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1.  Surveillance Network for Herpes Simplex Virus Resistance to Antiviral Drugs: 3-Year Follow-Up 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2004;42(1):242-249.
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are very common in the general population and among immunocompromised patients. Acyclovir (ACV) is an effective treatment which is widely used. We deemed it essential to conduct a wide and coordinated survey of the emergence of ACV-resistant HSV strains . We have formed a network of 15 virology laboratories which have isolated and identified, between May 1999 and April 2002, HSV type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2 strains among hospitalized subjects. The sensitivity of each isolate to ACV was evaluated by a colorimetric test (C. Danve, F. Morfin, D. Thouvenot, and M. Aymard, J. Virol. Methods 105:207-217, 2002). During this study, 3,900 isolated strains among 3,357 patients were collected; 55% of the patients were immunocompetent. Only six immunocompetent patients excreted ACV-resistant HSV strains (0.32%), including one female patient not treated with ACV who was infected primary by an ACV-resistant strain. Among the 54 immunocompromised patients from whom ACV-resistant HSV strains were isolated (3.5%), the bone marrow transplantation patients showed the highest prevalence of resistance (10.9%), whereas among patients infected by human immunodeficiency virus, the prevalence was 4.2%. In 38% of the cases, the patients who excreted the ACV-resistant strains were treated with foscarnet (PFA), and 61% of them developed resistance to PFA. The collection of a large number of isolates enabled an evaluation of the prevalence of resistance of HSV strains to antiviral drugs to be made. This prevalence has remained stable over the last 10 years, as much among immunocompetent patients as among immunocompromised patients.
PMCID: PMC321677  PMID: 14715760
2.  Rabies virus infects mouse and human lymphocytes and induces apoptosis. 
Journal of Virology  1997;71(10):7372-7380.
Attenuated and highly neurovirulent rabies virus strains have distinct cellular tropisms. Highly neurovirulent strains such as the challenge virus standard (CVS) are highly neurotropic, whereas the attenuated strain ERA also infects nonneuronal cells. We report that both rabies virus strains infect activated murine lymphocytes and the human lymphoblastoid Jurkat T-cell line in vitro. The lymphocytes are more permissive to the attenuated ERA rabies virus strain than to the CVS strain in both cases. We also report that in contrast to that of the CVS strain, ERA viral replication induces apoptosis of infected Jurkat T cells, and cell death is concomitant with viral glycoprotein expression, suggesting that this protein has a role in the induction of apoptosis. Our data indicate that (i) rabies virus infects lymphocytes, (ii) lymphocyte infection with the attenuated rabies virus strain causes apoptosis, and (iii) apoptosis does not hinder rabies virus production. In contrast to CVS, ERA rabies virus and other attenuated rabies virus vaccines stimulate a strong immune response and are efficient live vaccines. The paradoxical finding that a rabies virus triggers a strong immune response despite the fact that it infects lymphocytes and induces apoptosis is discussed in terms of the function of apoptosis in the immune response.
PMCID: PMC192082  PMID: 9311815
3.  Latency and reactivation of JC virus in peripheral blood of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected patients. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1997;35(9):2288-2292.
JC virus (JCV) acts as an opportunistic virus in immunocompromised human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected patients. The role of peripheral blood cells in central nervous system invasion, before the onset of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), remains controversial. In order to clarify JCV latency or reactivation status in peripheral blood, 72 HIV-1-infected patients were studied, together with 7 HIV-1-positive PML patients and 50 blood donors. Blood leukocytes, plasma, and B lymphocytes were investigated by two complementary DNA amplification procedures within the early T and late VP1 JCV genes and two reverse transcription techniques for the detection of corresponding early transcripts and mRNAs. JCV DNA was detected in 40.3% of the HIV-1-infected patients but only 8% of the blood donors (P < 0.001). Leukocytes represented 82.7% of the positive samples, but plasma from 12 patients (41.4%) contained JCV DNA. B lymphocytes seemed to be involved in the natural history of JCV but did not represent the unique cell target. JCV DNA was intermittently found in blood, and JCV mRNAs for VP1 capsid protein were detected exclusively in one PML patient. Such observations demonstrate that JCV, when detected in blood, does not undergo active multiplication. They support the JCV hematogenous spread hypothesis, but do not indicate any direct link between peripheral virus and dissemination in the central nervous system at the time of immunodepression.
PMCID: PMC229956  PMID: 9276404
4.  Antigenic and molecular characterization of bat rabies virus in Europe. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1992;30(9):2419-2426.
The predominant role of Eptesicus serotinus in the epizootic of bat rabies in Europe was further outlined by the first isolation of the rabies virus from this species in France. The distribution of the virus was studied in naturally infected E. serotinus bats at the time of death and suggested that the papillae of the tongue and the respiratory mucosa may play a role in virus production and excretion. The analysis of 501 French rabies virus isolates from various animal species by antinucleocapsid monoclonal antibodies indicated that transmission of the disease from bats to terrestrial animals is unlikely. The antigenic profile of two isolates from French bats corresponded to that of European bat lyssavirus type 1 (EBL1). Comparisons of 12 different isolates from bats with antinucleocapsid and antiglycoprotein monoclonal antibodies and by direct sequencing of the polymerase chain reaction amplification product of the N gene indicated that EBL1, EBL2, Duvenhage virus (serotype 4 of lyssavirus), and the European fox rabies virus (serotype 1) are phylogenetically distant. They formed four tight genetic clusters named genotypes. EBL1 was shown to be antigenically and genetically more closely related to Duvenhage virus than to EBL2. We propose that EBL1 and EBL2 constitute two distinct genotypes which further serologic characterization will probably classify as new serotypes. We also report a simple method for the rapid characterization of EBL based on the digestion of the polymerase chain reaction product of the N gene by three restriction endonucleases.
PMCID: PMC265516  PMID: 1401009

Results 1-4 (4)