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1.  Methodological pitfalls in the study of DAX-1 function 
Cell Death & Disease  2014;5(1):e977-.
doi:10.1038/cddis.2013.446
PMCID: PMC4040691  PMID: 24384720
2.  Serum amyloid A protein concentration in bone marrow transplantation for beta thalassaemia. 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  1992;45(4):348-351.
AIMS: To investigate whether serum amyloid A protein (SAA) and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations could be used in the management of beta thalassaemic patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation (BMT). METHODS: Serum SAA and CRP concentrations were determined in paired samples from 66 patients with beta thalassaemia before and after BMT. Serum SAA concentrations were determined by an enzyme linked immunoassay (EIA); serum CRP concentrations were determined by a nephelometric assay. RESULTS: Serum SAA concentrations before transplantation were significantly higher in the group that subsequently rejected the transplant than the group without complications. SAA concentrations increased after BMT in acute graft versus host disease (GvHD) and rejection. No significant increase in SAA or CRP was found in chronic GvHD. Increases in serum in SAA and CRP concentrations were not related to concomitant infection episodes. CONCLUSIONS: The different acute phase response in acute GvHD and rejection compared with chronic GvHD suggests that different immunopathogenic mechanisms are responsible.
PMCID: PMC495278  PMID: 1577974
3.  Increased serum concentrations of tumour necrosis factor in beta thalassaemia: effect of bone marrow transplantation. 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  1992;45(1):61-65.
AIMS: Serum concentrations of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) were determined in beta thalassemic patients before and after bone marrow transplantation (BMT) to evaluate whether changes in TNF concentrations after BMT were related to immune mediated complications. METHODS: Serum TNF concentrations were determined by enzyme linked immunoassay (EIA) in paired samples from 71 patients with beta thalassemia before and after BMT. Serial samples from 13 patients were also studied for up to six months after BMT. Forty one normal healthy children matched for sex and age were studied as controls. RESULTS: beta thalassemic patients had high serum TNF concentrations before transplantation compared with controls. These were not related to sex, age, duration of disease, number of blood transfusions, transferrin concentrations or splenectomy. DQw1 positive patients showed significantly lower TNF concentrations than non-DQw1 cases. Patients with severe liver fibrosis had significantly higher TNF concentrations. No correlation was found between TNF values and BMT outcome before transplantation but TNF alpha values fell significantly after BMT. The decrease persisted only in patients with successful engraftment. In serial samples studied for up to six months after BMT, TNF values decreased but in four out of five patients with graft rejection and in all five with acute graft versus host disease (GVHD) sharp increases occurred at the time of clinical symptoms. No correlation was found between the degree of GVHD and serum TNF-alpha concentrations nor between TNF-alpha concentrations after BMT and the presence of bacterial, viral, and fungal infections. CONCLUSIONS: About 50% of beta thalassemic patients have increased serum TNF, and the changes after BMT are related to the occurrence of immune mediate complications. The persistence of low TNF concentrations after successful engraftment may be due to the preparative regimen and the lack of adverse immune reactions.
PMCID: PMC495819  PMID: 1740519
4.  Decreased adhesion to endothelial cells and matrix proteins of H-2Kb gene transfected tumour cells. 
British Journal of Cancer  1993;68(5):862-867.
Transfection of murine metastatic B78H1 cells (derived from B16 melanoma) with a syngeneic H-2Kb gene was used to study the effect of Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) gene products on tumour cell adhesion to endothelial cells and matrix proteins and the involvement in the metastatic process. H-2Kb-expressing transfectants showed a reduced adhesion to endothelial surfaces of different origin (four murine endotheliomas and human umbilical vein endothelial cells) when compared to parental B78H1 cells and to controls transfected with pSV2neo alone. On the average a 50-70% reduction in adhesion to endothelial cells was observed among H-2Kb transfectants. H-2Kb transfectants had a reduced expression of the alpha 4 integrin subunit, moreover the adhesion of Neo-transfected clones to endothelial cells was reduced to the levels of H-2Kb transfectants by antibodies directed against the beta 1 subunit and the endothelial VCAM-1 molecule, thus suggesting an impairment of the VLA-4/VCAM-1 interaction in H-2Kb transfectants. Adhesion to extracellular matrix components was also strongly decreased: in general the adhesion of H-2Kb cells showed a 50-75% inhibition with respect to Neo or parental controls. The highest difference was observed in adhesion to vitronectin and laminin, the lowest in adhesion to fibronectin. Reduction in adhesive properties of H-2Kb-expressing transfectants could be involved in the reduced metastatic ability, evaluated by means of intravenous injection of cells: H-2Kb transfectants yielded less than ten lung colonies, while all controls produced more than 100. Our data indicate that expression of a single class I MHC gene can significantly alter the metastatic phenotype of MHC-negative tumour cells and this could be related to a general alteration of tumour cell adhesive interactions.
PMCID: PMC1968745  PMID: 7692918
5.  Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: can cell mediated immunity markers predict clinical outcome? 
Thorax  1990;45(7):536-540.
Most of the cells found in lung parenchyma in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis are activated T lymphocytes and macrophages. The serum levels of three markers of cell mediated immunity were measured in 20 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, in 20 normal subjects and in 12 patients with sarcoidosis to evaluate their clinical and prognostic significance in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. The three markers were: soluble CD8 (from activated suppressor-cytotoxic lymphocytes), soluble interleukin (IL)-2 receptors (from activated T cells and macrophages), and neopterin (from activated macrophages). Patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis had higher levels of all three markers than the control subjects. Soluble IL-2 receptor and neopterin tended to be lower (though not significantly) in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis than in those with sarcoidosis, whereas soluble CD8 was similar in the two groups of patients. No correlation was found between soluble IL-2 receptors or soluble CD8 and the clinical, radiological, and physiological measures of disease activity or with clinical outcome (after a mean follow up of 23 months). Tumour necrosis factor levels were also determined. Only 30% of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis or sarcoidosis had detectable circulating tumour necrosis factor; these patients had a lower percentage of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid neutrophils in their lavage fluid. Tumour necrosis factor levels did not correlate with clinical measures of severity or outcome. Thus our data support the hypothesis that cell mediated alveolitis occurs in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. They do not, however, provide evidence to support the use of these markers of cell mediated immunity to monitor the clinical course in these patients.
PMCID: PMC462584  PMID: 2118691
6.  Control of H-2 expression in transformed nonhaemopoietic cells by autocrine interferon. 
British Journal of Cancer  1992;66(3):479-482.
The relationship between autocrine interferon (IFN) production and the expression of class I Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) membrane glycoproteins in vitro was investigated in a panel of murine transformed cells of nonhaemopoietic origin. The panel included 11 cell lines of H-2Kb haplotype derived from fibrosarcomas, carcinomas and melanoma, and from transformed fibroblasts. IFN activity was detected in the conditioned medium of nine cell lines; fibrosarcomas were among the high IFN producers, while the non-producers were a melanoma clone and a lung carcinoma cell line. A significant correlation was found between IFN production and the expression of H-2K/D glycoproteins, thus suggesting that long-term maintainment of MHC glycoprotein expression in vitro could be mediated by self produced IFN. Two IFN producer cell lines, MN/MCA1 and R80/17, were cultured in the presence of a blocking antiserum against IFN-alpha/beta: a significant decrease in H-2b expression was observed, thus indicating the existence of an autocrine IFN circuit. Taken together these findings suggest that release of IFN is a frequent event among transformed nonhaemopoietic cells, and that self-produced IFN contributes to the regulation of MHC antigen levels in solid tumours.
PMCID: PMC1977952  PMID: 1381603
7.  Training interactional behaviors of adults with developmental disabilities: a systematic replication and extension. 
This study was a replication and extension of research by Foxx, McMorrow, Bittle, and Ness (1986) that assessed generalization effects of a social skills training program on the interactional behavior of adults with developmental disabilities. Target skills were a verbal action or reaction in six skill areas that specifically addressed the participants' skill deficits. In the present study, we trained 5 adult residents of a group home across these six skill areas using the "Sorry" game format and the scoring criteria described by Foxx et al. We extended the results of Foxx et al. by (a) using pretreatment assessment procedures to identify participants' specific skill deficits, (b) training all residents in the natural environment, (c) training participant-participant interactions, (d) training participants to respond to four of the six skill areas through the use of a role-play procedure, and (e) omitting rewards, criterion levels, and self-monitoring. Additionally, the trainer in the present study modeled correct responses only as an error correction procedure during training. Similar to those of Foxx et al., our results indicated that all participants increased their use of the trained interactional behaviors during the generalization assessments in the presence of other trained peers.
doi:10.1901/jaba.1991.24-167
PMCID: PMC1279558  PMID: 2055800

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