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1.  High expression of the chemokine receptor CCR3 in human blood basophils. Role in activation by eotaxin, MCP-4, and other chemokines. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1997;100(5):1137-1143.
Eosinophil leukocytes express high numbers of the chemokine receptor CCR3 which binds eotaxin, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-4, and some other CC chemokines. In this paper we show that CCR3 is also highly expressed on human blood basophils, as indicated by Northern blotting and flow cytometry, and mediates mainly chemotaxis. Eotaxin and MCP-4 elicited basophil migration in vitro with similar efficacy as regulated upon activation normal T cells expressed and secreted (RANTES) and MCP-3. They also induced the release of histamine and leukotrienes in IL-3-primed basophils, but their efficacy was lower than that of MCP-1 and MCP-3, which were the most potent stimuli of exocytosis. Pretreatment of the basophils with a CCR3-blocking antibody abrogated the migration induced by eotaxin, RANTES, and by low to optimal concentrations of MCP-4, but decreased only minimally the response to MCP-3. The CCR3-blocking antibody also affected exocytosis: it abrogated histamine and leukotriene release induced by eotaxin, and partially inhibited the response to RANTES and MCP-4. In contrast, the antibody did not affect the responses induced by MCP-1, MCP-3, and macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha, which may depend on CCR1 and CCR2, two additional receptors detected by Northern blotting with basophil RNA. This study demonstrates that CCR3 is the major receptor for eotaxin, RANTES, and MCP-4 in human basophils, and suggests that basophils and eosinophils, which are the characteristic effector cells of allergic inflammation, depend largely on CCR3 for migration towards different chemokines into inflamed tissues.
PMCID: PMC508288  PMID: 9276730
2.  Chemokine receptor usage by human eosinophils. The importance of CCR3 demonstrated using an antagonistic monoclonal antibody. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1997;99(2):178-184.
Chemokines bind and signal through G-protein coupled seven transmembrane receptors. Various chemokine receptors are expressed on leukocytes, and these may impart selective homing of leukocyte subsets to sites of inflammation. Human eosinophils express the eotaxin receptor, CCR3, but respond to a variety of CC chemokines apart from eotaxin, including RANTES, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-2, MCP-3, and MCP-4. Here we describe a mAb, 7B11, that is selective for CCR3 and has the properties of a true receptor antagonist. 7B11 blocked binding of various radiolabeled chemokines to either CCR3 transfectants, or eosinophils. Pretreatment of eosinophils with this mAb blocked chemotaxis and calcium flux induced by all CCR3 ligands. In all individuals examined, including allergic and eosinophilic donors, > 95% of the response of eosinophils to eotaxin, RANTES, MCP-2, MCP-3, and MCP-4 was shown to be mediated through CCR3. The IL-8 receptors, particularly CXCR2, were induced on IL-5 primed eosinophils, however these eosinophils responded to CC chemokines in the same manner as unprimed eosinophils. These results demonstrate the importance of CCR3 for eosinophil responses, and the feasibility of completely antagonizing this receptor.
PMCID: PMC507784  PMID: 9005985
3.  Interleukin-8 gene induction in the myocardium after ischemia and reperfusion in vivo. 
Neutrophil adhesion and direct cytotoxicity for cardiac myocytes require chemotactic stimulation and are dependent upon CD18-ICAM-1 binding. To characterize the potential role of IL-8 in this interaction, canine IL-8 cDNA was cloned and the mature recombinant protein expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 cells. Recombinant canine IL-8 markedly increased adhesion of neutrophils to isolated canine cardiac myocytes. This adhesion resulted in direct cytotoxicity for cardiac myocytes. Both processes were specifically blocked by antibodies directed against CD18 and IL-8. In vivo, after 1 h of coronary occlusion, IL-8 mRNA was markedly and consistently induced in reperfused segments of myocardium. IL-8 mRNA was not induced in control (normally perfused) myocardial segments. Minimal amounts of IL-8 mRNA were detected after 3 or 4 h of ischemia without reperfusion. Highest levels of induction were evident in the most ischemic myocardial segments. IL-8 mRNA peaked in the first 3 h of reperfusion and persisted at high levels beyond 24 h. IL-8 staining was present in the inflammatory infiltrate near the border between necrotic and viable myocardium, as well as in small veins in the same area. These findings provide the first direct evidence for regulation of IL-8 in ischemic and reperfused canine myocardium and support the hypothesis that IL-8 participates in neutrophil-mediated myocardial injury.
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PMCID: PMC295378  PMID: 7814650
4.  Studies of the conformation-dependent neutralizing epitopes of simian immunodeficiency virus envelope protein. 
Journal of Virology  1994;68(4):2624-2631.
It has been shown previously that the major neutralizing epitopes in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) are discontinuous and conformation dependent and that the V3 loop, in contrast to that of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1, does not by itself elicit neutralizing antibodies (K. Javaherian et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89:1418-1422, 1992). We now present data showing that on the basis of fractionation of infected macaque sera, protease digestion of the envelope, and binding properties of two neutralizing monoclonal antibodies to SIV and SIV-HIV chimeric envelope proteins, changes in V3 can disrupt the conformation-dependent neutralization region. The chimeric protein did not produce significant neutralizing antibodies against either SIV or HIV. We also report that neutralizing antibodies elicited by recombinant SIV envelope proteins of mac251 and B670 isolates cross-neutralize. Finally, we show that deglycosylation of the SIV envelope results in a molecule which binds neither soluble CD4 nor the neutralizing monoclonal antibodies being investigated here and does not elicit sera with a significant neutralizing titer.
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PMCID: PMC236740  PMID: 7511176
5.  Expression of REX-1, a gene containing zinc finger motifs, is rapidly reduced by retinoic acid in F9 teratocarcinoma cells. 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  1989;9(12):5623-5629.
In the presence of retinoic acid (RA), cultured F9 murine teratocarcinoma stem cells differentiate into nontumorigenic cells resembling the extraembryonic endoderm of the early mouse embryo. By differential hybridization screening of an F9 cell cDNA library, we isolated a 1,745-nucleotide cDNA for a gene, REX-1 (for reduced expression), whose steady-state mRNA level began to decline in F9 cells in monolayer culture within 12 h after the addition of RA. By 48 to 96 h after RA treatment of F9 cells in monolayer culture, the REX-1 steady-state mRNA level was more than sevenfold lower than the level in undifferentiated F9 stem cells. The REX-1 mRNA decrease did not result from the reduction in cell growth rate associated with the differentiation process, since the REX-1 mRNA level did not decline in F9 cells that were partially growth arrested after 48 h of isoleucine deprivation. The RA-associated REX-1 mRNA decrease resulted primarily from a reduction in the transcription rate of the REX-1 gene in the presence of RA. In contrast to results in F9 cells, we have been unable thus far to detect REX-1 mRNA in day 7.5 to 12.5 mouse embryo RNA samples or in the P19 teratocarcinoma stem cell line. The putative REX-1 protein identified by DNA sequence analysis contains four repeats of the zinc finger nucleic acid-binding motif and a potential acidic activator domain, suggesting that REX-1 encodes a regulatory protein. The REX-1 gene is not identical to the previously reported murine genes that encode zinc finger-containing proteins.
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PMCID: PMC363733  PMID: 2511439
6.  Early retinoic acid-induced F9 teratocarcinoma stem cell gene ERA-1: alternate splicing creates transcripts for a homeobox-containing protein and one lacking the homeobox. 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  1988;8(9):3906-3917.
Retinoic acid (RA), the natural acidic derivative of vitamin A, can modulate the expression of specific genes and can induce some cell types, such as the murine F9 teratocarcinoma stem cell line, to differentiate in culture. As an initial step toward understanding the molecular mechanism(s) by which RA exerts these effects, we previously isolated cDNA clones for a gene, ERA-1, which has the characteristics of an early, direct target for RA. We demonstrated that RA causes a rapid, dose-dependent, and protein synthesis-independent expression of the ERA-1 gene (G. J. LaRosa and L. J. Gudas, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85:329-333, 1988). We now report the full-length cDNA sequence and the further characterization of this gene. The data indicate that the RA-induced 2.2- to 2.4-kilobase ERA-1 RNA species that we previously detected consists of two alternately spliced messages. One mRNA encodes a protein with a predicted mass of about 36 kilodaltons (kDa) that possesses the Hox 1.6 homeobox domain. The other mRNA encodes a truncated protein of about 15 kDa which is identical to the 36-kDa protein for 114 amino acids at the amino-terminal end but which lacks the homeobox amino acid sequence. The RA-associated increase in the ERA-1 mRNA level does not appear to be due to message stabilization, suggesting that the response is at the level of transcription. By Northern (RNA) blot analysis, the usual 2.2- to 2.4-kilobase mRNA species was also rapidly expressed in P19 teratocarcinoma cells during their differentiation to fibroblastic cells in response to RA and was detected in day 10.5 and day 13.5 mouse embryos. This result indicates that the expression of this gene is not limited to the endodermal differentiation of F9 cells.
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PMCID: PMC365450  PMID: 2906112
7.  Isolation of cDNA clones for genes exhibiting reduced expression after differentiation of murine teratocarcinoma stem cells. 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  1984;4(10):2142-2150.
In the absence of retinoic acid, PSA-G teratocarcinoma stem cells spontaneously differentiate at a moderate frequency into fibroblast-like cells. In the presence of retinoic acid and dibutyryl cyclic AMP, PSA-G stem cells differentiate into parietal endoderm cells. We prepared a cDNA library from undifferentiated PSA-G teratocarcinoma stem cells; this cDNA library was then screened for gene sequences which exhibit a reduction in expression during the differentiation of these stem cells. From ca. 1,000 clones screened, eight independent sequences were isolated. The level of expression of these cloned genes decreases by 3.0-fold to more than 10-fold after differentiation of PSA-G cells into fibroblast-like cells. After treatment of either PSA-G or F9 teratocarcinoma cells with retinoic acid and dibutyryl cyclic AMP for 72 h, the expression of seven genes is inhibited by two- to fourfold. This decrease of clone-specific transcripts can be detected within 12 h after the addition of retinoic acid. Hybridization-selection and in vitro translation experiments identified the proteins encoded by three of the cloned genes: pST 6-23 codes for a 89,000-dalton protein, pST 7-105 codes for a 41,000-dalton protein, and pST 9-31 codes for a 34,000-dalton protein. The 89,000-dalton protein encoded by pST 6-23 is a heat shock protein. In vitro transcription experiments demonstrate that the retinoic acid-mediated decrease in pST 6-135- and pST 1-68-specific RNA occurs at the transcriptional level and that dibutyryl cyclic AMP acts posttranscriptionally to further depress the levels of these RNAs.
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PMCID: PMC369033  PMID: 6095043

Results 1-7 (7)