Copy number variations (duplications) of TANK binding kinase 1 (TBK1) have been associated with normal tension glaucoma (NTG), a common cause of blindness worldwide. Mutations in other genes involved in autophagy (TLR4 and OPTN) have been associated with NTG. Here we report searching for additional proteins involved in autophagy that may also have roles in NTG.
Materials and methods
HEK-293T cells were transfected to produce synthetic TBK1 protein with FLAG and S tags. Proteins that associate with TBK1 were isolated from HEK-293T lysates using tandem affinity purification (TAP) and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Isolated proteins were identified with mass spectrometry. A cohort of 148 NTG patients and 77 controls from Iowa were tested for glaucoma-causing mutations in genes that encode identified proteins that interact with TBK1 using high resolution melt (HRM) analysis and DNA sequencing.
TAP studies show that three proteins expressed in HEK-293T cells (NAP1, TANK and TBKBP1) interact with TBK1. Testing cohorts of NTG and normal controls for disease-causing mutations in TANK, identified a total of nine unique variants including three non-synonymous changes, one synonymous changes and five intronic changes. When analyzed alone or as a group, the non-synonymous TBK1 coding sequence changes were not associated with either NTG or primary open angle glaucoma.
TAP showed that NAP1, TANK and TBKBP1 interact with TBK1 and are good candidates for contributing to NTG. A mutation screen of TANK detected three non-synonymous variants. Although, it remains possible that one or more of these TANK mutations may have a role in NTG, the data in this report do not provide statistical support for an association between TANK variants and NTG.
Glaucoma; tandem affinity purification; TKB1
The negatively regulating zinc finger protein (NZFP) is an essential transcription repressor required for early development during gastrulation in Xenopus laevis. In this study, we found that NZFP interacts with the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) conjugation E2 enzyme, Ubc9, and contains three putative SUMO conjugation sites. Studies with NZFP mutants containing mutations at the putative SUMO conjugation sites showed that these sites were able to be modified independently with SUMO. NZFP was found to be localized in the same nuclear bodies with SUMO-1. However, sumoylation of NZFP did not play a role either in the translocation of NZFP into the nucleus or on nuclear body formation. While wild type NZFP showed significant transcriptional repression, SUMO-conjugation site mutants manifested a decrease in transcriptional repression activity which is reversely proportional to the amount of sumoylation. The sumoylation defective mutant lost its TBP binding activity, while wild type NZFP interacted with TBP and inhibited transcription complex formation. These results strongly suggest that the sumoylation of NZFP facilitates NZFP to bind to TBP and the NZFP/TBP complex then represses the transcription of the target gene by inhibiting basal transcription complex formation.
development; NZFP; SUMO; TATA binding protein; Xenopus
Efforts to develop therapeutic agents that inhibit HIV-1 entry have led to the identification of several small molecule leads. One of the most promising is the NBD series, which binds within a conserved gp120 cavity and possesses para-halogen substituted aromatic rings, a central oxalamide linker, and a tetramethylpiperidine moiety. In this study, we characterized structurally the interactions of four NBD analogues containing meta-fluoro substitution on the aromatic ring and various heterocyclic ring replacements of the tetramethylpiperidine group. The addition of a meta-fluorine to the aromatic ring improved surface complementarity and did not alter the position of the analogue relative to gp120. By contrast, heterocyclic ring replacements of the tetramethylpiperidine moiety exhibited diverse positioning and interactions with the vestibule of the gp120 cavity. Overall, the biological profile of NBD-congeners was modulated by ligand interactions with the gp120-cavity vestibule. Herein, six co-crystal structures of NBD-analogues with gp120 provide a structural framework for continued small molecule-entry inhibitor optimization.
To report an automated method for adjustment of the retinal angle in spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and compare its intervisit reproducibility of the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thicknesses of glaucomatous eyes to that obtained by the Cirrus algorithm.
Fifty-six glaucoma and glaucoma suspect subjects were repeatedly imaged, and optic nerve head (ONH)–centered OCT image volumes (200 × 200 × 1024 voxels, 6 × 6 × 2 mm3, Cirrus HD-OCT machine) were acquired within a 4-month period from one eye of the 56 patients. Retinal angle correction in B-scans was accomplished by adjusting the angle using the voxel aspect ratio of the SD-OCT followed by straightening of rotated A-scans. The RNFL layer was automatically segmented using the Iowa Reference Algorithm. Reproducibility of the peripapillary RNFL thicknesses was determined by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), coefficient of variation (CV), repeatability coefficient (RC), and 95% tolerance limit (TL) for the Iowa Reference Algorithm without and with the retinal angle correction and for the Cirrus algorithm (Cirrus version 22.214.171.124).
The angle corrected Iowa Reference Algorithm (ICC: 0.990, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.983–0.994) for peripapillary RNFL thicknesses showed significantly better reproducibility than the nonangle corrected algorithm (ICC: 0.964, 95% CI: 0.940–0.979) and the Cirrus algorithm (ICC: 0.960, 95% CI: 0.933–0.976) based on the 95% CIs for the ICCs.
Angle correction leads to more consistent peripapillary RNFL thicknesses. This may lead to improved management of patients with glaucoma.
We report an automated method for adjustment of the retinal angle in spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and compare its intervisit reproducibility of the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thicknesses of glaucomatous eyes to that obtained by the Cirrus algorithm.
spectral-domain coherence tomography (SD-OCT); retinal angle adjustment; peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness
The effect of different peritoneal dialysis (PD) modalities on the decline in residual renal function (RRF) is unclear due to inconsistencies among studies. In particular, the effect of automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) modalities [continuous cyclic peritoneal dialysis (CCPD) and nightly intermittent peritoneal dialysis (NIPD)] on RRF has not been examined in a large cohort.
Materials and Methods
We conducted a single-center retrospective study to investigate the association between PD modalities and decline in RRF in 142 incident PD patients [34 on CCPD, 36 on NIPD, and 72 on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD)]. RRF was measured within 2 months from PD start and at 1 year after PD initiation.
The RRF at 1 year after PD initiation was 1.98±2.20 mL/min/1.73 m2 in CCPD patients and 3.63±3.67 mL/min/1.73 m2 in NIPD patients, which were moderately lower than 4.23±3.51 mL/min/1.73 m2 in CAPD patients (p=0.064). Moreover, there was no significant difference in the 1-year rate of decline of RRF between CCPD and NIPD patients, although APD patients had a faster 1-year RRF decline rate than CAPD patients (CCPD and NIPD vs. CAPD: -45.68 and -36.69 vs. 1.17%/year, p=0.045). APD was associated with a more rapid decline in RRF in patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing PD, although multivariate analysis attenuated the significance of this finding (β=-31.50; 95% CI, -63.61 to 0.62; p=0.052).
Our results suggest that CAPD might be more helpful than APD for preserving RRF during the first year of dialysis therapy, although there was no significant difference in the 1-year rate of decline of RRF between the two APD modalities.
Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis; end-stage kidney disease; glomerular filtration rate; peritoneal dialysis
Vaccination is one of the most effective and cost-benefit interventions that prevent the mortality and reduce morbidity from infectious pathogens. However, the licensed influenza vaccine induces strain-specific immunity and must be updated annually based on predicted strains that will circulate in the upcoming season. Influenza virus still causes significant health problems worldwide due to the low vaccine efficacy from unexpected outbreaks of next epidemic strains or the emergence of pandemic viruses. Current influenza vaccines are based on immunity to the hemagglutinin antigen that is highly variable among different influenza viruses circulating in humans and animals. Several scientific advances have been endeavored to develop universal vaccines that will induce broad protection. Universal vaccines have been focused on regions of viral proteins that are highly conserved across different virus subtypes. The strategies of universal vaccines include the matrix 2 protein, the hemagglutinin HA2 stalk domain, and T cell-based multivalent antigens. Supplemented and/or adjuvanted vaccination in combination with universal target antigenic vaccines would have much promise. This review summarizes encouraging scientific advances in the field with a focus on novel vaccine designs.
Universal vaccines; M2 protein; Stalk domain; T cell immunity; Supplemented vaccination
Epileptic nystagmus is defined as a quick, repetitive jerky movement of the eyeball associated with seizure activity. In cases of epileptic nystagmus associated with ictal discharge from multiple brain areas, localization of the exact epileptogenic zone could be extremely difficult. In a nine-year-old patient with epileptic nystagmus and vertigo associated with bilateral temporal and frontal lobe epilepsy, we could infer the epileptic focus by interpreting the patient's clinical picture, characteristics of nystagmus, and findings of electroencephalography.
Epilepsy; Pathologic nystagmus; Vertigo; Electroencephalography
Bacillus marmarensis strain DSM 21297 is an extreme obligate alkaliphile able to grow in medium up to pH 12.5. A whole-shotgun strategy and de novo assembly led to the generation of a 4-Mbp genome of this strain. The genome features alkaliphilic adaptations and pathways for n-butanol and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) synthesis.
Tandem affinity purification coupled with mass-spectrometry (TAP/MS) analysis is a popular method for the identification of novel endogenous protein-protein interactions (PPIs) in large-scale. Computational analysis of TAP/MS data is a critical step, particularly for high-throughput datasets, yet it remains challenging due to the noisy nature of TAP/MS data.
We investigated several major TAP/MS data analysis methods for identifying PPIs, and developed an advanced method, which incorporates an improved statistical method to filter out false positives from the negative controls. Our method is named PPIRank that stands for PPI ranking in TAP/MS data. We compared PPIRank with several other existing methods in analyzing two pathway-specific TAP/MS PPI datasets from Drosophila.
Experimental results show that PPIRank is more capable than other approaches in terms of identifying known interactions collected in the BioGRID PPI database. Specifically, PPIRank is able to capture more true interactions and simultaneously less false positives in both Insulin and Hippo pathways of Drosophila Melanogaster.
Protein-Protein Interaction; TAP/MS; Spectral Counts
The present study investigated the role of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation in the migratory phenotype of human U2OS osteosarcoma (OS) cells in a collagen matrix. The activation of ERK was inhibited by PD98059, a specific inhibitor of ERK kinase. Additionally, no significant differences were observed in the adhesion and proliferation of the cells with or without PD98059 treatment in collagen-coated dishes. The migratory capacity of the U2OS cells was then examined in non-coated and collagen-coated dishes, and the results depicted that collagen I enhanced the migration of the U2OS cells, the effect of which was significantly blocked by the treatment of the cells with PD98059. Furthermore, enhanced gene and protein expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9), but not MMP2, was observed to be involved in the enhanced migratory phenotype of the U20S cells in the collagen-coated plates. This effect was partially abolished by the treatment of the cells in the collagen-coated dishes with ERK inhibitor. Collectively, the data demonstrate that ERK signaling is important for the migration of U2OS cells through the extracellular matrix (ECM), which is comprised mostly of collagen, by enhancing MMP9 production. These results may contribute to the regulation of MMP9 production in metastatic OS.
U2OS; osteosarcoma; extracellular signal-regulated kinase; matrix metalloproteinase 9; PD98059
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of six weeks of
visual biofeedback training for prevention of falling in the elderly. The Tetrax system
was used for visual biofeedback training. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty elderly persons
(experimental group=15, control group=15) who were above 70 and under 80 years of age
participated in biofeedback training. They were trained for 15 minutes a day, three times
per week. We measured the weight distribution index, stability index, and fall index in
the subjects using the Tetrax system, and paired t-tests were used to evaluate the changes
before and after intervention. The difference between the groups was compared using an
independent t-test. [Results] The experimental group showed significant differences in
weight distribution index, stability index, and fall index. The control group showed no
significant differences. According to the comparison of training effects between the two
groups, the variables of stability index and fall index revealed a statistically
significant difference. [Conclusion] The method of visual biofeedback training used in
this study should be considered a therapeutic method for the elderly to improve weight
distribution, stability, and effectiveness in preventing falls.
Biofeedback; Elderly; Fall prevention
Optical coherence tomography is routinely used clinically for the detection and management of ocular diseases as well as in research where the studies may involve animals. This routine use requires that the developed automated segmentation methods not only be accurate and reliable, but also be adaptable to meet new requirements. We have previously proposed the use of a graph-theoretic approach for the automated 3-D segmentation of multiple retinal surfaces in volumetric human SD-OCT scans. The method ensures the global optimality of the set of surfaces with respect to a cost function. Cost functions have thus far been typically designed by hand by domain experts. This difficult and time-consuming task significantly impacts the adaptability of these methods to new models. Here, we describe a framework for the automated machine-learning based design of the cost function utilized by this graph-theoretic method. The impact of the learned components on the final segmentation accuracy are statistically assessed in order to tailor the method to specific applications. This adaptability is demonstrated by utilizing the method to segment seven, ten and five retinal surfaces from SD-OCT scans obtained from humans, mice and canines, respectively. The overall unsigned border position errors observed when using the recommended configuration of the graph-theoretic method was 6.45 ± 1.87 μm, 3.35 ± 0.62 μm and 9.75 ± 3.18 μm for the human, mouse and canine set of images, respectively.
(100.0100) Image processing; (100.2000) Digital image processing; (100.4994) Pattern recognition, image transforms; (100.6890) Three-dimensional image processing; (110.4500) Optical coherence tomography
Glaucoma is a common cause of visual disability and affects ∼1.6% of individuals over 40 years of age (
1). Non-synonymous coding sequence variations in the ankyrin repeat and SOCS box containing gene 10 (ASB10) were recently associated with 6.0% of cases of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) in patients from Oregon and Germany. We tested a cohort of POAG patients (n= 158) and normal control subjects (n= 82), both from Iowa, for ASB10 mutations. Our study had 80% power to detect a 4.9% mutation frequency in POAG patients. A total of 11 non-synonymous coding sequence mutations were detected in the cohort, but no association with POAG was detected when analyzed individually or as a group (P > 0.05). Furthermore, a survey of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's (NHLBI's) Exome Sequencing Project revealed that non-synonymous ASB10 mutations are present in the general population at a far higher frequency than the prevalence of POAG. These data suggest that non-synonymous mutations in ASB10 do not cause Mendelian forms of POAG.
We report on the syntheses of core-shell Fex@Pt (x = 0.4–1.2) nanoparticles (NPs) with Pt-shell thickness systematically controlled while the overall particle size is constant. The syntheses were achieved via one-pot ultrasound-assisted polyol synthesis (UPS) reactions. Fe1.2@Pt showed a record-breaking high core-element content (55 at%) of core-shell NPs. Based on observations from a series of control experiments, we propose a mechanism of the NPs' formation that enables control of shell thickness in UPS reactions. Fex@Pt NPs showed drastic enhancements in mass and specific activity for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and significantly enhanced durability compared to commercial Pt NPs. Fex@Pt with a 1 (monolayer) ML Pt shell showed the highest activity. The ab initio density functional theory calculations on the binding energies of oxygen species on the surfaces of Fex@Pt NPs showed that the 1 ML case is most favourable for the ORR, and in good agreement with the experimental results.
Lactobacillus plantarum DK119 (DK119) isolated from the fermented Korean cabbage food was used as a probiotic to determine its antiviral effects on influenza virus. DK119 intranasal or oral administration conferred 100% protection against subsequent lethal infection with influenza A viruses, prevented significant weight loss, and lowered lung viral loads in a mouse model. The antiviral protective efficacy was observed in a dose and route dependent manner of DK119 administration. Mice that were treated with DK119 showed high levels of cytokines IL-12 and IFN-γ in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids, and a low degree of inflammation upon infection with influenza virus. Depletion of alveolar macrophage cells in lungs and bronchoalveolar lavages completely abrogated the DK119-mediated protection. Modulating host innate immunity of dendritic and macrophage cells, and cytokine production pattern appeared to be possible mechanisms by which DK119 exhibited antiviral effects on influenza virus infection. These results indicate that DK119 can be developed as a beneficial antiviral probiotic microorganism.
Tumor angiogenesis is essential for tumor invasive growth and metastasis, and generates abnormal vascular structures unlike developmental neovessel formation. To reduce tumor vascular abnormalities such as leakage and perivascular cell coverage deficiency that limit cancer therapy effectiveness, novel therapeutic approaches focus on vessel normalization. We have previously shown that Dickkopf-1 (DKK1), a Wnt antagonist, inhibits and its homolog DKK2 enhances, angiogenesis in normal tissues. In the present study, we investigated the effects of DKK1 and DKK2 on tumor growth and angiogenesis. Treatment of B16F10 melanoma-bearing mice with adenovirus expressing DKK1 significantly reduced tumor growth but DKK2 increased growth compared with controls. Similar pattern of tumor growth was observed in endothelial-specific DKK1 and DKK2 transgenic mice. Interestingly, tumor vascular density and perfusion were significantly decreased by DKK1 but increased by DKK2. Moreover, coverage of blood vessels by pericytes was reduced by DKK1, while DKK2 increased it. We further observed that DKK1 diminished retinal vessel density and increased avascular area in an in vivo murine model of oxygen-induced retinopathy, whereas DKK2 showed opposite results. These findings demonstrate that DKK1 and DKK2 have differential roles in normalization and functionality of tumor blood vessels, in addition to angiogenesis.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10456-013-9390-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
DKK1; DKK2; Tumor angiogenesis; Perivascular coverage; Vessel normalization
Korean Red Ginseng extract (KRGE) is a traditional herbal medicine utilized to prevent endothelium dysfunction in the cardiovascular system; however, its underlying mechanism has not been clearly elucidated. We here examined the pharmacological effect and molecular mechanism of KRGE on apoptosis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in a serum-deprived apoptosis model. KRGE protected HUVECs from serum-deprived apoptosis by inhibiting mitochondrial cytochrome c release and caspase-9/-3 activation. This protective effect was significantly higher than that of American ginseng extract. KRGE treatment increased antiapoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL protein expression and Akt-dependent Bad phosphorylation. Moreover, KRGE prevented serum deprivation-induced subcellular redistribution of these proteins between the mitochondrion and the cytosol, resulting in suppression of mitochondrial cytochrome c release. In addition, KRGE increased nitric oxide (NO) production via Akt-dependent activation of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), as well as inhibited caspase-9/-3 activities. These increases were reversed by co-treatment of cells with inhibitors of eNOS and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and pre-incubation of cell lysates in dithiothreitol, indicating KRGE induces NO-mediated caspase modification. Indeed, KRGE inhibited caspase-3 activity via S-nitrosylation. These findings suggest that KRGE prevents serum deprivation-induced HUVEC apoptosis via increased Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL protein expression, PI3K/Akt-dependent Bad phosphorylation, and eNOS/NO-mediated S-nitrosylation of caspases. The cytoprotective property of KRGE may be valuable for developing new pharmaceutical means that limit endothelial cell death induced during the pathogenesis of vascular diseases.
Panax ginseng; Endothelial cells; Apoptosis; Bcl-2 family; Nitric oxide
Blood vessels and neurons grow often side by side. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying their parallel development remain unclear. Here, we report that a subpopulation of secondary motoneurons extends axons ventrally outside of the neural tubes and rostrocaudally as a fascicle beneath the dorsal aorta (DA) in zebrafish. We tried to clarify the mechanism by which these motoneuron axons grow beneath the DA and found that Vegfc in the DA and Vegfr3 in the motoneurons were essential for the axon growth. Forced expression of either Vegfc in arteries or Vegfr3 in motoneurons resulted in enhanced axon growth of motoneurons over the DA. Both vegfr3 morphants and vegfc morphants lost the alignment of motoneuron axons with DA. In addition, forced expression of two mutant forms of Vegfr3 in motoneurons, potentially trapping endogenous Vegfc, resulted in failure of growth of motoneuron axons beneath the DA. Finally, a vegfr3 mutant fish lacked the motoneuron axons beneath the DA. Collectively, Vegfc from the preformed DA guides the axon growth of secondary motoneurons.
Vegfc; Vegfr3; Motoneuron; Wiring; Guidance
Stroke is the second leading cause of death. Experimental animal models of cerebral ischemia are widely used for researching mechanisms of ischemic damage and developing new drugs for the prevention and treatment of stroke. The present study aimed to comparatively investigate neuroprotective effects of aspirin (ASA), decursinol (DA) and new synthetic aspirin-decursinol adduct (ASA-DA) against transient focal and global cerebral ischemic damage. We found that treatment with 20 mg/kg, not 10 mg/kg, ASA-DA protected against ischemia-induced neuronal death after transient focal and global ischemic damage, and its neuroprotective effect was much better than that of ASA or DA alone. In addition, 20 mg/kg ASA-DA treatment reduced the ischemia-induced gliosis and maintained antioxidants levels in the corresponding injury regions. In brief, ASA-DA, a new synthetic drug, dramatically protected neurons from ischemic damage, and neuroprotective effects of ASA-DA may be closely related to the attenuation of ischemia-induced gliosis and maintenance of antioxidants.
Here we report direct observations of spatial movements of nanodroplets of Pb metal trapped inside sealed carbon nanocontainers. We find drastic changes in the mobility of the liquid droplets as the particle size increases from a few to a few ten nanometers. In open containers the droplet becomes immobile and readily evaporates to the vacuum environment. The particle mobility strongly depends on confinement, particle size, and wetting on the enclosed surface. The collisions between droplets increase mobility but the tendency is reversed if collisions lead to droplet coalescence. The dynamics of confined nanodroplets could provide new insights into the activity of nanostructures in spatially constrained geometries.
The authors present a rare of prenatally diagnosed congenital anaplastic astrocytoma. A 9-month-old boy had three recurrences despite two surgical resections and various chemotherapeutic regimens. He underwent the 3rd gross tumor removal at 11 months of age, followed by proton therapy, and now he remains disease-free for 3 yr without a significant neurocognitive dysfunction. This is the 1st case of a pediatric tumor treated by proton therapy in Korea, and proton therapy may be a treatment of choice for a congenital anaplastic astrocytoma in infants and young children, considering limitation of radiation therapy.
Congenital Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Proton Therapy; Recurrence
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of resistance exercise
strengthening the hip flexor and extensor muscles on functional gait of stroke patients.
[Subjects and Methods] Twenty patients were randomized into two groups. Both groups
performed conventional physical therapy for six weeks. The experimental group also
performed isokinetic eccentric resistance exercises for the hip flexor and extensor
muscles. The hip muscle strength, stair up and down time, TUG time(timed up and go test),
and 10 m gait velocity were measured at the baseline, and after 3 weeks, and 6 weeks of
treatment. [Results] The experimental showed significant improvements compared to the
baseline in hip muscle strength, stair up and down time, TUG time and 10 m gait velocity
after 3 and 6 weeks of treatment. After 3 and 6 weeks of treatment, there were gains in
hip muscle strength and 10 m gait velocity. The control group showed no significant
increase in hip muscle strength, stair up and down time, TUG time or 10 m gait velocity.
[Conclusion] We consider that conventional physical therapy contributes to the improvement
of functional gait of stroke patients. However, it is more desirable to perform isokinetic
eccentric resistance exercises for hip flexor and extensor muscles combined with
conventional physical therapy for the improvement of hip muscle strength, stair up and
down time, TUG time and 10 m gait velocity.
Functional gait; Isokinetic exercise; Stroke patients
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate the functional effects of additional
action observational training for functional electrical stimulation treatment on weight
bearing, stability and gait velocity of hemiplegic patients. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty
subjects were randomized into two groups. Subjects more than six months post-stroke
participated. Balance and gait velocity were measured at the baseline, and after six weeks
of treatment. Both groups received functional electrical stimulation treatment. The
experimental group additionally received action observational training. The paired t-test
was used to analyze differences in the outcome measures between before and after the
intervention. The difference between the groups was compared using the independent t-test.
[Results] The experimental group showed significant increases in weight bearing
(anterior·posterior, right·left) on the affected side, stability index and gait velocity.
The control group showed only a significant increase in anterior·posterior weight bearing
on the affected side. Moreover, according to the comparison of training effects between in
the two groups, the variables of anterior·posterior weight bearing, stability index and
gait velocity revealed a statistically significant difference. [Conclusion] Additional
action observational training for functional electrical stimulation treatment should be
considered as a therapeutic method in physical therapy for the improvement of weight
bearing, stability index and gait velocity of hemiplegic patients.
Action observational training; Functional electrical stimulation; Hemiplegia
This study reports radiographic and clinical treatment outcomes of tibial tubercle osteotomy (TTO) used for two-stage revision total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in the setting of periprosthetic infection.
Thirty-six patients with 51 TTOs used for infected TKA were retrospectively analysed from 2000 to 2010. In 15 of 36 patients, TTO was used in a sequential manner during both first and second stage procedures. The mean follow-up period was 57 months (range seven–126 months).
The mean pre-operative range of knee motion was 40° (range 10–90°), and at latest follow-up it was 92° (range 50–140°). The Knee Society knee scores and function scores were 47 and 9 pre-operatively and 82 and 72 at latest follow-up, respectively. Bony union was achieved in all cases except one nonunion of an avulsion fragment of the osteotomy segment without functional deterioration.
TTO can be a useful extensile surgical approach for treatment of infected TKA with satisfactory clinical and radiographic outcomes.
Our goal was to assess clinical and radiographic outcomes using a second-generation circumferentially proximally porous-coated titanium alloy stem at a minimum of eight years of follow-up.
Ninety-one hips (80 patients) with Fibre Metal Taper (FMT, Zimmer Inc, Warsaw, IN, USA) femoral stems implanted between May 1998 and April 2002 were followed prospectively and re-evaluated at a minimum of eight years postoperatively. The median patient age was 56 (range 34–78) years, with 40 women and 40 men. Radiographic data and clinical follow-up using Harris Hip Score (HHS) and EuroQol (EQ)-5D outcome measures were evaluated.
Mean follow-up was 9.61 (range 8–12.3) years. At the time of the most recent follow-up, the mean HHS was 85.8 (range 46–100) points, mean EQ-5D Weighted Health State Index was 0.76 (range 0.05-1.00), and mean EQ-5D Visual Analogue Score was 80 (range 24–100). All stems were biologically stable, with all hips having osseous ingrowth. One stem was revised due to early periprosthetic fracture with stem subsidence. No hip had diaphyseal osteolysis.
To our knowledge, the data presented here represent the longest clinical follow-up of this second-generation cementless, proximally porous-coated femoral stem. The stems were found to perform well clinically and radiographically beyond the first five years previously reported in the literature. Patients had high levels of satisfaction and function, and osseous fixation occurred reliably without evidence of distal osteolysis.