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1.  Optimal infectivity in vitro of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 requires an intact nef gene. 
Journal of Virology  1994;68(5):2906-2914.
The replication competence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 genomes containing mutations in the nef open reading frame was evaluated in continuous cell lines. Mutants that contained a deletion in the nef open reading frame, premature termination codons, or missense mutations in the N-terminal myristoylation signal were constructed. The replication of these mutants was tested in three ways. First, plasmid genomes were used to transfect T-lymphoblastoid cells. Second, low-passage posttransfection supernatants were used to infect cells with a relatively low virus input. Third, high-titer virus stocks were used to infect cells with a relatively high virus input. These experiments demonstrated a 100- to 10,000-fold decrement in p24 production by the nef mutants compared with that by the wild-type virus. The greatest difference was obtained after infection with the lowest virus input. The myristoylation signal was critical for this positive effect of nef. To investigate the mechanism of the positive influence of nef, nef-positive and nef-minus viruses were compared during a single cycle of replication. These single-cycle experiments were initiated both by infection with high-titer virus stocks and by transfection with viral DNA. Single-cycle infection yielded a three- to fivefold decrement in p24 production by nef-minus virus. Single-cycle transfection yielded equal amounts of p24 production. These results implied that nef does not affect replication after the provirus is established. In support of these results, viral production from cells chronically infected with nef-positive or nef-minus viruses was similar over time. To determine whether the effect of nef was due to infectivity, end point titrations of nef-positive and nef-minus viruses were performed. nef-positive virus had a greater infectivity per picogram of HIV p24 antigen than nef-minus virus. These data indicated that the positive influence of nef on viral growth rate is due to an infectivity advantage of virus produced with an intact nef gene.
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PMCID: PMC236779  PMID: 8151761
2.  Analysis of substrate specificity of the PaeR7 endonuclease: effect of base methylation on the kinetics of cleavage. 
Nucleic Acids Research  1990;18(17):5063-5068.
In murine cells expressing the PaeR7 endonuclease and methylase genes, the recognition sites (CTCGAG) of these enzymes can be methylated at the adenine residue by the PaeR7 methylase and at the internal cytosine by the mouse DNA methyltransferase. Using nonadecameric duplex deoxyoligonucleotide substrates, the specificity of the PaeR7 endonuclease for unmethylated, hemi-methylated, and fully methylated N6-methyladenine (m6A) and C5-methylcytosine (m5C) versions of these substrates has been studied. The Km, Kcat, and Ki values for these model substrates have been measured and suggest that fully or hemi-m6A-methylated PaeR7 sites in the murine genome are completely protected. However, the reactivity of fully or hemi-m5C-methylated PaeR7 sites is depressed 2900- and 100-fold respectively, compared to unmodified PaeR7 sites. The implications of the kinetic constants of the PaeR7 endonuclease for these methylated recognition sites as they occur in murine cells expressing this endonuclease gene are discussed.
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PMCID: PMC332124  PMID: 2402435
3.  Introduction and expression of the bacterial PaeR7 restriction endonuclease gene in mouse cells containing the PaeR7 methylase. 
Nucleic Acids Research  1988;16(24):11489-11506.
To study the factors essential for a functional restriction system, the PaeR7 restriction-modification system has been introduced and expressed in murine cells. Transfer of this system was accomplished in two steps. First, cells containing sufficient PaeR7 methylase to completely methylate the mouse genome were constructed. In the second step, the mouse metallothionein promoter-regulated, endonuclease expression vector linked to the hygromycin B resistance selection marker was used to transfect the high methylase-expressing cells. Sixty percent of the clones isolated contained PaeR7 endonuclease enzymatic activity. Transfected cells expressing both methylase and endonuclease were incapable of blocking infection by DNA viruses, and possible explanations are discussed.
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PMCID: PMC339060  PMID: 2850539
4.  The nucleotide sequence of the chicken thymidine kinase gene and the relationship of its predicted polypeptide to that of the vaccinia virus thymidine kinase. 
Nucleic Acids Research  1984;12(9):3959-3971.
The entire DNA nucleotide sequence of a 3.0 kilobase pair Hind III fragment containing the chicken cytoplasmic thymidine kinase gene was determined. Oligonucleotide linker insertion mutations distributed throughout this gene and having known effects upon gene activity ( Kwoh , T.J., Zipser , D., and Wigler , M. 1983. J. Mol. Appl. Genet. 2, 191-200), were used to access regions of the Hind III fragment for sequencing reactions. The complete nucleotide sequence, together with the positions of the linker insertion mutations within the sequence, allows us to propose a structure for the chicken thymidine kinase gene. The protein coding sequence of the gene is divided into seven small segments (each less than 160 base pairs) by six small introns (each less than 230 base pairs). The proposed 244 amino acid polypeptide encoded by this gene bears strong homology to the vaccinia virus thymidine kinase. No homology with the thymidine kinases of the herpes simplex viruses was found.
PMCID: PMC318803  PMID: 6328447

Results 1-4 (4)