective.
Conclusions
The Active Plus intervention was found to be a cost-effective manner to increase PA in a population aged over fifty when compared to no-intervention. The tailored Active Plus intervention delivered through printed material and with additional environmental information (PE) turned out to be the most cost-effective intervention condition as confirmed by the different sensitivity analyses. By increasing PA at relatively low costs, the Active Plus intervention can contribute to a better public health.
Trial registration
Dutch Trial Register: NTR2297
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12966-014-0122-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s12966-014-0122-z
PMCID: PMC4189727  PMID: 25262435
Tailored intervention; Older adults; Physical activity; Cost-effectiveness; Cost-utility; Quality of life
17.  Predicting fruit consumption: the role of habits, previous behavior and mediation effects 
BMC Public Health  2014;14:730.
Background
This study assessed the role of habits and previous behavior in predicting fruit consumption as well as their additional predictive contribution besides socio-demographic and motivational factors. In the literature, habits are proposed as a stable construct that needs to be controlled for in longitudinal analyses that predict behavior. The aim of this study is to provide empirical evidence for the inclusion of either previous behavior or habits.
Methods
A random sample of 806 Dutch adults (>18 years) was invited by an online survey panel of a private research company to participate in an online study on fruit consumption. A longitudinal design (N = 574) was used with assessments at baseline and after one (T2) and two months (T3). Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to assess the differential value of habit and previous behavior in the prediction of fruit consumption.
Results
Eighty percent of habit strength could be explained by habit strength one month earlier, and 64% of fruit consumption could be explained by fruit consumption one month earlier. Regression analyses revealed that the model with motivational constructs explained 41% of the behavioral variance at T2 and 38% at T3. The addition of previous behavior and habit increased the explained variance up to 66% at T2 and to 59% at T3. Inclusion of these factors resulted in non-significant contributions of the motivational constructs. Furthermore, our findings showed that the effect of habit strength on future behavior was to a large extent mediated by previous behavior.
Conclusions
Both habit and previous behavior are important as predictors of future behavior, and as educational objectives for behavior change programs. Our results revealed less stability for the constructs over time than expected. Habit strength was to a large extent mediated by previous behavior and our results do not strongly suggest a need for the inclusion of both constructs. Future research needs to assess the conditions that determine direct influences of both previous behavior and habit, since these influences may differ per type of health behavior, per context stability in which the behavior is performed, and per time frame used for predicting future behavior.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-14-730
PMCID: PMC4223379  PMID: 25037859
Fruit consumption; Habit; Previous behavior; SRHI
18.  Online Pestkoppenstoppen: systematic and theory-based development of a web-based tailored intervention for adolescent cyberbully victims to combat and prevent cyberbullying 
BMC Public Health  2014;14:396.
Background
The purpose of this article is to give an integrative insight into the theoretical and empirical-based development of the Online Pestkoppenstoppen (Stop Bullies Online/Stop Online Bullies). This intervention aims to reduce the number of cyberbully victims and their symptoms of depression and anxiety (program goal), by teaching cyberbully victims how to cope in an adequate and effective manner with cyberbully incidents (program’s outcomes).
Method/Design
In developing the program the different steps of the Intervention Mapping protocol are systematically used. In this article we describe each step of Intervention Mapping. Sources used for the development were a literature review, a Delphi study among experts, focus group interviews with the target group, and elements from a proven effective anti-bullying program. The result is a fully automated web-based tailored intervention for cyberbully victims (12-15 years) consisting of three web-based advice sessions delivered over three months. The first advice aims to teach participants how behavior is influenced by the thoughts they have, how to recognize and dispute irrational thoughts and how to form rational thoughts. In the second advice, participants will learn about the way bullying emerges, how their behavior influences bullying and how they can use effective coping strategies in order to stop (online) bullying. In the third advice, participants receive feedback and will learn how to use the Internet and mobile phones in a safe manner. Each advice is tailored to the participant’s personal characteristics (e.g., personality, self-efficacy, coping strategies used and (ir)rational thoughts). To ensure implementation of the program after testing it for effectiveness, the intervention was pretested in the target-population and an implementation plan was designed. Finally, we will elaborate on the planned randomized controlled trial in which the intervention will be compared to a general information group and waiting list control group. This evaluation will provide insight into the intervention’s efficacy to reduce cyberbullying and its negative effects.
Discussion
Intervention Mapping is a time consuming but profound way to ensure that each step of developing an intervention is taken, and resulted in three web-based tailored pieces of advices that teach adolescents how to cope more effectively with cyberbullying experiences.
Trial registration
NTR3613, 14-09-2012
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-14-396
PMCID: PMC4040503  PMID: 24758264
(Cyber) bullying; Intervention; Web-based; E-health; Computer tailoring; Behavior change; Intervention Mapping
19.  I Move: systematic development of a web-based computer tailored physical activity intervention, based on motivational interviewing and self-determination theory 
BMC Public Health  2014;14:212.
Background
This article describes the systematic development of the I Move intervention: a web-based computer tailored physical activity promotion intervention, aimed at increasing and maintaining physical activity among adults. This intervention is based on the theoretical insights and practical applications of self-determination theory and motivational interviewing.
Methods/design
Since developing interventions in a systemically planned way increases the likelihood of effectiveness, we used the Intervention Mapping protocol to develop the I Move intervention. In this article, we first describe how we proceeded through each of the six steps of the Intervention Mapping protocol. After that, we describe the content of the I Move intervention and elaborate on the planned randomized controlled trial.
Discussion
By integrating self-determination theory and motivational interviewing in web-based computer tailoring, the I Move intervention introduces a more participant-centered approach than traditional tailored interventions. Adopting this approach might enhance computer tailored physical activity interventions both in terms of intervention effectiveness and user appreciation. We will evaluate this in an randomized controlled trial, by comparing the I Move intervention to a more traditional web-based computer tailored intervention.
Trial registration
NTR4129
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-14-212
PMCID: PMC3944675  PMID: 24580802
20.  Motivational Interviewing in a Web-Based Physical Activity Intervention With an Avatar: Randomized Controlled Trial 
Background
Developing Web-based physical activity (PA) interventions based on motivational interviewing (MI) could increase the availability and reach of MI techniques for PA promotion. Integrating an avatar in such an intervention could lead to more positive appreciation and higher efficacy of the intervention, compared to an intervention that is purely text-based.
Objective
The present study aims to determine whether a Web-based PA intervention based on MI with an avatar results in more positive appreciation and higher effectiveness of the intervention, when compared to an intervention that is purely text-based.
Methods
A three-arm randomized controlled trial was conducted, containing the following research conditions: (1) a Web-based PA intervention based on MI with an avatar, (2) a content-identical intervention without an avatar, and (3) a control condition that received no intervention. Measurements included PA behavior and process variables, measured at baseline, directly following the intervention and 1 month post intervention.
Results
Both interventions significantly increased self-reported PA at 1 month, compared to the control condition (betaAVATARvsCONTROL=.39, P=.011; betaTEXTvsCONTROL=.44, P=.006). No distinctions were found regarding intervention effect on PA between both interventions. Similarly, the results of the process evaluation did not indicate any significant differences between both interventions. Due to the limited relational skills of the avatar in this study, it probably did not succeed in forming a stronger relationship with the user, over and above text alone.
Conclusions
The findings suggest that avatars that do not strengthen the social relationship with the user do not enhance the intervention impact. Future research should determine whether Web-based PA interventions based on MI could benefit from inclusion of a virtual coach capable of more complex relational skills than used in the current study, such as responding in gesture to the user’s state and input.
Trial Registration
Dutch Trial Register trial number: NTR3147; http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=3147 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6NCbwdUJX).
doi:10.2196/jmir.2974
PMCID: PMC3936285  PMID: 24550153
motivational interviewing; physical activity; Internet; avatar
21.  Correlates of the Intention to Implement a Tailored Physical Activity Intervention: Perceptions of Intermediaries 
The public health impact of health behaviour interventions is highly dependent on large-scale implementation. Intermediaries—intervention providers—determine to a large extent whether an intervention reaches the target population, and hence its impact on public health. A cross-sectional study was performed to identify the correlates of intermediaries’ intention to implement a computer-tailored physical activity intervention. According to theory, potential correlates are intervention characteristics, organisational characteristics, socio-political characteristics and intermediary characteristics. This study investigated whether intermediary characteristics mediated the association between the intervention, organisational and socio-political characteristics and intention to implement the intervention. Results showed that intervention characteristics (i.e., observability (B = 0.53; p = 0.006); relative advantage (B = 0.79; p = 0.020); complexity (B = 0.80; p < 0.001); compatibility (B = 0.70; p < 0.001)), organisational characteristics (i.e., type of organization (B = 0.38; p = 0.002); perceived task responsibility (B = 0.66; p ≤ 0.001); capacity (B = 0.83; p < 0.001)), and the social support received by intermediary organisations (B = 0.81; p < 0.001) were associated with intention to implement the intervention. These factors should thus be targeted by an implementation strategy. Since self-efficacy and social norms perceived by the intermediary organisations partially mediated the effects of other variables on intention to implement the intervention (varying between 29% and 84%), these factors should be targeted to optimise the effectiveness of the implementation strategy.
doi:10.3390/ijerph110201885
PMCID: PMC3945575  PMID: 24518647
intervention implementation; hypothesized determinants of implementation intention; tailored intervention; intervention characteristics; organisational characteristics; socio-political characteristics; intermediary characteristics
22.  Planned development and evaluation protocol of two versions of a web-based computer-tailored nutrition education intervention aimed at adults, including cognitive and environmental feedback 
BMC Public Health  2014;14:47.
Background
Despite decades of nutrition education, the prevalence of unhealthy dietary patterns is still high and inequalities in intake between high and low socioeconomic groups still exist. Therefore, it is important to innovate and improve existing nutrition education interventions. This paper describes the development, design and evaluation protocol of a web-based computer-tailored nutrition education intervention for adults targeting fruit, vegetable, high-energy snack and fat intake. This intervention innovates existing computer-tailored interventions by not only targeting motivational factors, but also volitional and self-regulation processes and environmental-level factors.
Methods/design
The intervention development was guided by the Intervention Mapping protocol, ensuring a theory-informed and evidence-based intervention. Two versions of the intervention were developed: a basic version targeting knowledge, awareness, attitude, self-efficacy and volitional and self-regulation processes, and a plus version additionally addressing the home environment arrangement and the availability and price of healthy food products in supermarkets. Both versions consist of four modules: one for each dietary behavior, i.e. fruit, vegetables, high-energy snacks and fat. Based on the self-regulation phases, each module is divided into three sessions. In the first session, feedback on dietary behavior is provided to increase awareness, feedback on attitude and self-efficacy is provided and goals and action plans are stated. In the second session goal achievement is evaluated, reasons for failure are explored, coping plans are stated and goals can be adapted. In the third session, participants can again evaluate their behavioral change and tips for maintenance are provided. Both versions will be evaluated in a three-group randomized controlled trial with measurements at baseline, 1-month, 4-months and 9-months post-intervention, using online questionnaires. Both versions will be compared with a generic nutrition information control condition. The primary outcomes are fruit, vegetable, high-energy snack and fat intake.
Discussion
The evaluation study will provide insight into the short- and long-term efficacy of both intervention versions in adults. Additionally, differences in the efficacy among high- and low-educated people will be examined. If these interventions are effective, two well-developed interventions will become available for the implementation and promotion of healthy dietary patterns among both high- and low-educated adults in the Netherlands.
Trial registration
Dutch Trial Registry NTR3396.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-14-47
PMCID: PMC3915224  PMID: 24438381
Environmental feedback; Self-regulation; Computer tailoring; Nutrition education; Fruit intake; Vegetable intake; Fat intake; Snack intake
23.  Systematic development of a text-driven and a video-driven web-based computer-tailored obesity prevention intervention 
BMC Public Health  2013;13:978.
Background
This paper describes the systematic development of a text-driven and a video-driven web-based computer-tailored intervention aimed to prevent obesity among normal weight and overweight adults. We hypothesize that the video-driven intervention will be more effective and appealing for individuals with a low level of education.
Methods and Design
The Intervention Mapping protocol was used to develop the interventions, which have exactly the same educational content but differ in the format in which the information is delivered. One intervention is fully text-based, while in the other intervention in addition to text-based feedback, the core messages are provided by means of videos. The aim of the interventions is to prevent weight gain or achieve modest weight loss by making small changes in dietary intake or physical activity. The content of the interventions is based on the I-Change Model and self-regulation theories and includes behavior change methods such as consciousness raising, tailored feedback on behavior and cognitions, goal setting, action and coping planning, and evaluation of goal pursuit. The interventions consist of six sessions. In the first two sessions, participants will set weight and behavioral change goals and form plans for specific actions to achieve the desired goals. In the remaining four sessions, participants’ will evaluate their progress toward achievement of the behavioral and weight goals. They will also receive personalized feedback on how to deal with difficulties they may encounter, including the opportunity to make coping plans and the possibility to learn from experiences of others. The efficacy and appreciation of the interventions will be examined by means of a three-group randomized controlled trial using a waiting list control group. Measurements will take place at baseline and six and twelve months after baseline. Primary outcome measures are body mass index, physical activity, and dietary intake.
Discussion
The present paper provides insight into how web-based computer-tailored obesity prevention interventions consisting of self-regulation concepts and text-driven and video-driven messages can be developed systematically. The evaluation of the interventions will provide insight into their efficacy and will result in recommendations for future web-based computer-tailored interventions and the additional value of using video tailoring.
Trial registration
NTR3501.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-978
PMCID: PMC4015713  PMID: 24138937
Obesity; Physical activity; Diet; Intervention mapping protocol; Computer-tailoring; Weight management; Education level
24.  Long-term efficacy of a printed or a Web-based tailored physical activity intervention among older adults 
Background
This study provides insight into the long-term efficacy (i.e. 12 month results) of the Web-based or print-delivered tailored Active Plus intervention (with and without environmental approach) to promote physical activity (PA) among the over-fifties. Differences in effect among subgroups are studied as well.
Methods
Intervention groups (i.e. print-delivered basic (PB; N = 439), print-delivered environmental (PE; N = 435), Web-based basic (WB; N = 423), Web-based environmental (WE; N = 432)) and a waiting list control group (N = 411) were studied in a clustered randomized controlled trial. Intervention participants received tailored advice three times within 4 months. Long-term effects (12 months after the intervention has started, i.e. 8 months after the intervention was completed) on PA (i.e. self-reported weekly minutes and days of sufficient PA) were tested using multilevel linear regression analyses. Participants’ age, gender, BMI, educational level, PA intention and the presence of a chronic physical limitation were considered to be potential moderators of the effect.
Results
Overall, the Active Plus intervention was effective in increasing weekly days of sufficient PA (B=0.49; p=.005), but ineffective in increasing weekly minutes of PA (B=84.59; p=.071). Per intervention condition analysis showed that the PB-intervention (Bdays=0.64; p=.002; Bmin=111.36; p=.017) and the PE-intervention (Bdays=0.70; p=.001; Bmin=157.41; p=.001) were effective in increasing days and minutes of PA. Neither Web-based conditions significantly increased PA, while the control group decreased their PA. In contrast to the intervention effect on minutes of PA, the effect on weekly days of PA was significantly moderated by the participants’ baseline intention to be sufficiently physically active.
Conclusions
In general, after 12 months the print-delivered interventions resulted in stronger effects than the Web-based interventions. The participants’ baseline intention was the only significant moderator of the intervention effect. All other assessed user characteristics did not significantly moderate the effect of the intervention, which might indicate that the intervention is sufficiently tailored to the different participant characteristics. Additional efforts should be taken to increase the sustainability of Web-based interventions.
Trial registration
Dutch Trial Register: NTR2297.
doi:10.1186/1479-5868-10-104
PMCID: PMC3766084  PMID: 24228862
Tailored intervention; Physical activity; Effect; Implementation costs; Older adults; Print-delivered; Web-based
25.  Differences in Reach and Attrition Between Web-Based and Print-Delivered Tailored Interventions Among Adults over 50 Years of Age: Clustered Randomized Trial 
Background
The Internet has the potential to provide large populations with individual health promotion advice at a relatively low cost. Despite the high rates of Internet access, actual reach by Web-based interventions is often disappointingly low, and differences in use between demographic subgroups are present. Furthermore, Web-based interventions often have to deal with high rates of attrition.
Objective
This study aims to assess user characteristics related to participation and attrition when comparing Web-based and print-delivered tailored interventions containing similar content and thereby to provide recommendations in choosing the appropriate delivery mode for a particular target audience.
Methods
We studied the distribution of a Web-based and a print-delivered version of the Active Plus intervention in a clustered randomized controlled trial (RCT). Participants were recruited via direct mailing within the participating Municipal Health Council regions and randomized to the printed or Web-based intervention by their region. Based on the answers given in a prior assessment, participants received tailored advice on 3 occasions: (1) within 2 weeks after the baseline, (2) 2 months after the baseline, and (3) within 4 months after the baseline (based on a second assessment at 3 months). The baseline (printed or Web-based) results were analyzed using ANOVA and chi-square tests to establish the differences in user characteristics between both intervention groups. We used logistic regression analyses to study the interaction between the user characteristics and the delivery mode in the prediction of dropout rate within the intervention period.
Results
The printed intervention resulted in a higher participation rate (19%) than the Web-based intervention (12%). Participants of the Web-based intervention were significantly younger (P<.001), more often men (P=.01), had a higher body mass index (BMI) (P=.001) and a lower intention to be physically active (P=.03) than participants of the printed intervention. The dropout rate was significantly higher in the Web-based intervention group (53%) compared to the print-delivered intervention (39%, P<.001). A low intention to be physically active was a strong predictor for dropout within both delivery modes (P<.001). The difference in dropout rate between the Web-based and the printed intervention was not explained by user characteristics.
Conclusions
The reach of the same tailored physical activity (PA) intervention in a printed or Web-based delivery mode differed between sociodemographic subgroups of participants over 50 years of age. Although the reach of the Web-based intervention is lower, Web-based interventions can be a good channel to reach high-risk populations (lower PA intention and higher BMI). While the dropout rate was significantly higher in the Web-based intervention group, no specific user characteristics explained the difference in dropout rates between the delivery modes. More research is needed to determine what caused the high rate of dropout in the Web-based intervention.
Trial Registration
Dutch Trial Register (NTR): 2297: http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=2297 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/65TkwoESp).
doi:10.2196/jmir.2229
PMCID: PMC3803160  PMID: 23246790
Web-based; print-delivered; physical activity; older adults; response; reach; adoption; attrition; dropout; tailored advice

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