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1.  Effect of hydrochlorothiazide on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of febuxostat, a non-purine selective inhibitor of xanthine oxidase 
This study examined the effect of co-administration of febuxostat, an investigational urate lowering therapy, and hydrochlorothiazide on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of febuxostat.
Healthy subjects (36 healthy men and women) received single doses of febuxostat 80 mg alone and febuxostat 80 mg + hydrochlorothiazide 50 mg, separated by 7 days in an open-label, randomized, crossover fashion. Plasma concentrations of febuxostat and urinary and serum concentrations of uric acid were assessed.
Mean febuxostat Cmax, AUC(0–t), AUC(0–∞), t1/2,z, CL/F and Vss/F values for regimens co-administration/febuxostat alone were 2.9/2.9 µg ml−1, 9.3/9.1 µg ml−1 h, 9.6/9.3 µg ml−1 h, 6.5/6.1 h, 8.8/9.3 l h−1 and 45/44 l, respectively. Geometric mean ratios (co-administration : febuxostat alone) and their 90% confidence intervals for febuxostat plasma Cmax, AUC(0–t), and AUC(0–∞) were 1.00 (0.86, 1.17), 1.03 (0.98, 1.09), and 1.04 (0.98, 1.10), respectively; all of the 90% CIs were within the no effect range of 0.8 to 1.25. Serum uric acid Cmean,24h, Cmean,48h and CLR for both regimens co-administration/febuxostat alone were 216/203 µmol l−1, 218/202 µmol l−1 and 9.1/10.1 ml min−1, respectively. Although serum uric acid Cmean,24h and Cmean,48h values were higher and CLR values lower after co-administration compared with dosing of febuxostat alone, with the differences being statistically significant (P < 0.003), none of the differences (6.5%–9.5%) was considered clinically significant.
Dose adjustment for febuxostat is not necessary when it is administered with hydrochlorothiazide.
PMCID: PMC2909808  PMID: 20642548
antihypertensive; diuretic; gout; interaction; urate; uric acid
2.  The urate-lowering efficacy and safety of febuxostat in the treatment of the hyperuricemia of gout: the CONFIRMS trial 
The purpose of this study was to compare urate-lowering (UL) efficacy and safety of daily febuxostat and allopurinol in subjects with gout and serum urate (sUA) ≥ 8.0 mg/dL in a six-month trial.
Subjects (n = 2,269) were randomized to febuxostat 40 mg or 80 mg, or allopurinol 300 mg (200 mg in moderate renal impairment). Endpoints included the proportion of all subjects with sUA <6.0 mg/dL and the proportion of subjects with mild/moderate renal impairment and sUA <6.0 mg/dL. Safety assessments included blinded adjudication of each cardiovascular (CV) adverse event (AE) and death.
Comorbidities included: renal impairment (65%); obesity (64%); hyperlipidemia (42%); and hypertension (53%). In febuxostat 40 mg, febuxostat 80 mg, and allopurinol groups, primary endpoint was achieved in 45%, 67%, and 42%, respectively. Febuxostat 40 mg UL was statistically non-inferior to allopurinol, but febuxostat 80 mg was superior to both (P < 0.001). Achievement of target sUA in subjects with renal impairment was also superior with febuxostat 80 mg (72%; P < 0.001) compared with febuxostat 40 mg (50%) or allopurinol (42%), but febuxostat 40 mg showed greater efficacy than allopurinol (P = 0.021). Rates of AEs did not differ across treatment groups. Adjudicated (APTC) CV event rates were 0.0% for febuxostat 40 mg and 0.4% for both febuxostat 80 mg and allopurinol. One death occurred in each febuxostat group and three in the allopurinol group.
Urate-lowering efficacy of febuxostat 80 mg exceeded that of febuxostat 40 mg and allopurinol (300/200 mg), which were comparable. In subjects with mild/moderate renal impairment, both febuxostat doses were more efficacious than allopurinol and equally safe. At the doses tested, safety of febuxostat and allopurinol was comparable.
Clinical Trial Registration
PMCID: PMC2888216  PMID: 20370912

Results 1-2 (2)