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1.  Oral health-related quality of life in a birth cohort of 32-year olds 
Objectives
To describe oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among New Zealand adults and assess the relationship between clinical measures of oral health status and a well-established OHRQoL measure, controlling for sex, socioeconomic status (SES) and use of dental services.
Methods
A birth cohort of 924 dentate adults (participants in the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study) was systematically examined for dental caries, tooth loss, and periodontal attachment loss (CAL) at age 32 years. OHRQoL was measured using the 14-item Oral Health Impact Profile questionnaire (OHIP-14). The questionnaire also collected data on each study member’s occupation, self-rated oral health and reasons for seeing a dental care provider. SES was determined from each individual’s occupation at age 32 years.
Results
The mean total OHIP-14 score was 8.0 (SD 8.1); 23.4% of the cohort reported one or more OHIP problems ‘fairly often’ or ‘very often’. When the prevalence of impacts ‘fairly/very often’ was modeled using logistic regression, having untreated caries, two or more sites with CAL of 4+ mm and 1 or more teeth missing by age 32 years remained significantly associated with OHRQoL, after adjusting for sex and ‘episodic’ dental care. Multivariate analysis using Poisson regression determined that being in the low SES group was also associated with the mean number of impacts (extent) and the rated severity of impacts.
Conclusions
OHIP-14 scores were significantly associated with clinical oral health status indicators, independently of sex and socioeconomic inequalities in oral health. The prevalence of impacts (23.4%) in the cohort was significantly greater than age- and sex-standardized estimates from Australia (18.2%) and the UK (15.9%).
doi:10.1111/j.1600-0528.2007.00395.x
PMCID: PMC2288569  PMID: 18650957
adult; dental caries; oral health; Oral Health Impact Profile; periodontal diseases; prevalence; quality of life; tooth loss
2.  Self-efficacy and self-rated oral health among pregnant aboriginal Australian women 
BMC Oral Health  2014;14:29.
Background
Self-efficacy plays an important role in oral health-related behaviours. There is little known about associations between self-efficacy and subjective oral health among populations at heightened risk of dental disease. This study aimed to determine if low self-efficacy was associated with poor self-rated oral health after adjusting for confounding among a convenience sample of pregnant women.
Methods
We used self-reported data from 446 Australian women pregnant with an Aboriginal child (age range 14–43 years) to evaluate self-rated oral health, self-efficacy and socio-demographic, psychosocial, social cognitive and risk factors. Hierarchical entry of explanatory variables into logistic regression models estimated prevalence odds ratios (POR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for fair or poor self-rated oral health.
Results
In an unadjusted model, those with low self-efficacy had 2.40 times the odds of rating their oral health as ‘fair’ or ‘poor’ (95% CI 1.54–3.74). Addition of socio-demographic factors attenuated the effect of low self-efficacy on poor self-rated oral health by 10 percent (POR 2.19, 95% CI 1.37–3.51). Addition of the psychosocial factors attenuated the odds by 17 percent (POR 2.07, 95% CI 1.28–3.36), while addition of the social cognitive variable fatalism increased the odds by 1 percent (POR 2.42, 95% CI 1.55–3.78). Inclusion of the behavioural risk factor ‘not brushing previous day’ attenuated the odds by 15 percent (POR 2.11, 95%CI 1.32–3.36). In the final model, which included all covariates, the odds were attenuated by 32 percent (POR 1.80, 95% CI 1.05, 3.08).
Conclusions
Low self-efficacy persisted as a risk indicator for poor self-rated oral health after adjusting for confounding among this vulnerable population.
doi:10.1186/1472-6831-14-29
PMCID: PMC3976034  PMID: 24690235
3.  Reducing disease burden and health inequalities arising from chronic disease among indigenous children: an early childhood caries intervention in Aotearoa/New Zealand 
BMC Public Health  2013;13:1177.
Background
Maaori are the Indigenous people of New Zealand and do not enjoy the same oral health status as the non-Indigenous majority. To overcome oral health disparities, the life course approach affords a valid foundation on which to develop a process that will contribute to the protection of the oral health of young infants. The key to this process is the support that could be provided to the parents or care givers of Maaori infants during the pregnancy of the mother and the early years of the child. This study seeks to determine whether implementing a kaupapa Maaori (Maaori philosophical viewpoint) in an early childhood caries (ECC) intervention reduces dental disease burden among Maaori children. The intervention consists of four approaches to prevent early childhood caries: dental care provided during pregnancy, fluoride varnish application to the teeth of children, motivational interviewing, and anticipatory guidance.
Methods/design
The participants are Maaori women who are expecting a child and who reside within the Maaori tribal area of Waikato-Tainui.
This randomised-control trial will be undertaken utilising the principles of kaupapa Maaori research, which encompasses Maaori leadership, Maaori relationships, Maaori customary practices, etiquette and protocol. Participants will be monitored through clinical and self-reported information collected throughout the ECC intervention. Self-report information will be collected in a baseline questionnaire during pregnancy and when children are aged 24 and 36 months. Clinical oral health data will be collected during standardised examinations at ages 24 and 36 months by calibrated dental professionals. All participants receive the ECC intervention benefits, with the intervention delayed by 24 months for participants who are randomised to the control-delayed arm.
Discussion
The development and evaluation of oral health interventions may produce evidence that supports the application of the principles of kaupapa Maaori research in the research processes. This study will assess an ECC intervention which could provide a meaningful approach for Maaori for the protection and maintenance of oral health for Maaori children and their family, thus reducing oral health disparities.
Trial registration
Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR): ACTRN12611000111976.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-1177
PMCID: PMC4029447  PMID: 24330669
Indigenous; Māori; Child; Mother; Oral health; Early childhood caries
4.  Is Accessing Dental Care Becoming More Difficult? Evidence from Canada's Middle-Income Population 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(2):e57377.
Objective
To explore trends in access to dental care among middle-income Canadians.
Methods
A secondary data analysis of six Canadian surveys that collected information on dental insurance coverage, cost-barriers to dental care, and out-of-pocket expenditures for dental care was conducted for select years from 1978 to 2009. Descriptive analyses were used to outline and compare trends among middle-income Canadians with other levels of income as well as national averages.
Results
By 2009, middle-income Canadians had the lowest levels of dental insurance coverage (48.7%) compared to all other income groups. They reported the greatest increase in cost-barriers to dental care, from 12.6% in 1996 to 34.1% by 2009. Middle-income Canadians had the largest rise in out-of-pocket expenditures for dental care since 1978.
Conclusions
This study suggests that affordability issues in accessing dental care are no longer just a problem for the lowest income groups in Canada, but are now impacting middle-income earners as a consequence of their lack of, or decreased access to, comprehensive dental insurance.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0057377
PMCID: PMC3577722  PMID: 23437378
5.  Oral health-related quality of life in an aging Canadian population 
Background
The purpose of the study is to describe the impact of oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) on the lives of pre-seniors and seniors living in Nova Scotia, Canada.
Methods
This cross-sectional study involved 1461 participants, grouped by age (pre-seniors [45–64] and seniors [65+]) and residential status (long-term care facility [LTC] or community). OHRQoL was measured using the 14-item Oral Health Impact Profile questionnaire (OHIP-14) in a random digit dialing telephone survey (for community residents) or a face-to-face interview (for LTC residents). Intra-oral examinations were performed by one of six dentists calibrated to W.H.O. standards.
Results
Approximately one in four pre-seniors and seniors reported at least one OHRQoL impact ‘fairly/very often’. The most commonly reported impacts were within the dimensions ‘physical pain’ and ‘psychological discomfort’. It was found that 12.2% of LTC residents found it uncomfortable to eat any foods ‘fairly/very’ often compared to 7.7% in the community, and 11.6% of LTC residents reported being self-conscious ‘fairly/very often’ compared to 8.2% in the community. Of those residing in the community, pre-seniors (28.8%) reported significantly more impacts than seniors (22.0%); but there were no significant differences in OHRQoL between pre-seniors (21.2%) and seniors (25.3%) in LTC. Pre-seniors living in the community scored significantly higher than community dwelling seniors on prevalence, extent and severity of OHIP-14 scores. Logistic regression revealed that for the community dwelling sample, individuals living in rural areas in addition to those being born outside of Canada were approximately 2.0 times more likely to report an impact ‘fairly/very often’, whereas among the LTC sample, those having a high school education or less were 2.3 times more likely to report an impact.
Conclusions
Findings indicate that the oral health and OHRQoL of both pre-seniors and seniors in LTC residents is poor. Community dwelling pre-seniors have the highest prevalence rate of oral impacts.
doi:10.1186/1477-7525-10-50
PMCID: PMC3480903  PMID: 22587387
Oral health; Quality of life; Elderly; Aging; Seniors; Pre-seniors; Canada
6.  Effect of Time on Clinical Efficacy of Topical Anesthesia 
Anesthesia Progress  2009;56(2):36-41.
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of time on the clinical efficacy of topical anesthetic in reducing pain from needle insertion alone as well as injection of anesthetic. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, split-mouth, clinical trial which enrolled 90 subjects, equally divided into 3 groups based upon time (2, 5, or 10 minutes) of topical anesthetic (5% lidocaine) application. Each group was further subdivided into 2: needle insertion only in the palate or needle insertion with deposition of anesthetic (0.5 mL 3% mepivacaine plain). Each subject received drug on one side and placebo on the other. Subjects recorded pain on a 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS). The results showed that for needle insertion only, 5% lidocaine reduced pain as determined by a significant difference in mean VAS after 2 minutes (20.1 mm, P < .002), 5 minutes (15.7 mm, P < .022), and 10 minutes (13.7 mm, P < .04), as analyzed by paired t tests. For needle insertion plus injection of local anesthetic, a significant difference in mean VAS was noted only after 10 minutes (14.9 mm, P < .031), yet pain scores for both topical anesthetic and placebo were elevated at this time point resulting in no reduction in actual pain. Time of application did not result in a significant difference in effect for either needle insertion only or needle insertion plus injection of local anesthetic, as analyzed by 1-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). In conclusion, topical anesthetic reduces pain of needle insertion if left on palatal mucosa for 2, 5, or 10 minutes, but has no clinical pain relief for anesthetic injection.
doi:10.2344/0003-3006-56.2.36
PMCID: PMC2699690  PMID: 19642717
Topical anesthesia; Local anesthesia; Pain
7.  Early childhood caries and infant oral health: Paediatricians’ and family physicians’ knowledge, practices and training 
Paediatrics & Child Health  2006;11(3):151-157.
OBJECTIVES
To assess the knowledge of early childhood caries and to examine the current preventive oral health-related practices and training among Canadian paediatricians and family physicians who provide primary care to children younger than three years.
METHODS
A cross-sectional, self-administered survey was mailed to a random sample of 1928 paediatricians and family physicians.
RESULTS
A total of 1044 physicians met the study eligibility criteria, and of those, 537 returned completed surveys, resulting in an overall response rate of 51.4% (237 paediatricians and 300 family physicians). Six questions assessed knowledge of early childhood caries; only 1.8% of paediatricians and 0.7% of family physicians answered all of these questions correctly. In total, 73.9% of paediatricians and 52.4% of family physicians reported visually inspecting children’s teeth; 60.4% and 44.6%, respectively, reported counselling parents or caregivers regarding teething and dental care; 53.2% and 25.6%, respectively, reported assessing children’s risk of developing tooth decay; and 17.9% and 22.3%, respectively, reported receiving no oral health training in medical school or residency. Respondents who felt confident and knowledgeable and who considered their role in promoting oral health as “very important” were significantly more likely to carry out oral health-related practices.
CONCLUSION
Although the majority of paediatricians and family physicians reported including aspects of oral health in children’s well visits, a reported lack of dental knowledge and training appeared to pose barriers, limiting these physicians from playing a more active role in promoting the oral health of children in their practices.
PMCID: PMC2435315  PMID: 19030271
Attitudes; Dental caries; Early childhood caries; Health knowledge; Oral health; Physicians; Practice
8.  The impact of xerostomia on oral-health-related quality of life among younger adults 
Background
Recent research has suggested that chronic dry mouth affects the day-to-day lives of older people living in institutions. The condition has usually been considered to be a feature of old age, but recent work by our team produced the somewhat surprising finding that 10% of people in their early thirties are affected. This raises the issue of whether dry mouth is a trivial condition or a more substantial threat to quality of life among younger people. The objective of this study was to examine the association between xerostomia and oral-health-related quality of life among young adults while controlling for clinical oral health status and other potential confounding factors.
Methods
Cross-sectional analysis of data from a longstanding prospective observational study of a Dunedin (New Zealand) birth cohort: clinical dental examinations and questionnaires were used at age 32. The main measures were xerostomia (the subjective feeling of dry mouth, measured with a single question) and oral-health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) measured using the short-form Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14).
Results
Of the 923 participants (48.9% female), one in ten were categorised as 'xerostomic', with no apparent gender difference. There was a strong association between xerostomia and OHRQoL (across all OHIP-14 domains) which persisted after multivariate analysis to control for clinical characteristics, gender, smoking status and personality characteristics (negative emotionality and positive emotionality).
Conclusion
Xerostomia is not a trivial condition; it appears to have marked and consistent effects on sufferers' day-to-day lives.
doi:10.1186/1477-7525-4-86
PMCID: PMC1637097  PMID: 17090332
9.  Assessing the oral health of an ageing population: methods, challenges and predictors of survey participation 
Gerodontology  2012;29(2):e656-e666.
Assessing the oral health of an ageing population: methods, challenges and predictors of survey participation
Objectives
To examine predictors of participation and to describe the methodological considerations of conducting a two-stage population-based oral health survey.
Methods
An observational, cross-sectional survey (telephone interview and clinical oral examination) of community-dwelling adults aged 45–64 and ≥65 living in Nova Scotia, Canada was conducted.
Results
The survey response rate was 21% for the interview and 13.5% for the examination. A total of 1141 participants completed one or both components of the survey. Both age groups had higher levels of education than the target population; the age 45–64 sample also had a higher proportion of females and lower levels of employment than the target population. Completers (participants who completed interview and examination) were compared with partial completers (who completed only the interview), and stepwise logistic regression was performed to examine predictors of completion. Identified predictors were as follows: not working, post-secondary education and frequent dental visits.
Conclusion
Recruitment, communications and logistics present challenges in conducting a province-wide survey. Identification of employment, education and dental visit frequency as predictors of survey participation provide insight into possible non-response bias and suggest potential for underestimation of oral disease prevalence in this and similar surveys. This potential must be considered in analysis and in future recruitment strategies.
doi:10.1111/j.1741-2358.2011.00540.x
PMCID: PMC3499687  PMID: 21916953
oral health; surveillance; ageing; survey participation

Results 1-9 (9)