The complete and assembled genome sequences were determined for six strains of the alphaproteobacterial genus Methylobacterium, chosen for their key adaptations to different plant-associated niches and environmental constraints.
The Enterobacteriaceae bacterium strain FGI 57 was isolated from a fungus garden of the leaf-cutter ant Atta colombica. Analysis of its single 4.76-Mbp chromosome will shed light on community dynamics and plant biomass degradation in ant fungus gardens.
Effective comparative analysis of microbial genomes requires a consistent and complete view of biological data. Consistency regards the biological coherence of annotations, while completeness regards the extent and coverage of functional characterization for genomes. We have developed tools that allow scientists to assess and improve the consistency and completeness of microbial genome annotations in the context of the Integrated Microbial Genomes (IMG) family of systems. All publicly available microbial genomes are characterized in IMG using different functional annotation and pathway resources, thus providing a comprehensive framework for identifying and resolving annotation discrepancies. A rule based system for predicting phenotypes in IMG provides a powerful mechanism for validating functional annotations, whereby the phenotypic traits of an organism are inferred based on the presence of certain metabolic reactions and pathways and compared to experimentally observed phenotypes. The IMG family of systems are available at http://img.jgi.doe.gov/.
The strains Thermus oshimai JL-2 and Thermus thermophilus JL-18 each have a circular chromosome, 2.07 Mb and 1.9 Mb in size, respectively, and each has two plasmids ranging from 0.27 Mb to 57.2 kb. The megaplasmid of each strain contains a gene cluster for the reduction of nitrate to nitrous oxide, consistent with their incomplete denitrification phenotypes.
Metagenome analysis of the gut symbionts of three different insects was conducted as a means of comparing taxonomic and metabolic diversity of gut microbiomes to diet and life history of the insect hosts. A second goal was the discovery of novel biocatalysts for biorefinery applications. Grasshopper and cutworm gut symbionts were sequenced and compared with the previously identified metagenome of termite gut microbiota. These insect hosts represent three different insect orders and specialize on different food types. The comparative analysis revealed dramatic differences among the three insect species in the abundance and taxonomic composition of the symbiont populations present in the gut. The composition and abundance of symbionts was correlated with their previously identified capacity to degrade and utilize the different types of food consumed by their hosts. The metabolic reconstruction revealed that the gut metabolome of cutworms and grasshoppers was more enriched for genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism and transport than wood-feeding termite, whereas the termite gut metabolome was enriched for glycosyl hydrolase (GH) enzymes relevant to lignocellulosic biomass degradation. Moreover, termite gut metabolome was more enriched with nitrogen fixation genes than those of grasshopper and cutworm gut, presumably due to the termite's adaptation to the high fiber and less nutritious food types. In order to evaluate and exploit the insect symbionts for biotechnology applications, we cloned and further characterized four biomass-degrading enzymes including one endoglucanase and one xylanase from both the grasshopper and cutworm gut symbionts. The results indicated that the grasshopper symbiont enzymes were generally more efficient in biomass degradation than the homologous enzymes from cutworm symbionts. Together, these results demonstrated a correlation between the composition and putative metabolic functionality of the gut microbiome and host diet, and suggested that this relationship could be exploited for the discovery of symbionts and biocatalysts useful for biorefinery applications.
The symbiotic gut microbiome of herbivorous insects is vital for their ability to utilize and specialize on plants with very different nutrient qualities. Moreover, the gut microbiome is a significant resource for the discovery of biocatalysts and microbes with applications to various biotechnologies. We compared the gut symbionts from three different insect species to examine whether there was a relationship between the diversity and metabolic capability of the symbionts and the diet of their hosts, with the goal of using such a relationship for the discovery of biocatalysts for biofuel applications. The study revealed that the metabolic capabilities of the insect gut symbionts correlated with insect adaptation to different food types and life histories at the levels of species, metabolic pathway, and individual gene. Moreover, we showed that the grasshopper cellulase and xylanase enzymes generally exhibited higher activities than those of cutworm, demonstrating differences in capabilities even at the protein level. Together, our findings confirmed our previous research and suggested that the grasshopper might be a good target for biocatalyst discovery due to their high gut cellulytic enzyme activities.
The emergence of next generation sequencing (NGS) has provided the means for rapid and high throughput sequencing and data generation at low cost, while concomitantly creating a new set of challenges. The number of available assembled microbial genomes continues to grow rapidly and their quality reflects the quality of the sequencing technology used, but also of the analysis software employed for assembly and annotation.
In this work, we have explored the quality of the microbial draft genomes across various sequencing technologies. We have compared the draft and finished assemblies of 133 microbial genomes sequenced at the Department of Energy-Joint Genome Institute and finished at the Los Alamos National Laboratory using a variety of combinations of sequencing technologies, reflecting the transition of the institute from Sanger-based sequencing platforms to NGS platforms. The quality of the public assemblies and of the associated gene annotations was evaluated using various metrics. Results obtained with the different sequencing technologies, as well as their effects on downstream processes, were analyzed. Our results demonstrate that the Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing system, the primary sequencing technology currently used for de novo genome sequencing and assembly at JGI, has various advantages in terms of total sequence throughput and cost, but it also introduces challenges for the downstream analyses. In all cases assembly results although on average are of high quality, need to be viewed critically and consider sources of errors in them prior to analysis.
These data follow the evolution of microbial sequencing and downstream processing at the JGI from draft genome sequences with large gaps corresponding to missing genes of significant biological role to assemblies with multiple small gaps (Illumina) and finally to assemblies that generate almost complete genomes (Illumina+PacBio).
Desulfotomaculum ruminis Campbell and Postgate 1965 is a member of the large genus Desulfotomaculum which contains 30 species and is contained in the family Peptococcaceae. This species is of interest because it represents one of the few sulfate-reducing bacteria that have been isolated from the rumen. Here we describe the features of D. ruminis together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. The 3,969,014 bp long chromosome with a total of 3,901 protein-coding and 85 RNA genes is the second completed genome sequence of a type strain of the genus Desulfotomaculum to be published, and was sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute Community Sequencing Program 2009.
anaerobic; motile; sporulating; mesophilic; sulfate-reducer; hydrogen sulfide; incomplete oxidizer; mixotrophic; CSP 2009; Peptococcaceae; Clostridiales
Niabella soli Weon et al. 2008 is a member of the Chitinophagaceae, a family within the class Sphingobacteriia that is poorly characterized at the genome level, thus far. N. soli strain JS13-8T is of interest for its ability to produce a variety of glycosyl hydrolases. The genome of N. soli strain JS13-8T is only the second genome sequence of a type strain from the family Chitinophagaceae to be published, and the first one from the genus Niabella. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. The 4,697,343 bp long chromosome with its 3,931 protein-coding and 49 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic
aerobic; non-motile; Gram-negative; mesophilic; chemoorganotrophic; glycosyl hydrolases; soil; Chitinophagaceae; GEBA
Gillisia limnaea Van Trappen et al. 2004 is the type species of the genus Gillisia, which is a member of the well characterized family Flavobacteriaceae. The genome of G. limnea R-8282T is the first sequenced genome (permanent draft) from a type strain of the genus Gillisia. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the permanent-draft genome sequence and annotation. The 3,966,857 bp long chromosome (two scaffolds) with its 3,569 protein-coding and 51 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic
Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
aerobic; motile; rod-shaped; moderately halotolerant; psychrophilic; chemoheterotrophic; proteorhodopsin; microbial mat; yellow-pigmented; Flavobacteriaceae; GEBA
Owenweeksia hongkongensis Lau et al. 2005 is the sole member of the monospecific genus Owenweeksia in the family Cryomorphaceae, a poorly characterized family at the genome level thus far. This family comprises seven genera within the class Flavobacteria. Family members are known to be psychrotolerant, rod-shaped and orange pigmented (β-carotene), typical for Flavobacteria. For growth, seawater and complex organic nutrients are necessary. The genome of O. hongkongensis UST20020801T is only the second genome of a member of the family Cryomorphaceae whose sequence has been deciphered. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. The 4,000,057 bp long chromosome with its 3,518 protein-coding and 45 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic
aerobic; motile; rod-shaped; mesophilic; non-fermentative; Gram-negative; orange-pigmented sea water; Bacteroidetes; Flavobacteria; Cryomorphaceae; GEBA
Marinomonas posidonica IVIA-Po-181T Lucas-Elío et al. 2011 belongs to the family Oceanospirillaceae within the phylum Proteobacteria. Different species of the genus Marinomonas can be readily isolated from the seagrass Posidonia oceanica. M. posidonica is among the most abundant species of the genus detected in the cultured microbiota of P. oceanica, suggesting a close relationship with this plant, which has a great ecological value in the Mediterranean Sea, covering an estimated surface of 38,000 Km2. Here we describe the genomic features of M. posidonica. The 3,899,940 bp long genome harbors 3,544 protein-coding genes and 107 RNA genes and is a part of the Genomic
Aerobic; Gram-negative; marine; plant-associated
Serratia plymuthica AS13 is a plant-associated Gammaproteobacteria, isolated from rapeseed roots. It is of special interest because of its ability to inhibit fungal pathogens of rapeseed and to promote plant growth. The complete genome of S. plymuthica AS13 consists of a 5,442,549 bp circular chromosome. The chromosome contains 4,951 protein-coding genes, 87 tRNA genes and 7 rRNA operons. This genome was sequenced as part of the project entitled “Genomics of four rapeseed plant growth promoting bacteria with antagonistic effect on plant pathogens” within the 2010 DOE-JGI Community Sequencing Program (CSP2010).
Gram-negative; non-sporulating; motile; plant-associated; chemoorganotrophic; Enterobacteriaceae
Starkeya novella (Starkey 1934) Kelly et al. 2000 is a member of the family Xanthobacteraceae in the order ‘Rhizobiales’, which is thus far poorly characterized at the genome level. Cultures from this species are most interesting due to their facultatively chemolithoautotrophic lifestyle, which allows them to both consume carbon dioxide and to produce it. This feature makes S. novella an interesting model organism for studying the genomic basis of regulatory networks required for the switch between consumption and production of carbon dioxide, a key component of the global carbon cycle. In addition, S. novella is of interest for its ability to grow on various inorganic sulfur compounds and several C1-compounds such as methanol. Besides Azorhizobium caulinodans, S. novella is only the second species in the family Xanthobacteraceae with a completely sequenced genome of a type strain. The current taxonomic classification of this group is in significant conflict with the 16S rRNA data. The genomic data indicate that the physiological capabilities of the organism might have been underestimated. The 4,765,023 bp long chromosome with its 4,511 protein-coding and 52 RNA genes was sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute Community Sequencing Program (CSP) 2008.
strictly aerobic; facultatively chemoautotrophic; methylotrophic and heterotrophic; Gram-negative; rod-shaped; non-motile; soil bacterium; Xanthobacteraceae; CSP 2008
A protein fraction exhibiting 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid (1-H2NA) dioxygenase activity was purified via ion exchange, hydrophobic interactions, and gel filtration chromatography from Arthrobacter phenanthrenivorans sp. nov. strain Sphe3 isolated from a Greek creosote-oil-polluted site. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and tandem MS (MS-MS) analysis revealed that the amino acid sequences of oligopeptides of the major 45-kDa protein species, as analyzed by SDS-PAGE and silver staining, comprising 29% of the whole sequence, exhibited strong homology with 1-H2NA dioxygenase of Nocardioides sp. strain KP7. A BLAST search of the recently sequenced Sphe3 genome revealed two putative open reading frames, named diox1 and diox2, showing 90% nucleotide identity to each other and 85% identity at the amino acid level with the Nocardia sp. homologue. diox1 was found on an indigenous Sphe3 plasmid, whereas diox2 was located on the chromosome. Both genes were induced by the presence of phenanthrene used as a sole carbon and energy source, and as expected, both were subject to carbon catabolite repression. The relative RNA transcription level of the chromosomal (diox2) gene was significantly higher than that of its plasmid (diox1) homologue. Both diox1 and diox2 putative genes were PCR amplified, cloned, and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Recombinant E. coli cells expressed 1-H2NA dioxygenase activity. Recombinant enzymes exhibited Michaelis-Menten kinetics with an apparent Km of 35 μM for Diox1 and 29 μM for Diox2, whereas they showed similar kinetic turnover characteristics with Kcat/Km values of 11 × 106 M−1 s−1 and 12 × 106 M−1 s−1, respectively. Occurrence of two diox1 and diox2 homologues in the Sphe3 genome implies that a replicative transposition event has contributed to the evolution of 1-H2NA dioxygenase in A. phenanthrenivorans.
Paenibacillus sp.Y412MC10 was one of a number of organisms isolated from Obsidian Hot Spring, Yellowstone National Park, Montana, USA under permit from the National Park Service. The isolate was initially classified as a Geobacillus sp. Y412MC10 based on its isolation conditions and similarity to other organisms isolated from hot springs at Yellowstone National Park. Comparison of 16 S rRNA sequences within the Bacillales indicated that Geobacillus sp.Y412MC10 clustered with Paenibacillus species, and the organism was most closely related to Paenibacillus lautus. Lucigen Corp. prepared genomic DNA and the genome was sequenced, assembled, and annotated by the DOE Joint Genome Institute. The genome sequence was deposited at the NCBI in October 2009 (NC_013406). The genome of Paenibacillus sp. Y412MC10 consists of one circular chromosome of 7,121,665 bp with an average G+C content of 51.2%. Comparison to other Paenibacillus species shows the organism lacks nitrogen fixation, antibiotic production and social interaction genes reported in other paenibacilli. The Y412MC10 genome shows a high level of synteny and homology to the draft sequence of Paenibacillus sp. HGF5, an organism from the Human Microbiome Project (HMP) Reference Genomes. This, combined with genomic CAZyme analysis, suggests an intestinal, rather than environmental origin for Y412MC10.
Geobacillus sp. Y412MC10; Paenibacillus sp. Y412MC10; Obsidian Hot Spring
Variability in the extent of the descriptions of data (‘metadata’) held in public repositories forces users to assess the quality of records individually, which rapidly becomes impractical. The scoring of records on the richness of their description provides a simple, objective proxy measure for quality that enables filtering that supports downstream analysis. Pivotally, such descriptions should spur on improvements. Here, we introduce such a measure - the ‘Metadata Coverage Index’ (MCI): the percentage of available fields actually filled in a record or description. MCI scores can be calculated across a database, for individual records or for their component parts (e.g., fields of interest). There are many potential uses for this simple metric: for example; to filter, rank or search for records; to assess the metadata availability of an ad hoc collection; to determine the frequency with which fields in a particular record type are filled, especially with respect to standards compliance; to assess the utility of specific tools and resources, and of data capture practice more generally; to prioritize records for further curation; to serve as performance metrics of funded projects; or to quantify the value added by curation. Here we demonstrate the utility of MCI scores using metadata from the Genomes Online Database (GOLD), including records compliant with the ‘Minimum Information about a Genome Sequence’ (MIGS) standard developed by the Genomic Standards Consortium. We discuss challenges and address the further application of MCI scores; to show improvements in annotation quality over time, to inform the work of standards bodies and repository providers on the usability and popularity of their products, and to assess and credit the work of curators. Such an index provides a step towards putting metadata capture practices and in the future, standards compliance, into a quantitative and objective framework.
Thauera aminoaromatica strain MZ1T, an isolate belonging to genus Thauera, of the family Rhodocyclaceae and the class the Betaproteobacteria, has been characterized for its ability to produce abundant exopolysaccharide and degrade various aromatic compounds with nitrate as an electron acceptor. These properties, if fully understood at the genome-sequence level, can aid in environmental processing of organic matter in anaerobic cycles by short-circuiting a central anaerobic metabolite, acetate, from microbiological conversion to methane, a critical greenhouse gas. Strain MZ1T is the first strain from the genus Thauera with a completely sequenced genome. The 4,496,212 bp chromosome and 78,374 bp plasmid contain 4,071 protein-coding and 71 RNA genes, and were sequenced as part of the DOE Community Sequencing Program CSP_776774.
Thauera aminoaromatica; MZ1T; genome
Sulfobacillus acidophilus Norris et al. 1996 is a member of the genus Sulfobacillus which comprises five species of the order Clostridiales. Sulfobacillus species are of interest for comparison to other sulfur and iron oxidizers and also have biomining applications. This is the first completed genome sequence of a type strain of the genus Sulfobacillus, and the second published genome of a member of the species S. acidophilus. The genome, which consists of one chromosome and one plasmid with a total size of 3,557,831 bp harbors 3,626 protein-coding and 69 RNA genes, and is a part of the Genomic
aerobic; motile; Gram-positive; acidophilic; moderately thermophilic; sulfide- and iron-oxidizing; biomining; autotrophic; mixotrophic; soil; insertis sedis; Clostridiales; GEBA
The Integrated Microbial Genomes and Metagenomes (IMG/M) resource is a data management system that supports the analysis of sequence data from microbial communities in the integrated context of all publicly available draft and complete genomes from the three domains of life as well as a large number of plasmids and viruses. IMG/M currently contains thousands of genomes and metagenome samples with billions of genes. IMG/M-HMP is an IMG/M data mart serving the US National Institutes of Health (NIH) Human Microbiome Project (HMP), focussed on HMP generated metagenome datasets, and is one of the central resources provided from the HMP Data Analysis and Coordination Center (DACC). IMG/M-HMP is available at http://www.hmpdacc-resources.org/imgm_hmp/.
Computing of sequence similarity results is becoming a limiting factor in metagenome analysis. Sequence similarity search results encoded in an open, exchangeable format have the potential to limit the needs for computational reanalysis of these data sets. A prerequisite for sharing of similarity results is a common reference.
We introduce a mechanism for automatically maintaining a comprehensive, non-redundant protein database and for creating a quarterly release of this resource. In addition, we present tools for translating similarity searches into many annotation namespaces, e.g. KEGG or NCBI's GenBank.
The data and tools we present allow the creation of multiple result sets using a single computation, permitting computational results to be shared between groups for large sequence data sets.
Cellulose degrading enzymes have important functions in the biotechnology industry, including the production of biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass. Anaerobes including Clostridium species organize cellulases and other glycosyl hydrolases into large complexes known as cellulosomes. In contrast, aerobic actinobacteria utilize systems comprised of independently acting enzymes, often with carbohydrate binding domains. Numerous actinobacterial genomes have become available through the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea (GEBA) project. We identified putative cellulose-degrading enzymes belonging to families GH5, GH6, GH8, GH9, GH12, GH48, and GH51 in the genomes of eleven members of the actinobacteria. The eleven organisms were tested in several assays for cellulose degradation, and eight of the organisms showed evidence of cellulase activity. The three with the highest cellulase activity were Actinosynnema mirum, Cellulomonas flavigena, and Xylanimonas cellulosilytica. Cellobiose is known to induce cellulolytic enzymes in the model organism Thermobifida fusca, but only Nocardiopsis dassonvillei showed higher cellulolytic activity in the presence of cellobiose. In T. fusca, cellulases and a putative cellobiose ABC transporter are regulated by the transcriptional regulator CelR. Nine organisms appear to use the CelR site or a closely related binding site to regulate an ABC transporter. In some, CelR also regulates cellulases, while cellulases are controlled by different regulatory sites in three organisms. Mining of genome data for cellulose degradative enzymes followed by experimental verification successfully identified several actinobacteria species which were not previously known to degrade cellulose as cellulolytic organisms.
Methylomonas methanica MC09 is a mesophilic, halotolerant, aerobic, methanotrophic member of the Gammaproteobacteria, isolated from coastal seawater. Here we present the complete genome sequence of this strain, the first available from an aerobic marine methanotroph.
Saccharomonospora marina Liu et al. 2010 is a member of the genus Saccharomonospora, in the family Pseudonocardiaceae that is poorly characterized at the genome level thus far. Members of the genus Saccharomonospora are of interest because they originate from diverse habitats, such as leaf litter, manure, compost, surface of peat, moist, over-heated grain, and ocean sediment, where they might play a role in the primary degradation of plant material by attacking hemicellulose. Organisms belonging to the genus are usually Gram-positive staining, non-acid fast, and classify among the actinomycetes. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence (permanent draft status), and annotation. The 5,965,593 bp long chromosome with its 5,727 protein-coding and 57 RNA genes was sequenced as part of the DOE funded Community Sequencing Program (CSP) 2010 at the Joint Genome Institute (JGI).
aerobic; chemoheterotrophic; Gram-positive; vegetative and aerial mycelia; spore-forming; non-motile; marine bacterium; Pseudonocardiaceae; CSP 2010
Dehalogenimonas lykanthroporepellens is the type species of the genus Dehalogenimonas, which belongs to a deeply branching lineage within the phylum Chloroflexi. This strictly anaerobic, mesophilic, non spore-forming, Gram-negative staining bacterium was first isolated from chlorinated solvent contaminated groundwater at a Superfund site located near Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA. D. lykanthroporepellens was of interest for genome sequencing for two reasons: (a) an unusual ability to couple growth with reductive dechlorination of environmentally important polychlorinated aliphatic alkanes and (b) a phylogenetic position that is distant from previously sequenced bacteria. The 1,686,510 bp circular chromosome of strain BL-DC-9T contains 1,720 predicted protein coding genes, 47 tRNA genes, a single large subunit rRNA (23S-5S) locus, and a single, orphan, small subunit rRNA (16S) locus.
reductive dechlorination; groundwater; strictly anaerobic; hydrogen utilization; contamination; Chloroflexi