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author:("lado, yham")
1.  Association between smoking and chronic kidney disease: a case control study 
BMC Public Health  2010;10:731.
Background
The progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) remains one of the main challenges in clinical nephrology. Therefore, identifying the pathophysiological mechanisms and the independent preventable risk factors helps in decreasing the number of patients suffering end stage renal disease and slowing its progression.
Methods
Smoking data was analyzed in patients with CKD throughout 2005-2009. One hundred and ninety-eight patients who had recently been diagnosed with stage three CKD or higher according to the National Kidney Foundation (NKF) 2002 Classification were studied. The control group was randomly selected and then matched with the case subjects using a computerized randomization technique. The relative risk was estimated by computing odds ratio (OR) by using multinomial logistic regression in SPSS ® for Windows between the two groups.
Results
Smoking significantly increases the risk of CKD (OR = 1.6, p = 0.009, 95% CI = 1.12-2.29). When compared to nonsmokers, current smokers have an increased risk of having CKD (OR = 1.63 p = 0.02, 95% CI = 1.08-2.45), while former smokers did not have a statistically significant difference. The risk increased with high cumulative quantity (OR among smokers with > 30 pack-years was 2.6, p = 0.00, 95% CI = 1.53-4.41). Smoking increased the risk of CKD the most for those classified as hypertensive nephropathy (OR = 2.85, p = 0.01, 95% CI = 1.27-6.39) and diabetic nephropathy (2.24, p = 0.005, 95% CI = 1.27-3.96). No statistically significant difference in risk was found for glomerulonephritis patients or any other causes.
Conclusion
This study suggests that heavy cigarette smoking increases the risk of CKD overall and particularly for CKD classified as hypertensive nephropathy and diabetic nephropathy.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-10-731
PMCID: PMC3004836  PMID: 21108832
2.  Hepatitis B Vaccination Status and Needlestick Injuries Among Healthcare Workers in Syria 
Background:
Although a majority of countries in the Middle East show intermediate or high endemicity of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, which clearly poses a serious public health problem in the region, the situation in the Republic of Syria remains unclear. The aim of this study is to determine the hepatitis B vaccination status, to assess the number of vaccinations administered, and to estimate the annual incidence of needlestick injuries (NSIs) among healthcare workers (HCWs) in Aleppo University hospitals.
Materials and Methods:
A cross-sectional design with a survey questionnaire was used for exploring details of NSIs during 2008, hepatitis B vaccination status, and HBV infection among a random stratified sample of HCWs in three tertiary hospitals in Aleppo (n = 321).
Results:
Two hundred and forty-six (76.6%) HCWs had sustained at least one NSI during 2008. Nine (2.8%) had HBV chronic infection and 75 HCWs (23.4%) were never vaccinated. Anesthesiology technicians had the greatest exposure risk when compared to office workers [OR = 16,95% CI (2.55-100), P < 0.01], doctors [OR = 10,95% CI (2.1 47.57), P < 0.01], and nurses [OR = 6.75,95% CI (1.56-29.03), P = 0.01]. HCWs under 25 and between the age of 25 and 35 years were at increased risk for NSI when compared to HCWs older than 45 years [OR = 3.12,95% CI (1.19-8.19), P = 0.02] and [OR = 3.05,95% CI (1.42-6.57), P < 0.01], respectively.
Conclusion:
HCWs at Aleppo University hospitals are frequently exposed to blood-borne infections. Precautions and protection from NSIs are important in preventing infection of HCWs. Education about the transmission of blood-borne infections, vaccination, and post-exposure prophylaxis must be implemented and strictly monitored.
doi:10.4103/0974-777X.59247
PMCID: PMC2840977  PMID: 20300414
Needlestick injuries; Hepatitis B infection; Healthcare workers

Results 1-2 (2)