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2.  YB-1 dependent oncolytic adenovirus efficiently inhibits tumor growth of glioma cancer stem like cells 
The brain cancer stem cell (CSC) model describes a small subset of glioma cells as being responsible for tumor initiation, conferring therapy resistance and tumor recurrence. In brain CSC, the PI3-K/AKT and the RAS/mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways are found to be activated. In consequence, the human transcription factor YB-1, knowing to be responsible for the emergence of drug resistance and driving adenoviral replication, is phosphorylated and activated. With this knowledge, YB-1 was established in the past as a biomarker for disease progression and prognosis. This study determines the expression of YB-1 in glioblastoma (GBM) specimen in vivo and in brain CSC lines. In addition, the capacity of Ad-Delo3-RGD, an YB-1 dependent oncolytic adenovirus, to eradicate CSC was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo.
YB-1 expression was investigated by immunoblot and immuno-histochemistry. In vitro, viral replication as well as the capacity of Ad-Delo3-RGD to replicate in and, in consequence, to kill CSC was determined by real-time PCR and clonogenic dilution assays. In vivo, Ad-Delo3-RGD-mediated tumor growth inhibition was evaluated in an orthotopic mouse GBM model. Safety and specificity of Ad-Delo3-RGD were investigated in immortalized human astrocytes and by siRNA-mediated downregulation of YB-1.
YB-1 is highly expressed in brain CSC lines and in GBM specimen. Efficient viral replication in and virus-mediated lysis of CSC was observed in vitro. Experiments addressing safety aspects of Ad-Delo3-RGD showed that (i) virus production in human astrocytes was significantly reduced compared to wild type adenovirus (Ad-WT) and (ii) knockdown of YB-1 significantly reduced virus replication. Mice harboring othotopic GBM developed from a temozolomide (TMZ)-resistant GBM derived CSC line which was intratumorally injected with Ad-Delo3-RGD survived significantly longer than mice receiving PBS-injections or TMZ treatment.
The results of this study supported YB-1 based virotherapy as an attractive therapeutic strategy for GBM treatment which will be exploited further in multimodal treatment concepts.
PMCID: PMC3848904  PMID: 24044901
Cancer stem cells; YB-1; Virotherapy; Oncolytic virus; Temozolomide
3.  MRP2 (ABCC2, cMOAT) expression in nuclear envelope of primary fallopian tube cancer cells is a new unfavorable prognostic factor 
To determine the prognostic value of the immunohistochemical evaluation of the multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) expression, together with its subcellular localization in primary fallopian tube carcinomas (PFTCs).
The immunohistochemical analysis was performed using samples originating from 70 patients with PFTCs.
(1) We documented that MRP2 can be localized in the plasma membrane (MRP2c), as well as in the nuclear envelope (MRP2n) of the PFTC cells. (2) Patients with more advanced stage, with progression of the disease and patients who died, showed significantly higher expression of the MRP2n. (3) Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that MRP2n is an unfavorable prognostic factor in PFTCs. (4) The analysis of the classic clinicopathological data revealed that only the FIGO stage had prognostic value, both in the univariate, as well as in multivariate analysis.
(1) This study suggests that MRP2n is a new disadvantageous prognostic factor in PFTCs and (2) that expression in nuclear envelope can be associated with lower differentiation of cancer cells and their resistance to the cisplatin. (3) We have also confirmed independent prognostic value of FIGO stage in PFTCs.
PMCID: PMC3569580  PMID: 23135210
MRP2; Primary fallopian tube carcinoma; Prognostic factor; Cisplatin resistance; Immunohistochemistry
4.  Estrogen Receptor Alpha Expression in Ovarian Cancer Predicts Longer Overall Survival 
Pathology Oncology Research  2011;17(3):511-518.
Estrogen as a potential factor of ovarian carcinogenesis, acts via two nuclear receptors, estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and estrogen receptor beta (ERβ), but the cellular signal pathways involved are not completely clear so far. In this study we have described the expression of ERα, detected by immunocytochemistry in 11 ovarian carcinoma cell lines and by immunohistochemistry in 43 Federation Internationale des Gyneacologistes et Obstetristes stage III ovarian carcinoma specimens prepared before and after treatment with cisplatin-based schemes. For cisplatin resistance is a major obstacle in the treatment of ovarian carcinoma, analysis of cisplatin sensitivity in 11 ovarian carcinoma cell line was also performed. The strong nuclear ERα expression was only shown in the single A2780P cell line. Expression of ERα in tissue specimens did not reveal any correlations between histopathological parameters (histologic type and grading). We demonstrated a significant association with ERα expression in specimens from primary laparotomies (PL) and cause–specific survival. In the cases terminated by death of the patient, overall immunoreactivity score of ERα expression at PL was significantly lower than in surviving patients. In addition, Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed significantly shorter overall survival time and progression-free time in cases with lower immunoreactivity score of ERα expression at PL. Our findings support the hypothesis that aberrant hormone activity, by way of altered receptor expression, might be an important factor in the malignant transformation of ovarian cancer.
PMCID: PMC3158974  PMID: 21207255
Estrogen receptor alpha; Ovarian cancer; Immunohistochemistry; Cisplatin
5.  Bacterial Delivery of RNAi Effectors: Transkingdom RNAi 
RNA interference (RNAi) represents a high effective mechanism for specific inhibition of mRNA expression. Besides its potential as a powerful laboratory tool, the RNAi pathway appears to be promising for therapeutic utilization. For development of RNA interference (RNAi)-based therapies, delivery of RNAi-mediating agents to target cells is one of the major obstacles. A novel strategy to overcome this hurdle is transkingdom RNAi (tkRNAi). This technology uses non-pathogenic bacteria, e.g. Escherichia coli, to produce and deliver therapeutic short hairpin RNA (shRNA) into target cells to induce RNAi. A first-generation tkRNAi-mediating vector, TRIP, contains the bacteriophage T7 promoter for expression regulation of a therapeutic shRNA of interest. Furthermore, TRIP has the Inv locus from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis that encodes invasin, which permits natural noninvasive bacteria to enter β1-integrin-positive mammalian cells and the HlyA gene from Listeria monocytogenes, which produces listeriolysin O. This enzyme allows the therapeutic shRNA to escape from entry vesicles within the cytoplasm of the target cell. TRIP constructs are introduced into a competent non-pathogenic Escherichia coli strain, which encodes T7 RNA polymerase necessary for the T7 promoter-driven synthesis of shRNAs. A well-characterized cancer-associated target molecule for different RNAi strategies is ABCB1 (MDR1/P-glycoprotein, MDR1/P-gp). This ABC-transporter acts as a drug extrusion pump and mediates the "classical" ABCB1-mediated multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype of human cancer cells which is characterized by a specific cross resistance pattern. Different ABCB1-expressing MDR cancer cells were treated with anti-ABCB1 shRNA expression vector bearing E. coli. This procedure resulted in activation of the RNAi pathways within the cancer cells and a considerable down regulation of the ABCB1 encoding mRNA as well as the corresponding drug extrusion pump. Accordingly, drug accumulation was enhanced in the pristine drug-resistant cancer cells and the MDR phenotype was reversed. By means of this model the data provide the proof-of-concept that tkRNAi is suitable for modulation of cancer-associated factors, e.g. ABCB1, in human cancer cells.
PMCID: PMC3156018  PMID: 20811323
6.  Evaluation of Microarray Preprocessing Algorithms Based on Concordance with RT-PCR in Clinical Samples 
PLoS ONE  2009;4(5):e5645.
Several preprocessing algorithms for Affymetrix gene expression microarrays have been developed, and their performance on spike-in data sets has been evaluated previously. However, a comprehensive comparison of preprocessing algorithms on samples taken under research conditions has not been performed.
Methodology/Principal Findings
We used TaqMan RT-PCR arrays as a reference to evaluate the accuracy of expression values from Affymetrix microarrays in two experimental data sets: one comprising 84 genes in 36 colon biopsies, and the other comprising 75 genes in 29 cancer cell lines. We evaluated consistency using the Pearson correlation between measurements obtained on the two platforms. Also, we introduce the log-ratio discrepancy as a more relevant measure of discordance between gene expression platforms. Of nine preprocessing algorithms tested, PLIER+16 produced expression values that were most consistent with RT-PCR measurements, although the difference in performance between most of the algorithms was not statistically significant.
Our results support the choice of PLIER+16 for the preprocessing of clinical Affymetrix microarray data. However, other algorithms performed similarly and are probably also good choices.
PMCID: PMC2680989  PMID: 19461970
7.  The Gene Polymorphism of the Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme Correlates with Tumor Size and Patient Survival in Colorectal Cancer Patients 
Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.)  2007;9(9):716-722.
We studied the putative significance of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) in colorectal cancer (CRC) biology. Local expression of ACE was investigated by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and by immunohistochemistry in CRCs and adenomas. ACE insertion (I)/deletion (D) polymorphism was studied in 141 CRC patients and 189 controls. ACE mRNA was upregulated in CRCs compared to corresponding nonlesional tissues (2.5-fold; P = .009). ACE protein was more commonly expressed in adenomas [17 (81%)] and cancer epithelial cells [22 (100%)] than in corresponding non-neoplastic crypt and surface epithelium [2 (10%) and 2 (9%), respectively]. Thirty-seven CRC patients (26%) carried II genotype, 69 (49%) carried ID genotype, and 35 (25%) carried DD genotype. The distribution of the genotypes did not differ from that of controls. Female CRC patients more commonly carried the ID genotype and less frequently the II and DD genotypes compared with male patients (P = .033). Men heterozygous or homozygous for the D-allele had larger tumors compared to carriers of the II genotype (P < .01). Women homozygous for the D-allele lived longer than carriers of the ID and II genotypes. Our study shows that ACE is differentially expressed in CRCs and that gene polymorphism is associated with gender-specific differences in primary tumor size and patient survival.
PMCID: PMC1993856  PMID: 17898867
Colorectal cancer; angiotensin-converting enzyme; polymorphism; gender; adenoma
8.  Relationship between the expression of cyclooxygenase 2 and MDR1/P-glycoprotein in invasive breast cancers and their prognostic significance 
Breast Cancer Research  2005;7(5):R862-R870.
Recent reports suggest that expression of the cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) enzyme may up-regulate expression of MDR1/P-glycoprotein (MDR1/P-gp), an exponent of resistance to cytostatic drugs. The present study aimed at examining the relationship between the expression of COX-2 and of MDR1/P-gp in a group of breast cancer cases.
Immunohistochemical reactions were performed using monoclonal antibodies against COX-2 and MDR1/P-gp on samples originating from 104 cases of primary invasive breast cancer.
COX-2-positive cases were shown to demonstrate higher expression of MDR1/P-gp (P < 0.0001). The studies also demonstrate that COX-2 expression was typical for cases of a higher grade (P = 0.01), a shorter overall survival time (P < 0.0001) and a shorter progression-free time (P < 0.0001). In the case of MDR1/P-gp, its higher expression characterised cases of a higher grade (P < 0001), with lymph node involvement (P < 0001), and shorter overall survival (P < 0.0001) and progression-free time (P < 0.0001).
Our studies confirmed the unfavourable prognostic significance of COX-2 and MDR1/P-gp. We also document a relationship between COX-2 and MDR1/P-gp, which suggests that COX-2 inhibitors should be investigated in trials as a treatment supplementary to chemotherapy of breast cancers.
PMCID: PMC1242165  PMID: 16168133

Results 1-8 (8)