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1.  A Prospective Cohort of American Indian and Alaska Native People: Study Design, Methods, and Implementation 
American journal of epidemiology  2007;166(5):606-615.
In 2001, the National Cancer Institute funded three centers to test the feasibility of establishing a cohort of American Indian and Alaska Native people. Participating tribal organizations named the study EARTH (Education and Research Towards Health). This paper describes the study methods. A computerized data collection and tracking system was developed using audio computer-assisted survey methodology with touch screens. Data were collected on diet, physical activity, lifestyle and cultural practices, medical and reproductive history, and family history of heart disease, diabetes, and cancer. In addition, a small panel of medical measurements was obtained, including height, weight, waist and hip circumferences, blood pressure, and a lipid panel plus glucose. At the completion of the enrollment visit, data were used to provide immediate health feedback to study participants. During the initial funding period, the authors anticipate enrolling 16,000 American Indian and Alaska Native participants. The age distribution of the study population was similar to that reported in the 2000 US Census for the relevant populations. A component critical to the success of the EARTH Study has been the partnerships with tribal members. The study has focused on involvement of American Indian and Alaska Native communities in development and implementation and on provision of feedback to participants and communities.
PMCID: PMC2556228  PMID: 17586578
Alaska; cohort studies; diet; Indians, North American; methods
2.  Preventing hepatitis B in people in close contact with hepatocellular carcinoma patients. 
Public Health Reports  1997;112(1):63-65.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of testing for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in the clinical management of primary liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma). METHODS: The authors reviewed the records of 78 patients treated for hepatocellular carcinoma in hospitals in the Puget Sound area in 1988 and early 1989 and reviewed all 1990 U.S. death certificates on which primary liver cancer was listed. RESULTS: The records of 50 (64%) of 78 hepatocellular carcinoma patients contained no evidence that the patient's hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) status had been determined. In addition, of 4353 people who died in 1990 for whom the diagnosis of primary liver cancer was listed on the death certificate, HBV infection was also listed for only 136 (3%), much less than expected based on case series. CONCLUSIONS: Many patients with hepatocellular carcinoma are not tested for HBV infection, suggesting that their close contacts are also not evaluated for HBV infection and the need for vaccination. Hepatitis B vaccination of close personal contacts of HBV-infected hepatocellular carcinoma patients is an important strategy for preventing HBV transmission.
PMCID: PMC1381841  PMID: 9018291
3.  Pilot test of a cervical cancer prevention video developed for Alaska Native women. 
Public Health Reports  1995;110(2):211-214.
Cancer of the cervix is twice as likely to occur among Alaska Native women than among Caucasian women in the United State. To understand some of the factors associated with this high incidence, a random sample of 528 Alaska Native women were surveyed about their knowledge, attitudes, and behavior regarding cervical cancer and its risk factors. From the results of the Alaska Native Women's Health Project study, the need for more public education related to cervical cancer prevention was identified. A review of existing educational resources revealed that no culturally appropriate materials related to cervical cancer had been developed for Alaska Native women. To increase Native women's knowledge about cervical cancer and to motivate them to obtain annual Papanicolaou tests, a 12-minute videotape presentation was developed specifically for this population. The videotape portrayed Alaska Native women as role models from the community discussing cervical cancer and Papanicolaou tests and engaging in healthy lifestyles. The videotape was pilot tested with several groups of Alaska Native women. The women were surveyed before and after watching the video and were asked to rate the tape and make comments about it. The results of the posttest demonstrated a significant increase in the knowledge level of the participants. The videotape was well received because of its cultural sensitivity and appropriateness. On the basis of this study, the development of additional culturally appropriate educational materials related to cancer prevention of Alaska Native women is recommended.
PMCID: PMC1382104  PMID: 7631000
4.  Pneumococcal vaccination in a remote population of high-risk Alaska Natives. 
Public Health Reports  1993;108(4):439-446.
In response to an increasing prevalence of serious pneumococcal disease among adult Alaska Natives of northwest Alaska, a 3-year program was begun in 1987 to identify residents of that remote region who were at high risk for developing invasive pneumococcal disease, to determine their pneumococcal vaccination status, and to deliver vaccine to at least 80 percent of those at risk. After reviewing public health nursing and Indian Health Service data bases, the authors identified 1,337 persons, 20 percent of the 6,692 residents of the region, at high risk for invasive pneumococcal infection, defined either by having a specific chronic disease or by age criteria. Cardiovascular disease and alcoholism were the two most common chronic diseases. Only 30 percent of those determined to be at high risk had received one or more doses of pneumococcal vaccine previously. Half of those persons had received their most recent vaccination 6 or more years earlier. The program used both customary and innovative methods to deliver 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine to 1,046 of those at high risk (78 percent), including 388 persons who were revaccinated. At the completion of the project, 1,123 persons, 84 percent of those at high risk, had received at least 1 dose. They included 1,088 persons, 81 percent of those at high risk, with vaccination within the previous 5 years as a result of the project, compared with a 15-percent rate prior to the vaccination phase of the project. The program demonstrated that high levels of vaccination against pneumococcal disease, exceeding Year 2000 objectives of 60 percent, are attainable in a remote rural Alaskan population.
PMCID: PMC1403406  PMID: 8341777
5.  Epstein-Barr virus infection in carcinoma of the salivary gland. 
Journal of Virology  1991;65(12):7032-7036.
Undifferentiated carcinoma of the parotid gland contains clonal Epstein-Barr virus episomes without ladder arrays of restriction enzyme fragments representing virion DNA. Analysis of Epstein-Barr virus transcription in situ in parotid carcinoma specimens revealed that the EBER RNAs, latent membrane protein mRNA, and the BamHI-A rightward reading frame, BARF0, are expressed in the malignant epithelial cells.
PMCID: PMC250822  PMID: 1658395
6.  Cancer in Alaskan Indians, Eskimos, and Aleuts, 1969-83: implications for etiology and control. 
Public Health Reports  1989;104(6):658-664.
The authors collected and analyzed cancer incidence data for Alaska Natives (Indians, Eskimos, and Aleuts) for the 15-year period 1969-83 by ethnic and linguistic groups. Compared with U.S. whites, observed-to-expected ratios are high in more than one ethnic group for cancer of the nasopharynx, salivary gland, liver, gallbladder, and cervix. Low ratios were found for cancer of the breast, uterus, bladder, and melanoma. In Alaska, Eskimos have the highest risk for cancer of the esophagus and liver and the lowest risk for breast and prostate cancer. Risk for multiple myeloma in Indian men in Alaska exceeds not only those of other Native groups in Alaska but that in U.S. whites as well. Despite the short period studied, increases in cancer incidence over time can be documented for lung cancer in Eskimo men and women combined, and for cervical cancer, especially in Indian women.
PMCID: PMC1580163  PMID: 2511602

Results 1-6 (6)