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1.  Time to secondary progression in patients with multiple sclerosis who were treated with first generation immunomodulating drugs 
Background:
It is currently unknown whether early immunomodulatory treatment in relapsing–remitting MS (RRMS) can delay the transition to secondary progression (SP).
Objective:
To compare the time interval from onset to SP in patients with RRMS between a contemporary cohort, treated with first generation disease modifying drugs (DMDs), and a historical control cohort.
Methods:
We included a cohort of contemporary RRMS patients treated with DMDs, obtained from the Swedish National MS Registry (disease onset between 1995–2004, n = 730) and a historical population-based incidence cohort (onset 1950–64, n = 186). We retrospectively analyzed the difference in time to SP, termed the “period effect” within a 12-year survival analysis, using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analysis.
Results:
We found that the “period” affected the entire severity spectrum. After adjusting for onset features, which were weaker in the contemporary material, as well as the therapy initiation time, the DMD-treated patients still exhibited a longer time to SP than the controls (hazard ratios: men, 0.32; women, 0.53).
Conclusion:
Our results showed there was a longer time to SP in the contemporary subjects given DMD. Our analyses suggested that this effect was not solely driven by the inclusion of benign cases, and it was at least partly due to the long-term immunomodulating therapy given.
doi:10.1177/1352458512463764
PMCID: PMC3652599  PMID: 23124789
Disease-modifying drugs; disease progression; disease severity; epidemiology; multiple sclerosis; relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis; secondary progressive multiple sclerosis; Sweden; time to progression
2.  The risk for multiple sclerosis in female nurse anaesthetists: a register based study 
Background
Previous studies have suggested that exposure to organic solvents, including volatile anaesthetic agents, may be a risk factor for multiple sclerosis (MS), possibly in combination with genetic and other environmental factors.
Aims
To further investigate the role of volatile anaesthetic agents having similar acute toxic effects to other organic solvents.
Methods
Female nurse anaesthetists, other female nurses, and female teachers from middle and upper compulsory school levels were identified and retrieved from the 1985 census, Statistics Sweden. By means of the unique personal identity number in Sweden, these individuals were linked with the disability pension registers at The National Social Insurance Board and also with data on hospital care 1985–2000 at The National Board of Health and Welfare.
Results
The cumulative incidence rate ratio of MS was found to be increased in female nurse anaesthetists in relation to other nurses (statistically not significant) and teachers (statistically significant), respectively.
Conclusions
These findings give some support to previous findings of an increased risk for MS in nurse anaesthetists. This is interesting in the context of previous observations of organic solvents in general as a potential risk factor in MS.
doi:10.1136/oem.2005.024604
PMCID: PMC2078114  PMID: 16709703
exposure; volatile anaesthetic gases; organic solvents; risk

Results 1-2 (2)