Serum CRP and uric acid levels were estimated in twenty-five patients with psoriasis (group III) before and after 12 weeks of treatment. Results were compared with a group of 25 normal subjects (group I) and a group of 25 patients of various skin diseases other than psoriatic lesion (group II). Mean value for CRP was found to be increased by more than 20 folds in patients with psoriasis, which was subsequently reduced to nearly 50% of the initial value after 12 weeks of treatment. These patients also showed hyperuricemia. Nearly 25% of these patients also exhibited arthritis. It is thus suggested that both CRP and uric acid levels should be monitored in patients with psoriasis.
CRP; Uric acid; Psoriasis
Role of Vitamin D supplementation was studied in patients with hypertension. One hundred hypertensive patients (group I) were given conventional antihypertensive drugs while another 100 patients (group II), in addition, were supplemented with Vitamin D3 (33,000 IU, after every 2 weeks, for 3 months). Besides diastolic and systolic blood pressure, serum calcium, phosphorous, alkaline phosphatase, albumin, albumin-corrected calcium, and 24 h urinary creatinine levels were estimated in both the groups before the start of treatment and after 3 months. Vitamin D supplementation showed a more significant decrease in systolic blood pressure. This group also showed a significant increase in serum calcium as well as albumin-corrected calcium with a decrease in phosphorous. Results of the study confirm that Vitamin D supplementation has a role in reducing blood pressure in hypertensive patients and that it should be supplemented with the antihypertensive drugs. More extensive studies with a larger group, to draw a definite conclusion, are in progress.
Vitamin D supplementation; Hypertension; Blood pressure
Thirty patients with thalassemia major receiving repeated blood transfusion were studied to see their serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcium status. Serum PTH, serum and 24 h urinary calcium, and serum alkaline phosphatase, phosphorus, and albumin-corrected calcium levels were determined. Half of these patients, in addition to transfusion, were also supplemented with vitamin D (60,000 IU for 10d) and calcium (1500 mg/day for 3 months). Serum PTH, and serum and 24 h urinary calcium concentrations of the patients receiving transfusions were found to be significantly reduced while their serum alkaline phosphatase, phosphorus, and albumin-corrected calcium levels were not significantly altered when compared to the respective mean values for the control group. Vitamin D and calcium supplementation significantly increased their serum PTH and calcium levels. Supplementations also increased urinary excretion of calcium. The results thus suggest that patients with thalassemia have hypoparathyroidism and reduced serum calcium concentrations that in turn were improved with vitamin D and calcium supplementation.
Parathyroid hormone; Calcium; Thalassemia
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the most common causes of end-stage renal failure. The pathogenesis of progressive renal damage is multifactorial and the mechanism by which hyperglycemia causes microangiopathy in diabetic glomeruli is still poorly understood. Because the renin angiotensin system has been reported to be an important contributory factor in the pathophysiology of DN, exogenous administration of angiotensin II receptor antagonist may be beneficial in counteracting some biochemical or functional changes of DN.
The present study was therefore undertaken to evaluate the preventive role of irbesartan in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced DN in rats.
Methods and material:
STZ-induced DN in rats was assessed biochemically by measuring urine volume, protein and electrolytes as well as blood urea and creatinine clearance.
Marked hyperglycemia, polyuria, proteinuria and uremia along with a reduction in urine electrolytes and creatinine clearance were observed in STZ diabetic rats. Pre-treatment with irbesartan (20 mg/kg, p.o. 5 days prior to STZ and continued for 16 weeks) also significantly altered these parameters towards normal, except blood glucose.
Pre-treatment with insulin reversed the parameters of DN. The data suggest that irbesartan prevents the development of STZ-induced DN in rats.
Diabetic nephropathy; irbesartan; streptozotocin
Blood glutathione was estimated in fifty patients of head and neck cancer in the age group of 18–76 years and the results were compared with a group of normal healthy controls. Mean blood glutathione level was found to be significantly lowered in patients than the controls. Irrespective of the site, TNM classification, histopathology, and character of lesion, fall in blood glutathione was nearly same in all the patients. The mean level was significantly increased after radiotherapy when compared with the levels before radiotherapy. The decreased levels of GSH in-patients with head and neck cancer, observed in the present study, may be due to its increased utilization by the cells. The results suggest that patients with head and neck cancer have increased oxidative stress.
Glutathione; Head and Neck cancer; Radiotherapy
Effect of irbesartan, an angiotensin II receptor antagonist, was studied in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic nephropathy. Polyuria, proteinuria, blood urea, creatinine clearance, and urinary electrolytes were determined to assess kidney damage. There was a significant increase in urine volume, urinary protein and blood urea in STZ induced diabetic rats. On the other hand, irbesartan treatment resulted in a significant reduction in urinary protein and blood urea in these rats. Irbesartan treatment also improved creatinine clearance and exhibited a natriuretic effect in these animals. Results suggest that irbesartan treatment ameliorate STZ induced diabetic nephropathic changes, in rats.
Irbesartan; Diabetic nephropathy; Streptozotocin
Forty cases of head and neck cancer were studied for plasma superoxide dismutase, malondialdehyde and thiol levels and results were compared with a group of forty normal healthy volunteers. Mean plasma superoxide dismutase activity was not found to be altered while malondialdehyde concentration was significantly higher when compared with the control group. On the other hand, mean thiol level was significantly lowered. The data suggests increased level of oxidative stress in patients with head and neck cancer.
Head and neck carcinoma; Oxidative stress; Antioxidants; Superoxide dismutase; Malondialdehyde; Thiol
Fifty children (1–4 years age) presenting with microcytic hypochromic anemia (hemoglobin less than 10g/dl) were studied in two groups of 25 each. Group I was supplemented with iron (ferrous sulphate 6 mg/kg/d) while group II in addition to iron was also supplemented with vitamin A (5000 IU/d). Hemoglobin concentration was found to be significantly increased after 4 weeks of iron supplementation. Rise in hemoglobin was comparatively more in-group II, as compared to group I, after 8 and 12 weeks. Serum iron was significantly higher after 4 weeks in both the groups. Packed cell volume (PCV) and retinol levels increased significantly in-group II only. The data suggests that supplementation of vitamin A improves hematopoiesis.
Vitamin A; Hematopoiesis; Anemia
Vitamin A status was measured in 50 pre-school children with acute and persistent diarrhoea. It was measured by (a) Fluorometric micromethod and (b) Conjunctival impression cytology (CIC). The results were compared with 25 normal children. Vitamin A status was lower in children with persistent diarrhoea whereas the results were comparable between the children with acute diarrhoea and control subjects.
Vitamin A; Acute diarrhoea; Persistent diarrhoea
Several members of the vitamin B-complex family are known to participate in the normal metabolism of homocysteine (Hcy). Leaving aside the genetic determinants of hyperhomocysteinemia (HHC), the deficiencies of these vitamins can also result in HHC. The situation of sustained and long standing HHC is likely to be prevalent in population groups with low/average socio-economic status, geriatric population and alcohol abusers. If not corrected by supplementation, these population groups certainly are more vulnerable to develop atherosclerosis (AS) and subsequently, cardiovascular disease (CVD). Hyperhomocysteinemia per se and/or HHC-induced oxidative stress result(s) in chronic chemical endothelial injury/dysfunction, smooth muscle proliferation, prothrombotic state and oxidation of low density lipoproteins (LDL) leading to diverse cardiovascular complications. In the first decade of the new millennium, major research efforts would be directed towards understanding the basic mechanism of HHC-induced oxidative stress and the pathophysiology of HHC-induced CVD, culminating in the evolution of hitherto unknown therapeutic strategies such as nutriceuticals and oxidant-antidotes.
Hyperhomocysteinemia; oxidative stress; atherosclerosis; cardiovascular disease
Free radicals play an important role in human carcinogenesis and the mechanism of their counteraction by antioxidant vitamins has been reviewed. It seems more likely that these vitamins work in concert rather than acting singly. Currently available data are compatible with the notion that these vitamins act as chemopreventives against some important cancers, e.g. carotenoids for lung cancer, ascorbic acid for salivary gland cancer, tocopherols for head and neck cancers etc. Thus, a greater consumption of fruits and vegetables should be encouraged as they are the natural sources of these chemopreventive, antioxidants along with other protective factors packaged by nature. However, much work still remains to be done to establish the role of antioxidant vitamins in carcinogenesis.
Carcinogenesis; chemoprevention; antioxidant vitamins; carotenoids; vitamin C; vitamin E
Serum iron levels were studied in 50 patients with pre-eclampsia and the results were compared with 50 control cases. Their serum iron levels were found to be higher than the controls. Increase in serum iron was directly proportional to the increased levels of uric acid, urea and creatinine. Mean reticulocyte counts, plasma free haemoglobin and unconjugated bilirubin levels were also higher in these patients. It is suggested that haemolysis may be a major contributory factor for the increased levels of serum iron in pre-eclampsia.
Serum iron; Pre-eclampsia
Serum vitamin E and cholesterol concentrations were measured in 50 children with protein energy malnutrition (PEM) and results were compared with a group of 50 normal controls. Mean serum vitamin E concentration as well as vitamin E/cholesterol ratio were found to be reduced in children with PEM while their mean serum cholesterol level was not significantly different from the control group. Data suggest that the reduced levels of serum vitamin E in PEM may be a result of malnutrition per se.
Vitamin E; Cholesterol; PEM