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1.  Voxel-based imaging of translocator protein 18kDa (TSPO) in high-resolution PET 
In vivo imaging of translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO) has received significant attention as potential biomarker of microglia activation. Several radioligands have been designed with improved properties. Our group recently developed an 18F-labeled TSPO ligand, [18F]-FEPPA, and confirmed its reliability with a 2-tissue compartment model. Here, we extended, in a group of healthy subjects, its suitability for use in voxel-based analysis with the newly proposed graphical analysis approach, Relative-Equilibrium-Gjedde-Patlak (REGP) plot. The REGP plot successfully replicated the total distribution volumes estimated by the 2-tissue compartment model. We also showed its proof-of-concept in a patient with possible meningioma showing increased [18F]-FEPPA total distribution volume.
doi:10.1038/jcbfm.2012.203
PMCID: PMC3587822  PMID: 23281426
inflammation; kinetic modeling; microglia; neurooncology; positron emission tomography
2.  Caffeine Consumption and Risk of Dyskinesia in CALM-PD 
Background
Adenosine A2A receptor antagonists reduce or prevent the development of dyskinesia in animal models of levodopa-induced dyskinesia.
Methods
We examined the association between self-reported intake of the A2A receptor antagonist caffeine and time to dyskinesia in the Comparison of the Agonist Pramipexole with Levodopa on Motor Complications of Parkinson’s Disease (CALM-PD) and CALM Cohort extension studies, using a Cox proportional hazards model adjusting for age, baseline Parkinson’s severity, site, and initial treatment with pramipexole or levodopa.
Results
For subjects who consumed > 12 ounces of coffee/day, the adjusted hazard ratio for the development of dyskinesia was 0.61 (95% confidence interval, 0.37–1.01) compared to subjects who consumed < 4 ounces/day. For subjects who consumed between 4 and 12 ounces/day, the adjusted hazard ratio was 0.73 (C.I. 0.46–1.15) (test for trend, p = 0.05).
Conclusions
These results support the possibility that caffeine may reduce the likelihood of developing dyskinesia.
doi:10.1002/mds.25319
PMCID: PMC3608707  PMID: 23339054
Caffeine; adenosine; Parkinson’s disease; PD; dyskinesia
3.  α-Synuclein oligomers and clinical implications for Parkinson disease 
Annals of neurology  2012;73(2):155-169.
Protein aggregation within the central nervous system has been recognized as a defining feature of neurodegenerative diseases since the early 20th century. Since that time, there has been a growing list of neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson disease, which are characterized by inclusions of specific pathogenic proteins. This has led to the long-held dogma that these characteristic protein inclusions, which are composed of large insoluble fibrillar protein aggregates and visible by light microscopy, are responsible for cell death in these diseases. However, the correlation between protein inclusion formation and cytotoxicity is inconsistent suggesting another form of the pathogenic proteins may be contributing to neurodegeneration. There is emerging evidence implicating soluble oligomers, smaller protein aggregates not detectable by conventional microscopy, as potential culprits in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. The protein α-synuclein is well recognized to contribute to the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease and is the major component of Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites. However, α-synuclein also forms oligomeric species with certain conformations being toxic to cells. The mechanisms by which these α-synuclein oligomers cause cell death are being actively investigated as they may provide new strategies for diagnosis and treatment of Parkinson disease and related disorders. Here we review the possible role of α-synuclein oligomers in cell death in Parkinson disease and discuss the potential clinical implications.
doi:10.1002/ana.23746
PMCID: PMC3608838  PMID: 23225525
4.  Prefrontal Dopaminergic Receptor Abnormalities and Executive Functions in Parkinson’s Disease 
Human brain mapping  2012;34(7):1591-1604.
The main pattern of cognitive impairments seen in early to moderate stages of Parkinson’s disease (PD) includes deficits of executive functions. These nonmotor complications have a significant impact on the quality of life and day-to-day activities of PD patients and are not effectively managed by current therapies, a problem which is almost certainly due to the fact that the disease extends beyond the nigrostriatal system. To investigate the role of extrastriatal dopamine in executive function in PD, PD patients and a control group were studied with positron-emission-tomography using a high-affinity dopamine D2/D3 receptor tracer, [11C]FLB-457. All participants were scanned twice while performing an executive task and a control task. Patients were off medication for at least 12 h. The imaging analysis revealed that parkinsonian patients had lower [11C]FLB-457 binding than control group independently of task conditions across different brain regions. Cognitive assessment measures were positively correlated with [11C]FLB-457 binding in the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex only in control group, but not in PD patients. Within the control group, during the executive task (as compared to control task), there was evidence of reduced [11C]FLB-457 binding (indicative of increased dopamine release) in the right orbitofrontal cortex. In contrast, PD patients did not show any reduction in binding during the executive task (as compared with control task). These findings suggest that PD patients present significant abnormalities in extrastriatal dopamine associated with executive processing. These observations provide important insights on the pathophysiology of cognitive dysfunction in PD.
doi:10.1002/hbm.22006
PMCID: PMC3542387  PMID: 22331665 CAMSID: cams2380
FLB-457; positron emission tomography; set-shifting; cognition; mesocortical dopamine
5.  Mutations in GNAL cause primary torsion dystonia 
Nature genetics  2012;45(1):88-92.
Dystonia is a movement disorder characterized by repetitive twisting muscle contractions and postures1,2. Its molecular pathophysiology is poorly understood, in part due to limited knowledge of the genetic basis of the disorder. Only three genes for primary torsion dystonia (PTD), TOR1A (DYT1)3, THAP1 (DYT6)4, and CIZ15 have been identified. Using exome sequencing in two PTD families we identified a novel causative gene, GNAL, with a nonsense p.S293X mutation resulting in premature stop codon in one family and a missense p.V137M mutation in the other. Screening of GNAL in 39 PTD families, revealed six additional novel mutations in this gene. Impaired function of several of the mutations was shown by bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) assays.
doi:10.1038/ng.2496
PMCID: PMC3530620  PMID: 23222958
6.  The prion hypothesis in Parkinson's disease: Braak to the future 
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder typified by the presence of intraneuronal inclusions containing aggregated alpha synuclein (αsyn). The progression of parkinsonian pathology and clinical phenotype has been broadly demonstrated to follow a specific pattern, most notably described by Braak and colleagues. In more recent times it has been hypothesized that αsyn itself may be a critical factor in mediating transmission of disease pathology from one brain area to another. Here we investigate the growing body of evidence demonstrating the ability of αsyn to spread transcellularly and induce pathological aggregation affecting neurons by permissive templating and provide a critical analysis of some irregularities in the hypothesis that the progression of PD pathology may be mediated by such a prion-like process. Finally we discuss some key questions that remain unanswered which are vital to determining the potential contribution of a prion-like process to the pathogenesis of PD.
doi:10.1186/2051-5960-1-2
PMCID: PMC3776210  PMID: 24252164
Prion; Parkinson's disease; Braak staging; Alpha synuclein
7.  Pre-Motor Parkinson’s Disease: Concepts and Definitions 
Movement Disorders  2012;27(5):608-616.
Parkinson’s disease (PD) has a prodromal phase during which non-motor clinical features as well as physiological abnormalities may be present. These pre-motor markers could be used to screen for PD before motor abnormalities are present. The technology to identify PD before it reaches symptomatic Braak Stage 3 (substantia nigra compacta (SNc) involvement) already exists. The current challenge is to define the appropriate scope of use of predictive testing for PD. Imaging technologies, like dopamine transporter imaging, currently offer the highest degree of accuracy for identifying pre-motor PD, but they are expensive as screening tools and abnormalities on these studies would only be evident at Braak Stage 3 or higher. Efficiency is greatly enhanced by combining imaging with a pre-screening test, such as olfactory testing. This two-step process has the potential to greatly reduce costs while retaining diagnostic accuracy. Alternatively, or in concert with this approach, evaluating high-risk populations (e.g. patients with rapid eye movement behavior disorder (RBD) or LRRK2 mutations) would enrich the sample for cases with underlying PD. Ultimately, the role of pre-clinical detection of PD will be determined by the ability of emerging therapies to influence clinical outcomes. As such, implementation of large-scale screening strategies awaits the arrival of clearly safe and effective therapies that address the underlying pathogenesis of PD. Future research will establish more definitive biomarkers capable of revealing the presence of disease in advance of SNc involvement with the promise of the potential for introducing disease modifying therapy even before the development of evidence for dopamine deficiency.
doi:10.1002/mds.24954
PMCID: PMC3335740  PMID: 22508279
Parkinson’s disease; early detection; sensitivity; specificity
8.  Extrastriatal dopaminergic abnormalities of DA homeostasis in Parkinson’s patients with medication-induced pathological gambling: A [11C] FLB-457 and PET study 
Neurobiology of disease  2012;48(3):519-525.
Impulse control disorders such as pathological gambling (PG) are a serious and common adverse effect of dopamine (DA) replacement medication in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Patients with PG have increased impulsivity and abnormalities in striatal DA, in common with behavioural and substance addictions in the non-PD population. To date, no studies have investigated the role of extrastriatal dopaminergic abnormalities in PD patients with PG. We used the PET radiotracer, [11C] FLB-457, with high-affinity for extrastriatal DA D2/3 receptors. 14 PD patients on DA agonists were imaged while they performed a gambling task involving real monetary reward and a control task. Trait impulsivity was measured with the Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS). Seven of the patients had a history of PG that developed subsequent to DA agonist medication. Change in [11C] FLB-457 binding potential (BP) during gambling was reduced in PD with PG patients in the midbrain, where D2/D3 receptors are dominated by autoreceptors. The degree of change in [11C] FLB-457 binding in this region correlated with impulsivity. In the cortex, [11C] FLB-457 BP was significantly greater in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in PD patients with PG during the control task, and binding in this region was also correlated with impulsivity. Our findings provide the first evidence that PD patients with PG have dysfunctional activation of DA autoreceptors in the midbrain and low DA tone in the ACC. Thus, altered striatal and cortical DA homeostasis may incur vulnerability for the development of PG in PD, linked with the impulsive personality trait.
doi:10.1016/j.nbd.2012.06.021
PMCID: PMC3465363  PMID: 22766031 CAMSID: cams2373
Parkinson’s disease; Dopamine agonists; Pathological gambling; Impulsivity
9.  DEFINITION AND CLASSIFICATION OF HYPERKINETIC MOVEMENTS IN CHILDHOOD 
Hyperkinetic movements are unwanted or excess movements that are frequently seen in children with neurologic disorders. They are an important clinical finding with significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. However, the lack of agreement on standard terminology and definitions interferes with clinical treatment and research. We describe definitions of dystonia, chorea, athetosis, myoclonus, tremor, tics, and stereotypies that arose from a consensus meeting in June 2008 of specialists from different clinical and basic science fields. Dystonia is a movement disorder in which involuntary sustained or intermittent muscle contractions cause twisting and repetitive movements, abnormal postures, or both. Chorea is an ongoing random-appearing sequence of one or more discrete involuntary movements or movement fragments. Athetosis is a slow, continuous, involuntary writhing movement that prevents maintenance of a stable posture. Myoclonus is a sequence of repeated, often non-rhythmic, brief shock-like jerks due to sudden involuntary contraction or relaxation of one or more muscles. Tremor is a rhythmic back-and-forth or oscillating involuntary movement about a joint axis. Tics are repeated, individually recognizable, intermittent movements or movement fragments that are almost always briefly suppressible and are usually associated with awareness of an urge to perform the movement. Stereotypies are repetitive, simple movements that can be voluntarily suppressed. We provide recommended techniques for clinical examination and suggestions for differentiating between the different types of hyperkinetic movements, noting that there may be overlap between conditions. These definitions and the diagnostic recommendations are intended to be reliable and useful for clinical practice, communication between clinicians and researchers, and for the design of quantitative tests that will guide and assess the outcome of future clinical trials.
doi:10.1002/mds.23088
PMCID: PMC2929378  PMID: 20589866
10.  Development of a Non-Motor Fluctuation Assessment Instrument for Parkinson Disease 
Parkinson's Disease  2011;2011:292719.
Patients with Parkinson disease are increasingly recognized to suffer from non-motor symptoms in addition to motor symptoms. Many non-motor symptoms fluctuate in parallel with motor symptoms and in relationship to plasma levodopa levels. Though these symptoms are troublesome and result in reduced quality of life to patients and their caregivers, there has not been an objective method of recognizing and quantifying non-motor fluctuations (NMFs). This study sought to develop a patient-based instrument that would accurately capture the experience of patients with NMFs. Patient-based nominal group technique sessions, focus groups, and expert opinion were utilized in developing this questionnaire.
doi:10.4061/2011/292719
PMCID: PMC3153935  PMID: 21860778
11.  Dopamine Agonists Diminish Value Sensitivity of the Orbitofrontal Cortex: A Trigger for Pathological Gambling in Parkinson’s Disease? 
The neurobehavioral underpinnings of pathological gambling are not well understood. Insight might be gained by understanding pharmacological effects on the reward system in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Treatment with dopamine agonists (DAs) has been associated with pathological gambling in PD patients. However, how DAs are involved in the development of this form of addiction is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that tonic stimulation of dopamine receptors specifically desensitizes the dopaminergic reward system by preventing decreases in dopaminergic transmission that occurs with negative feedback. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we studied PD patients during three sessions of a probabilistic reward task in random order: off medication, after levodopa (LD) treatment, and after an equivalent dose of DA (pramipexole). For each trial, a reward prediction error value was computed using outcome, stake, and probability. Pramipexole specifically changed activity of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in two ways that were both associated with increased risk taking in an out-of-magnet task. Outcome-induced activations were generally higher with pramipexole compared with LD or off medication. In addition, only pramipexole greatly diminished trial-by-trial correlation with reward prediction error values. Further analysis yielded that this resulted mainly from impaired deactivation in trials with negative errors in reward prediction. We propose that DAs prevent pauses in dopamine transmission and thereby impair the negative reinforcing effect of losing. Our findings raise the question of whether pathological gambling may in part stem from an impaired capacity of the OFC to guide behavior when facing negative consequences.
doi:10.1038/sj.npp.npp2009124
PMCID: PMC2972251  PMID: 19741594 CAMSID: cams1534
fMRI; impulse control disorder; dopamine agonist; reward; addiction; reinforcement
12.  Stimulation of the Subthalamic Nucleus and Impulsivity 
Annals of neurology  2009;66(6):817-824.
Objective
In Parkinson disease (PD) patients, deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) may contribute to certain impulsive behavior during high-conflict decisions. A neurocomputational model of the basal ganglia has recently been proposed that suggests this behavioral aspect may be related to the role played by the STN in relaying a “hold your horses” signal intended to allow more time to settle on the best option. The aim of the present study was 2-fold: 1) to extend these observations by providing evidence that the STN may influence and prevent the execution of any response even during low-conflict decisions; and 2) to identify the neural correlates of this effect.
Methods
We measured regional cerebral blood flow during a Go/NoGo and a control (Go) task to study the motor improvement and response inhibition deficits associated with STN-DBS in patients with PD.
Results
Although it improved Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale motor ratings and induced a global decrease in reaction time during task performance, STN-DBS impaired response inhibition, as revealed by an increase in commission errors in NoGo trials. These behavioral effects were accompanied by changes in synaptic activity consisting of a reduced activation in the cortical networks responsible for reactive and proactive response inhibition.
Interpretation
The present results suggest that although it improves motor functions in PD patients, modulation of STN hyperactivity with DBS may tend at the same time to favor the appearance of impulsive behavior by acting on the gating mechanism involved in response initiation.
doi:10.1002/ana.21795
PMCID: PMC2972250  PMID: 20035509 CAMSID: cams1535
13.  A multicentre study on suicide outcomes following subthalamic stimulation for Parkinson's disease 
Brain  2008;131(10):2720-2728.
Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation improves motor symptoms and quality of life in advanced Parkinson's disease. As after other life-altering surgeries, suicides have been reported following deep brain stimulation for movement disorders. We sought to determine the suicide rate following subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease by conducting an international multicentre retrospective survey of movement disorder and surgical centres. We further sought to determine factors associated with suicide attempts through a nested case-control study. In the survey of suicide rate, 55/75 centres participated. The completed suicide percentage was 0.45% (24/5311) and attempted suicide percentage was 0.90% (48/5311). Observed suicide rates in the first postoperative year (263/100 000/year) (0.26%) were higher than the lowest and the highest expected age-, gender- and country-adjusted World Health Organization suicide rates (Standardized Mortality Ratio for suicide: SMR 12.63–15.64; P < 0.001) and remained elevated at the fourth postoperative year (38/100 000/year) (0.04%) (SMR 1.81–2.31; P < 0.05). The excess number of deaths was 13 for the first postoperative year and one for the fourth postoperative year. In the case-control study of associated factors, 10 centres participated. Twenty-seven attempted suicides and nine completed suicides were compared with 70 controls. Postoperative depression (P < 0.001), being single (P = 0.007) and a previous history of impulse control disorders or compulsive medication use (P = 0.005) were independent associated factors accounting for 51% of the variance for attempted suicide risk. Attempted suicides were also associated (P < 0.05) with being younger, younger Parkinson's disease onset and a previous suicide attempt. Completed suicides were associated with postoperative depression (P < 0.001). Postoperative depression remained a significant factor associated with attempted and completed suicides after correction for multiple comparisons using the stringent Bonferroni correction. Mortality in the first year following subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation has been reported at 0.4%. Suicide is thus one of the most important potentially preventable risks for mortality following subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease. Postoperative depression should be carefully assessed and treated. A multidisciplinary assessment and follow-up is recommended.
doi:10.1093/brain/awn214
PMCID: PMC2724899  PMID: 18941146
suicide; deep brain stimulation; Parkinson's disease; depression; subthalamic stimulation
14.  1!Serum urate as a predictor of clinical and radiographic progression in Parkinson’s disease 
Archives of neurology  2008;65(6):716-723.
Context
Prospective epidemiological studies consistently indicate that Parkinson’s disease (PD) risk declines with increasing serum urate.
Objective
To determine whether serum urate, a purine metabolite and potent antioxidant, predicts prognosis in PD.
Design, Setting, and Participants
Prospective study among 804 subjects with early PD enrolled in the PRECEPT study, a clinical trial of the neuroprotectant potential of CEP-1347, conducted between April 2002 and August 2005 (average follow-up time 21.4 months).
Main Outcome Measures
The primary study endpoint was progression to clinical disability sufficient to warrant dopaminergic therapy. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of reaching endpoint according to quintiles of baseline serum urate, adjusting for gender, age and other potential covariates. Change in striatal uptake of [123I]β-CIT, a marker for the presynaptic dopamine transporter, was assessed with linear regression for a subset of 399 subjects.
Results
The adjusted HR of reaching endpoint declined with increasing baseline concentrations of urate; subjects in the top quintile reached the endpoint at only half the rate of subjects in the bottom quintile (HR=0.51; 95% CI: 0.37 to 0.72; p=0.0002). This association was markedly stronger in men (HR=0.39; 95% CI: 0.26 to 0.60; p<0.0001) than in women (HR=0.77; 95% CI: 0.39 to 1.50; p=0.4). The percent loss in striatal [123I]β-CIT uptake also improved with increasing serum urate concentrations (overall p for trend=0.002; men, p=0.0008; women, p= 0.4).
Conclusion
These findings identify serum urate as the first molecular factor directly linked to the progression of typical PD and suggest that targeting urate or its determinants could be an effective disease modifying therapy in PD.
doi:10.1001/archneur.2008.65.6.nct70003
PMCID: PMC2574855  PMID: 18413464
15.  Criteria for the diagnosis of corticobasal degeneration 
Neurology  2013;80(5):496-503.
Current criteria for the clinical diagnosis of pathologically confirmed corticobasal degeneration (CBD) no longer reflect the expanding understanding of this disease and its clinicopathologic correlations. An international consortium of behavioral neurology, neuropsychology, and movement disorders specialists developed new criteria based on consensus and a systematic literature review. Clinical diagnoses (early or late) were identified for 267 nonoverlapping pathologically confirmed CBD cases from published reports and brain banks. Combined with consensus, 4 CBD phenotypes emerged: corticobasal syndrome (CBS), frontal behavioral-spatial syndrome (FBS), nonfluent/agrammatic variant of primary progressive aphasia (naPPA), and progressive supranuclear palsy syndrome (PSPS). Clinical features of CBD cases were extracted from descriptions of 209 brain bank and published patients, providing a comprehensive description of CBD and correcting common misconceptions. Clinical CBD phenotypes and features were combined to create 2 sets of criteria: more specific clinical research criteria for probable CBD and broader criteria for possible CBD that are more inclusive but have a higher chance to detect other tau-based pathologies. Probable CBD criteria require insidious onset and gradual progression for at least 1 year, age at onset ≥50 years, no similar family history or known tau mutations, and a clinical phenotype of probable CBS or either FBS or naPPA with at least 1 CBS feature. The possible CBD category uses similar criteria but has no restrictions on age or family history, allows tau mutations, permits less rigorous phenotype fulfillment, and includes a PSPS phenotype. Future validation and refinement of the proposed criteria are needed.
doi:10.1212/WNL.0b013e31827f0fd1
PMCID: PMC3590050  PMID: 23359374
16.  Extensive intracranial calcifications in a patient with a novel polymerase gamma-1 mutation 
Neurology  2013;81(2):197-198.
A 55-year-old woman presented to our center with an almost lifelong action tremor, associated with peripheral neuropathy, progressive sensorineural hearing loss, and a strong family history of tremor. CT of the brain was notable for extensive intracranial calcifications, much more prominent in the dentate nucleus, cerebellar hemispheres, and midpons, compared to the globus pallidus (figure 1). T1-weighted MRI demonstrated hypointense signal in the aforementioned areas (figure 2). Polymerase gamma-1 (POLG1) gene analysis revealed a novel heterozygous sequence variant at c3239G > c; p.Ser1080Thr. Similar diffuse intracranial calcification can be seen in a variety of disorders including idiopathic basal ganglia calcifications and spinocerebellar ataxia 20.1 Mitochondrial disorders2 are a well-recognized cause; however, to our knowledge this is the first time that such extensive intracranial calcium deposits have been described in a patient with a POLG1 mutation.
doi:10.1212/WNL.0b013e31829a3438
PMCID: PMC3770178  PMID: 23836942
17.  Psychogenic Facial Movement Disorders: Clinical Features and Associated Conditions 
Movement Disorders  2012;27(12):1544-1551.
The facial phenotype of psychogenic movement disorders has not been fully characterized. Seven tertiary-referral movement disorders centers using a standardized data collection on a computerized database performed a retrospective chart review of psychogenic movement disorders involving the face. Patients with organic forms of facial dystonia or any medical or neurological disorder known to affect facial muscles were excluded. Sixty-one patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria for psychogenic facial movement disorders (91.8% females; age: 37.0 ± 11.3 years). Phasic or tonic muscular spasms resembling dystonia were documented in all patients most commonly involving the lips (60.7%), followed by eyelids (50.8%), perinasal region (16.4%), and forehead (9.8%). The most common pattern consisted of tonic, sustained, lateral, and/or downward protrusion of one side of the lower lip with ipsilateral jaw deviation (84.3%). Ipsi- or contralateral blepharospasm and excessive platysma contraction occurred in isolation or combined with fixed lip dystonia (60.7%). Spasms were reported as painful in 24.6% of cases. Symptom onset was abrupt in most cases (80.3%), with at least 1 precipitating psychological stress or trauma identified in 57.4%. Associated body regions involved included upper limbs (29.5%), neck (16.4%), lower limbs (16.4%), and trunk (4.9%). There were fluctuations in severity and spontaneous exacerbations and remissions (60%). Prevalent comorbidities included depression (38.0%) and tension headache (26.4%). Fixed jaw and/or lip deviation is a characteristic pattern of psychogenic facial movement disorders, occurring in isolation or in combination with other psychogenic movement disorders or other psychogenic features. © 2012 Movement Disorder Society
doi:10.1002/mds.25190
PMCID: PMC3633239  PMID: 23033125
facial movement disorders; psychogenic movement disorders; psychogenic facial movement disorders; psychogenic dystonia; psychogenic blepharospasm; facial distortion
18.  Large-scale replication and heterogeneity in Parkinson disease genetic loci 
Sharma, Manu | Ioannidis, John P.A. | Aasly, Jan O. | Annesi, Grazia | Brice, Alexis | Van Broeckhoven, Christine | Bertram, Lars | Bozi, Maria | Crosiers, David | Clarke, Carl | Facheris, Maurizio | Farrer, Matthew | Garraux, Gaetan | Gispert, Suzana | Auburger, Georg | Vilariño-Güell, Carles | Hadjigeorgiou, Georgios M. | Hicks, Andrew A. | Hattori, Nobutaka | Jeon, Beom | Lesage, Suzanne | Lill, Christina M. | Lin, Juei-Jueng | Lynch, Timothy | Lichtner, Peter | Lang, Anthony E. | Mok, Vincent | Jasinska-Myga, Barbara | Mellick, George D. | Morrison, Karen E. | Opala, Grzegorz | Pramstaller, Peter P. | Pichler, Irene | Park, Sung Sup | Quattrone, Aldo | Rogaeva, Ekaterina | Ross, Owen A. | Stefanis, Leonidas | Stockton, Joanne D. | Satake, Wataru | Silburn, Peter A. | Theuns, Jessie | Tan, Eng-King | Toda, Tatsushi | Tomiyama, Hiroyuki | Uitti, Ryan J. | Wirdefeldt, Karin | Wszolek, Zbigniew | Xiromerisiou, Georgia | Yueh, Kuo-Chu | Zhao, Yi | Gasser, Thomas | Maraganore, Demetrius | Krüger, Rejko | Boyle, R.S | Sellbach, A | O'Sullivan, J.D. | Sutherland, G.T. | Siebert, G.A | Dissanayaka, N.N.W | Van Broeckhoven, Christine | Theuns, Jessie | Crosiers, David | Pickut, Barbara | Engelborghs, Sebastiaan | Meeus, Bram | De Deyn, Peter P. | Cras, Patrick | Rogaeva, Ekaterina | Lang, Anthony E | Agid, Y | Anheim, M | Bonnet, A-M | Borg, M | Brice, A | Broussolle, E | Corvol, JC | Damier, P | Destée, A | Dürr, A | Durif, F | Lesage, S | Lohmann, E | Pollak, P | Rascol, O | Tison, F | Tranchant, C | Viallet, F | Vidailhet, M | Tzourio, Christophe | Amouyel, Philippe | Loriot, Marie-Anne | Mutez, Eugénie | Duflot, Aurélie | Legendre, Jean-Philippe | Waucquier, Nawal | Gasser, Thomas | Riess, Olaf | Berg, Daniela | Schulte, Claudia | Klein, Christine | Djarmati, Ana | Hagenah, Johann | Lohmann, Katja | Auburger, Georg | Hilker, Rüdiger | van de Loo, Simone | Dardiotis, Efthimios | Tsimourtou, Vaia | Ralli, Styliani | Kountra, Persa | Patramani, Gianna | Vogiatzi, Cristina | Hattori, Nobutaka | Tomiyama, Hiroyuki | Funayama, Manabu | Yoshino, Hiroyo | Li, Yuanzhe | Imamichi, Yoko | Toda, Tatsushi | Satake, Wataru | Lynch, Tim | Gibson, J. Mark | Valente, Enza Maria | Ferraris, Alessandro | Dallapiccola, Bruno | Ialongo, Tamara | Brighina, Laura | Corradi, Barbara | Piolti, Roberto | Tarantino, Patrizia | Annesi, Ferdinanda | Jeon, Beom S. | Park, Sung-Sup | Aasly, J | Opala, Grzegorz | Jasinska-Myga, Barbara | Klodowska-Duda, Gabriela | Boczarska-Jedynak, Magdalena | Tan, Eng King | Belin, Andrea Carmine | Olson, Lars | Galter, Dagmar | Westerlund, Marie | Sydow, Olof | Nilsson, Christer | Puschmann, Andreas | Lin, JJ | Maraganore, Demetrius M. | Ahlskog, J, Eric | de Andrade, Mariza | Lesnick, Timothy G. | Rocca, Walter A. | Checkoway, Harvey | Ross, Owen A | Wszolek, Zbigniew K. | Uitti, Ryan J.
Neurology  2012;79(7):659-667.
Objective:
Eleven genetic loci have reached genome-wide significance in a recent meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in Parkinson disease (PD) based on populations of Caucasian descent. The extent to which these genetic effects are consistent across different populations is unknown.
Methods:
Investigators from the Genetic Epidemiology of Parkinson's Disease Consortium were invited to participate in the study. A total of 11 SNPs were genotyped in 8,750 cases and 8,955 controls. Fixed as well as random effects models were used to provide the summary risk estimates for these variants. We evaluated between-study heterogeneity and heterogeneity between populations of different ancestry.
Results:
In the overall analysis, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 9 loci showed significant associations with protective per-allele odds ratios of 0.78–0.87 (LAMP3, BST1, and MAPT) and susceptibility per-allele odds ratios of 1.14–1.43 (STK39, GAK, SNCA, LRRK2, SYT11, and HIP1R). For 5 of the 9 replicated SNPs there was nominally significant between-site heterogeneity in the effect sizes (I2 estimates ranged from 39% to 48%). Subgroup analysis by ethnicity showed significantly stronger effects for the BST1 (rs11724635) in Asian vs Caucasian populations and similar effects for SNCA, LRRK2, LAMP3, HIP1R, and STK39 in Asian and Caucasian populations, while MAPT rs2942168 and SYT11 rs34372695 were monomorphic in the Asian population, highlighting the role of population-specific heterogeneity in PD.
Conclusion:
Our study allows insight to understand the distribution of newly identified genetic factors contributing to PD and shows that large-scale evaluation in diverse populations is important to understand the role of population-specific heterogeneity. Neurology® 2012;79:659–667
doi:10.1212/WNL.0b013e318264e353
PMCID: PMC3414661  PMID: 22786590
19.  Caffeine for treatment of Parkinson disease 
Neurology  2012;79(7):651-658.
Objective:
Epidemiologic studies consistently link caffeine, a nonselective adenosine antagonist, to lower risk of Parkinson disease (PD). However, the symptomatic effects of caffeine in PD have not been adequately evaluated.
Methods:
We conducted a 6-week randomized controlled trial of caffeine in PD to assess effects upon daytime somnolence, motor severity, and other nonmotor features. Patients with PD with daytime somnolence (Epworth >10) were given caffeine 100 mg twice daily ×3 weeks, then 200 mg twice daily ×3 weeks, or matching placebo. The primary outcome was the Epworth Sleepiness Scale score. Secondary outcomes included motor severity, sleep markers, fatigue, depression, and quality of life. Effects of caffeine were analyzed with Bayesian hierarchical models, adjusting for study site, baseline scores, age, and sex.
Results:
Of 61 patients, 31 were randomized to placebo and 30 to caffeine. On the primary intention-to-treat analysis, caffeine resulted in a nonsignificant reduction in Epworth Sleepiness Scale score (−1.71 points; 95% confidence interval [CI] −3.57, 0.13). However, somnolence improved on the Clinical Global Impression of Change (+0.64; 0.16, 1.13, intention-to-treat), with significant reduction in Epworth Sleepiness Scale score on per-protocol analysis (−1.97; −3.87, −0.05). Caffeine reduced the total Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale score (−4.69 points; −7.7, −1.6) and the objective motor component (−3.15 points; −5.50, −0.83). Other than modest improvement in global health measures, there were no changes in quality of life, depression, or sleep quality. Adverse events were comparable in caffeine and placebo groups.
Conclusions:
Caffeine provided only equivocal borderline improvement in excessive somnolence in PD, but improved objective motor measures. These potential motor benefits suggest that a larger long-term trial of caffeine is warranted.
Classification of evidence:
This study provides Class I evidence that caffeine, up to 200 mg BID for 6 weeks, had no significant benefit on excessive daytime sleepiness in patients with PD.
doi:10.1212/WNL.0b013e318263570d
PMCID: PMC3414662  PMID: 22855866
20.  A multi-centre clinico-genetic analysis of the VPS35 gene in Parkinson disease indicates reduced penetrance for disease-associated variants 
Journal of Medical Genetics  2012;49(11):721-726.
Background
Two recent studies identified a mutation (p.Asp620Asn) in the vacuolar protein sorting 35 gene as a cause for an autosomal dominant form of Parkinson disease . Although additional missense variants were described, their pathogenic role yet remains inconclusive.
Methods and results
We performed the largest multi-center study to ascertain the frequency and pathogenicity of the reported vacuolar protein sorting 35 gene variants in more than 15,000 individuals worldwide. p.Asp620Asn was detected in 5 familial and 2 sporadic PD cases and not in healthy controls, p.Leu774Met in 6 cases and 1 control, p.Gly51Ser in 3 cases and 2 controls. Overall analyses did not reveal any significant increased risk for p.Leu774Met and p.Gly51Ser in our cohort.
Conclusions
Our study apart from identifying the p.Asp620Asn variant in familial cases also identified it in idiopathic Parkinson disease cases, and thus provides genetic evidence for a role of p.Asp620Asn in Parkinson disease in different populations worldwide.
doi:10.1136/jmedgenet-2012-101155
PMCID: PMC3488700  PMID: 23125461
Parkinson-s disease; Genome-wide; Genetics; Genetic epidemiology; Complex traits
21.  Urate predicts rate of clinical decline in Parkinson disease 
Archives of neurology  2009;66(12):1460-1468.
Context
The risk of Parkinson disease (PD) and its rate of progression may decline with increasing blood urate, a major antioxidant.
Objective
To determine whether serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of urate predict clinical progression in patients with PD.
Design, Setting, and Participants
800 subjects with early PD enrolled in the DATATOP trial. Pre-treatment urate was measured in serum for 774 subjects and in CSF for 713.
Main Outcome Measures
Treatment-, age- and sex-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for clinical disability requiring levodopa therapy, the pre-specified primary endpoint.
Results
The HR of progressing to endpoint decreased with increasing serum urate (HR for 1 standard deviation increase = 0.82; 95% CI = 0.73 to 0.93). In analyses stratified by α-tocopherol treatment (2,000 IU/day), a decrease in the HR for the primary endpoint was seen only among subjects not treated with α-tocopherol (HR = 0.75; 95% CI = 0.62 to 0.89, versus those treated HR = 0.90; 95% CI = 0.75 to 1.08). Results were similar for the rate of change in the United Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). CSF urate was also inversely related to both the primary endpoint (HR for highest versus lowest quintile = 0.65; 95% CI: 0.54 to 0.96) and to the rate of change in UPDRS. As with serum urate, these associations were present only among subjects not treated with α-tocopherol.
Conclusion
Higher serum and CSF urate at baseline were associated with slower rates of clinical decline. The findings strengthen the link between urate and PD and the rationale for considering CNS urate elevation as a potential strategy to slow PD progression.
doi:10.1001/archneurol.2009.247
PMCID: PMC2795011  PMID: 19822770
22.  Multi-center analysis of glucocerebrosidase mutations in Parkinson disease 
The New England journal of medicine  2009;361(17):1651-1661.
Background
Recent studies indicate an increased frequency of mutations in the gene for Gaucher disease, glucocerebrosidase (GBA), among patients with Parkinson disease. An international collaborative study was conducted to ascertain the frequency of GBA mutations in ethnically diverse patients with Parkinson disease.
Methods
Sixteen centers participated, including five from the Americas, six from Europe, two from Israel and three from Asia. Each received a standard DNA panel to compare genotyping results. Genotypes and phenotypic data from patients and controls were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression models and the Mantel Haenszel procedure to estimate odds ratios (ORs) across studies. The sample included 5691 patients (780 Ashkenazi Jews) and 4898 controls (387 Ashkenazi Jews).
Results
All 16 centers could detect GBA mutations, L444P and N370S, and the two were found in 15.3% of Ashkenazi patients with Parkinson disease (ORs = 4.95 for L444P and 5.62 for N370S), and in 3.2% of non-Ashkenazi patients (ORs = 9.68 for L444P and 3.30 for N370S). GBA was sequenced in 1642 non-Ashkenazi subjects, yielding a frequency of 6.9% for all mutations, demonstrate that limited mutation screens miss half the mutant alleles. The presence of any GBA mutation was associated with an OR of 5.43 across studies. Clinically, although phenotypes varied, subjects with a GBA mutation presented earlier, and were more likely to have affected relatives and atypical manifestations.
Conclusion
Data collected from sixteen centers demonstrate that there is a strong association between GBA mutations and Parkinson disease.
doi:10.1056/NEJMoa0901281
PMCID: PMC2856322  PMID: 19846850
23.  Phenotype, genotype, and worldwide genetic penetrance of LRRK2-associated Parkinson's disease: a case-control study 
Lancet Neurology  2008;7(7):583-590.
Summary
Background
Mutations in LRRK2, the gene that encodes leucine-rich repeat kinase 2, are a cause of Parkinson's disease (PD). The International LRRK2 Consortium was established to answer three key clinical questions: can LRRK2-associated PD be distinguished from idiopathic PD; which mutations in LRRK2 are pathogenic; and what is the age-specific cumulative risk of PD for individuals who inherit or are at risk of inheriting a deleterious mutation in LRRK2?
Methods
Researchers from 21 centres across the world collaborated on this study. The frequency of the common LRRK2 Gly2019Ser mutation was estimated on the basis of data from 24 populations worldwide, and the penetrance of the mutation was defined in 1045 people with mutations in LRRK2 from 133 families. The LRRK2 phenotype was defined on the basis of 59 motor and non-motor symptoms in 356 patients with LRRK2-associated PD and compared with the symptoms of 543 patients with pathologically proven idiopathic PD.
Findings
Six mutations met the consortium's criteria for being proven pathogenic. The frequency of the common LRRK2 Gly2019Ser mutation was 1% of patients with sporadic PD and 4% of patients with hereditary PD; the frequency was highest in the middle east and higher in southern Europe than in northern Europe. The risk of PD for a person who inherits the LRRK2 Gly2019Ser mutation was 28% at age 59 years, 51% at 69 years, and 74% at 79 years. The motor symptoms (eg, disease severity, rate of progression, occurrence of falls, and dyskinesia) and non-motor symptoms (eg, cognition and olfaction) of LRRK2-associated PD were more benign than those of idiopathic PD.
Interpretation
Mutations in LRRK2 are a clinically relevant cause of PD that merit testing in patients with hereditary PD and in subgroups of patients with PD. However, this knowledge should be applied with caution in the diagnosis and counselling of patients.
Funding
UK Medical Research Council; UK Parkinson's Disease Society; UK Brain Research Trust; Internationaal Parkinson Fonds; Volkswagen Foundation; National Institutes of Health: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and National Institute of Aging; Udall Parkinson's Disease Centre of Excellence; Pacific Alzheimer Research Foundation Centre; Italian Telethon Foundation; Fondazione Grigioni per il Morbo di Parkinson; Michael J Fox Foundation for Parkinson's Research; Safra Global Genetics Consortium; US Department of Veterans Affairs; French Agence Nationale de la Recherche.
doi:10.1016/S1474-4422(08)70117-0
PMCID: PMC2832754  PMID: 18539534

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