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1.  Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: A Randomized Controlled Trial 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(9):e106702.
Background
Recent meta-analyses concluded that antibiotic prophylaxis is not warranted in low-risk laparoscopic cholecystectomy. However, most trials in the meta-analyses had a relatively small sample size and were statistically underpowered. In addition, many of the trials mentioned potential cost savings owing to the elimination of prophylactic antibiotics. However, no trial has statistically estimated the cost effectiveness. To evaluate the results of meta-analyses, we conducted a randomized controlled trial on the role of prophylactic antibiotics in low-risk laparoscopic cholecystectomy with an adequate sample size.
Methods
From March 2007 to May 2013, at the Department of Surgery, Kansai Medical University, patients who were scheduled for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomly assigned to one of two arms: those who were and were not administered prophylactic antibiotics. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of postoperative infections and secondary endpoints were postoperative hospital stay and medical costs.
Findings
During the study period, 518 patients were assigned to the Antibiotics group and 519 to the No antibiotics group. Occurrences of surgical site infections, distant infections and overall infections were significantly lower in the Antibiotics group than in the No antibiotics group (0.8 vs. 3.7%, p = 0.001, OR: 0.205 (95%CI: 0.069 to 0.606); 0.4 vs. 3.1%, p = 0.0004, OR: 0.122 (95%CI: 0.028 to 0.533); 1.2 vs. 6.7%; p<0.0001, OR: 0.162 (95%CI: 0.068 to 0.389), respectively). The postoperative hospital stay was significantly shorter in the Antibiotics group (mean, SD: 3.69±1.56 vs. 4.07±3.00; p = 0.01) and the postoperative medical costs were significantly lower in the Antibiotics group (mean, SD: $766±341 vs. 832±670; p = 0.047). Multivariable analysis showed that independent risk factors for postoperative infectious complications were no prophylactic antibiotics (p<0.0001) and age 65 or older (p = 0.006).
Conclusions
Perioperative administration of prophylactic antibiotics should be recommended in laparoscopic cholecystectomy to prevent postoperative infectious complications and to reduce medical costs.
Trial Registration
UMIN Clinical Trials Registry UMIN000003749.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0106702
PMCID: PMC4156368  PMID: 25192389
2.  Five-year follow-up of treatment outcomes in patients with early-stage breast cancer and clinically negative axillary nodes treated with no lymph node dissection or axillary clearance 
Background
Sentinel lymph node biopsy has steadily replaced axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) for staging clinically node-negative breast cancer. However, ALND remains standard management of the axilla when a tumor-positive sentinel lymph node is identified.
Methods
We identified 460 patients with breast cancer (clinically T1/T2N0M0) from the database for 1999–2004. Patient age ranged from 26 to 81 (median 50) years. Patients who underwent mastectomy or breast-conserving surgery with or without ALND were compared for regional recurrence, disease-free survival, and overall survival.
Results
Patients with ALND (n = 308) were compared with the no ALND group (n = 152). Five-year overall survival and disease-free survival were not significantly different between the two groups, while there was a significant difference between them for regional recurrence. Of the 152 patients who did not undergo axillary dissection, four developed ipsilateral axillary disease, most of whom were rescued by delayed axillary dissection. Further, the criterion for identifying lymphedema was used, ie, a 2 cm circumferential change at any measured location. As a result, the incidence of lymphedema in the ALND group was 12.7%, while it was not seen in the non ALND group.
Conclusion
There is a possibility that ALND may be omitted for cT1/T2N0M0 breast cancer through a combination of hormone therapy and adjuvant chemotherapy.
doi:10.2147/BCTT.S36054
PMCID: PMC3846707  PMID: 24367200
breast cancer; axillary lymph node dissection
3.  Peroxidation of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Inhibits the Induction of iNOS Gene Expression in Proinflammatory Cytokine-Stimulated Hepatocytes 
Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (EPA/DHA), n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), have a variety of biological activities including anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects. We hypothesized that their peroxidized products contributed in part to anti-inflammatory effects. In the liver, the production of nitric oxide (NO) by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) has been implicated as one of the factors in hepatic inflammation and injury. We examined whether the peroxidation of EPA/DHA influences the induction of iNOS and NO production in proinflammatory cytokine-stimulated cultured hepatocytes, which is in vitro liver inflammation model. Peroxidized EPA/DHA inhibited the induction of iNOS and NO production in parallel with the increased levels of their peroxidation, whereas unoxidized EPA/DHA had no effects at all. Peroxidized EPA/DHA reduced the activation of transcription factor, NF-κB, and the expression of the iNOS antisense transcript, which are involved in iNOS promoter transactivation (mRNA synthesis) and its mRNA stabilization, respectively. These findings demonstrated that peroxidized products of EPA/DHA suppressed the induction of iNOS gene expression through both of the transcriptional and posttranscriptional steps, leading to the prevention of hepatic inflammation.
doi:10.1155/2011/374542
PMCID: PMC3136170  PMID: 21773019

Results 1-3 (3)